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Biodiversity of Coleoptera (Insecta) in Lipetsk Region (Russia)

  • Государственный природный заповедник "Присурский"

Abstract and Figures

(1) Background: Coleoptera is one of the most diverse insect lineages. Coleoptera species live in many ecosystems around the globe and their role in ecosystems is very diverse. To study the number and distribution of species, lists of species were compiled and then added into the database generation platforms. The aim of the work was to describe the modern fauna of Coleoptera based on a recently published dataset. (2) Methods: Studies were conducted from 1971 to 2022. Insects were collected by different means (searching under the bark of trees and stumps, sifting litter and wood dust, soil samples, caught in the light, in soil traps, window traps, etc.). For each observation, the coordinates of the place of discovery, the number of individuals, dates were noted. (3) Results: The dataset presents data on 2416 species and subspecies of Coleoptera from 89 families found in the Lipetsk region. In total, the number of studied specimens in the dataset was 16,184, the number of occurrences was 6192. The largest families in terms of species diversity were Staphylinidae (541 species), Curculionidae (416), Chrysomelidae (315) and Carabidae (285). (4) Conclusions: In addition, based on the analysis of additional references, 452 more species and 2 families are indicated. Thus, the biodiversity of Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region is 2868 species from 89 families.
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Diversity 2022, 14, 825.
Data Descriptor
Biodiversity of Coleoptera (Insecta) in Lipetsk Region (Russia)
Sergei G. Mazurov 1, Leonid V. Egorov 2, Alexander B. Ruchin 3,* and Oleg N. Artaev 4
1 Secondary School, 399675 Leski, Russia
2 Prisursky State Nature Reserve, Cheboksary 428034, Russia
3 Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny”,
Saransk 430005, Russia
4 Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok 152742, Russia
* Correspondence:; Tel.: +7-83445-296-35
Abstract: (1) Background: Coleoptera is one of the most diverse insect lineages. Coleoptera species
live in many ecosystems around the globe and their role in ecosystems is very diverse. To study the
number and distribution of species, lists of species were compiled and then added into the database
generation platforms. The aim of the work was to describe the modern fauna of Coleoptera based
on a recently published dataset. (2) Methods: Studies were conducted from 1971 to 2022. Insects
were collected by different means (searching under the bark of trees and stumps, sifting litter and
wood dust, soil samples, caught in the light, in soil traps, window traps, etc.). For each observation,
the coordinates of the place of discovery, the number of individuals, dates were noted. (3) Results:
The dataset presents data on 2416 species and subspecies of Coleoptera from 89 families found in
the Lipetsk region. In total, the number of studied specimens in the dataset was 16,184, the number
of occurrences was 6192. The largest families in terms of species diversity were Staphylinidae (541
species), Curculionidae (416), Chrysomelidae (315) and Carabidae (285). (4) Conclusions: In addi-
tion, based on the analysis of additional references, 452 more species and 2 families are indicated.
Thus, the biodiversity of Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region is 2868 species from 89 families.
Dataset License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License
Keywords: species diversity; beetles; comparison of fauna; dataset; Center of European Russia
1. Summary
Coleoptera is one of the most diverse insect orders in the world, which dominates
many ecosystems in terms of individual abundance and occupied niches [1]. The order
Coleoptera plays an important role in the development of organic matter, pollination of
angiosperms, biotic interactions in communities, in the formation of soil cover [2–7]. How-
ever, in recent years, there has been a decrease in the number and species diversity of
many insect groups, including Coleoptera [8,9]. The massive decline in insect diversity
and biomass in human-dominated ecosystems is often associated with habitat loss (e.g.,
agricultural intensification), landscape fragmentation, chemical pollution, climate change,
destructive fires, the introduction and increase in the number of invasive species, as well
as a combination of these factors [10–16].
To understand how the number and biodiversity of insects change and the relative
importance of various threats in the development of these trends, it is necessary to go
beyond the results of individual studies and systematically summarize the available data
on insects [17–20]. However, to understand the changes taking place on a global scale, it
is important to know local and regional faunas. Most faunal studies focus on systemati-
cally or methodologically limited groups of insects [19,21]. However, there is an urgent
Citation: Mazurov, S.G.; Egorov,
L.V.; Ruchin, A.B.; Artaev, O.N.
Biodiversity of Coleoptera (Insecta)
in Lipetsk Region (Russia). Diversity
2022, 14, 825.
Academic Editor: Ming Bai
Received: 17 September 2022
Accepted: 30 September 2022
Published: 30 September 2022
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu-
tral with regard to jurisdictional
claims in published maps and institu-
tional affiliations.
Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Li-
censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and con-
ditions of the Creative Commons At-
tribution (CC BY) license (https://cre-
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 2 of 9
need to document and understand nature at a speed that will provide us with an informed
systemic response to the accelerating impact that humans have on the world [22]. For doc-
umentation, there are various platforms for creating databases that can be accessed by all
users [17,23]. Such platforms provide the largest collections of species occurrence records.
The data on these platforms have served as the basis for numerous analyses and assess-
ments of biodiversity, but also revealed clear distortions, gaps and heterogeneity of qual-
ity, and therefore they should be handled carefully to cope with these problems [19,24].
P.P. Melgunov started studying Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region. He visited this re-
gion from 1871 to 1881 and collected barbel beetles from there. Subsequently, the main
entomological works were associated with the creation of the Galichya Gora Nature Re-
serve in 1925 [25,26]. However, the most significant number of publications about the Col-
eoptera of the Lipetsk region appeared from the 1990s to the present. M.N. Tsurikov
[27,28] summed up the general biodiversity of the Coleoptera fauna of the Lipetsk region.
At that time, the known regional biodiversity was 2288 species of Coleoptera. However,
further intensification of entomological research allowed us to find other Coleoptera spe-
cies in the Lipetsk region. The purpose of this work is to describe the modern fauna of
Coleoptera based on a recently published dataset [29].
2. Data Description
2.1. Data Set Name
In the dataset, each observation includes basic information: location (latitude/longi-
tude), date of observation, the name of the observer and the name of the identifier. The
coordinates were determined on the spot using a GPS device or after research using
Google Maps (Table 1).
Table 1. Description of the data in the dataset.
Column Label
Column Description
occurrenceID An identifier for the Occurrence (as opposed to a particular digital record of the occur-
The specific nature of the data record: HumanObservation
scientificName The full scientific name including the genus name and the lowest level of
taxonomic rank with the authority
kingdom The full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of location in decimal degrees
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude of location in decimal degrees
The ellipsoid, geodetic datum, or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geo-
graphic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude is based.
country The name of the country in which the Location occurs
countryCode The standard code for the country in which the Location occurs.
individualCount The number of individuals represented present at the time of the Occurrence.
eventDate The date when material from the trap was collected or the range of dates during which
the trap collected material
The integer year in which the Event occurred.
month The ordinal month in which the Event occurred.
day The integer day of the month on which the Event occurred
recordedBy A person, group, or organization responsible for recording the original Occurrence.
identifiedBy A list of names of people, who assigned the Taxon to the subject
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 3 of 9
2.2. Figures, Tables and Schemes
The dataset presents data on 2416 species and subspecies of Coleoptera from 89 fam-
ilies found in the Lipetsk region and documented simultaneously with the coordinates
(Table 2). The total number of occurrences was 6192, the number of studied specimens
was 16,184. The largest families in terms of species diversity were Staphylinidae (includ-
ing Silphinae) (541 species), Curculionidae (416), Chrysomelidae (315) and Carabidae
Table 2. Species diversity of beetles of the Lipetsk region.
Family Number of S
(Our Data)
Number of Species (Literary
Data *)
Haliplidae 8 8
Noteridae 2 2
Dytiscidae 77 81
Carabidae 253 285
Scirtidae 8 9
Clambidae 1 2
Dascillidae 0 1
Byrrhidae 6 8
Buprestidae 43 51
Dryopidae 3 4
Elmidae 1 2
Heteroceridae 5 5
Eucnemidae 4 5
Lycidae 3 4
Cantharidae 26 32
Elateridae 42 52
Drilidae 1 1
Lampyridae 1 1
Georissidae 1 1
Helophoridae 9 11
Hydrochidae 5 5
Spercheidae 1 1
Hydrophilidae 46 54
Ptiliidae 7 22
Leiodidae 22 32
Staphylinidae 407 541
Trogidae 4 4
Lucanidae 3 3
Bolboceratidae 1 1
Geotrupidae 2 3
Scarabaeidae 69 84
Dermestidae 20 23
Bostrichidae 5 5
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 4 of 9
Cleridae 8 9
Trogossitidae 3 4
Melyridae 17 21
Lymexylidae 1 1
Scraptiidae 7 10
Aderidae 5 5
Oedemeridae 12 12
Boridae 1 1
Pythidae 1 1
Pyrochroidae 1 1
Meloidae 7 15
Anthicidae 13 15
Melandryidae 9 10
Zopheridae 3 4
Ciidae 16 16
Mycetophagidae 11 11
Tenebrionidae 50 54
Bothrideridae 1 1
Cerylonidae 2 3
Latridiidae 25 33
Corylophidae 5 7
Coccinellidae 52 52
Erotylidae 10 11
Sphindidae 1 2
Monotomidae 12 12
Kateretidae 8 8
Nitidulidae 65 70
Cucujidae 2 2
Silvanidae 6 7
Phalacridae 11 15
Laemophloeidae 6 9
Megalopodidae 1 1
Orsodacnidae 1 2
Chrysomelidae 297 315
Cimberididae 2 2
Nemonychidae 1 1
Anthribidae 8 10
Attelabidae 14 18
Brentidae 64 71
Total 2416 2868
*—literary data [27,30–37].
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 5 of 9
However, it was impossible to accurately document and give geographical coordi-
nates for some species. This was due to the inaccuracy of the data from the labels of the
places of finds, incorrect location indication and other reasons. However, such finds of
many species do not cause any doubts on the accuracy of the definition and their habitat
in the territory of the Lipetsk region. Therefore, Table 2 provides additional information
from various literature data.
Thus, the total species diversity of Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region was 2868 species
from 89 families. To compare this data with the species diversity of Coleoptera in some
regions of the European part of Russia: Moscow region—4010 [38], Ulyanovsk region—
more than 3000 species [39], Chuvash Republic—about 3000 species [40], Udmurt Repub-
lic—more than 2400 species [41], Samara region—1844 species [42], 1827 species in the
Voronezh region [43]. Significant differences in the biodiversity of Coleoptera of separate
regions are associated with different problems. The richest in terms of the number of spe-
cies are regions that have been studied by specialists using a variety of methods for many
In the territory of the Lipetsk region, there are six species that are listed in the Red
Book of Russia. Dytiscus latissimus lives in rivers, ponds, lakes. The frequency of occur-
rence of the species in the region is low. Calosoma sycophanta is very rare and not caught
every year. It is detected at single instances. Carabus hungaricus was discovered once in
1948 in the Zadonsk district [27]. Lucanus cervus has been recorded in the oak forests of
the Gryazi and Usman districts; however, this information requires confirmation by mod-
ern studies [31]. The range of Protaetia fieberi includes the Lipetsk region. However, there
is no reliable information about the findings of this species yet [44]. Protaetia speciosissima
is periodically caught in some areas of the Lipetsk region. The frequency of the occurrence
of the species in the region is low.
3. Methods
The Lipetsk region is located in the central part of the East European Plain within
two Central Russian Uplands (covering 75.2% of the territory) and the Oka-Don Plain
(24.8%). The border between them runs along the valleys of the Voronezh River and the
Stanovaya Ryasa River (Figure 1).
The Central Russian upland is an undulating plain with absolute marks of 210–260
m with river valleys, gullies, ravines. The slopes of the valleys here often drop off steeply
to floodplains and in riverbeds, forming high limestone cliffs. The interfluve of the Don
and Voronezh has slightly elevated plains. Ravines have developed on the slopes of river
valleys and gullies, landslides occur. Karst processes take an important place. The climate
of the region is moderately continental with warm summers and comparatively cold win-
ters. The continentality of the climate increases from the north-west to the south-east, sum-
mer temperatures increase in the same direction along with a decrease in average relative
humidity. The average temperature for the year is + 5.2°C. The warm period on average
begins in early April and ends about November 6–10. A characteristic feature of the spring
period is an extremely rapid rise in temperature. An average of 660 mm/year of precipi-
tation falls on the territory of the region. The region belongs to the zone of insufficient
humidification, and signs of an arid climate are often recorded [45].
Chernozems dominate in the soil cover of the Lipetsk region. The main types of veg-
etation consist of oak forests and meadow steppes. Some extrazonal and intrazonal ele-
ments of vegetation influence the vegetation cover in a specific way. Its active spread deep
into the region is facilitated by the directions of rivers: pine forests penetrate from the
north along the valley of Voronezh, and elements of southern typical steppes penetrate
from the south along the valleys of Olym, Don and Voronezh. The intrazonal types of
vegetation in the region include meadows, sphagnum swamps, floodplain vegetation,
vegetation of reservoirs, rock groupings, fragments of a halophilic complex. Along with
the dominant oak forests (30% of the total forest area), there are elm, aspen, birch, alder,
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 6 of 9
poplar and pine forests. The Lipetsk region is one of the most economically developed in
Russia (81.2% of the area is occupied by agricultural land) [46].
Figure 1. Map of the Lipetsk region.
The material for the work was Coleoptera collections on the territory of the Lipetsk
region mainly over the last 50 years (1971–2022). All samples were collected mainly by
V.T. Kuznetsova (1965–1997), N.Yu. Panteleeva (1976–1988), M.N. Tsurikov (1995–2017),
S.G. Mazurov (since 2006), Ya.A. Urbanus (since 2000), A.A. Prokin (since 1998), D.I.
Pereverzev (2000–2008). All reliable published information from the territory of the Li-
petsk region is also summarized. The main part of the samples is kept in the collection of
the state reserve “Galichya Gora”, as well as in the personal collections of A.A. Prokin,
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 7 of 9
Ya.A. Urbanus, S.G. Mazurov. Parts of the collections were transferred to a number of
scientific centers of Russia and the Czech Republic.
In the course of the research, traditional and diverse methods were used: manual
collection, searching under the bark of trees and stumps, sifting litter and dust in the
spring, soil samples, the use of air, migration and soil traps, light fishing, catching flying
individuals, mowing with an entomological net, splashing and trampling on the shores of
reservoirs, collecting in rotting substrates, in places of shelters and wintering, etc. [47].
The research was carried out in all districts of the region, about 300 geographical locations
were surveyed.
The classification of the family–group taxa used predominantly follows Cai et al. [48]
and McKenna et al. [49]. The lists of species were verified according to the Catalogue of
Palaearctic Coleoptera [50–58], to Robertson et al. [59], and to Alonso-Zarazaga et al. [60].
The years of description of some beetle species are specified according to Bousquet [61].
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, S.G.M.; methodology, S.G.M.; software, A.B.R. and
O.N.A.; validation, S.G.M. and L.V.E.; formal analysis, S.G.M. and O.N.A.; investigation, S.G.M.;
resources, A.B.R.; data curation, A.B.R. and L.V.E.; writing—original draft preparation, S.G.M. and
A.B.R.; writing—review and editing, L.V.E.; visualization, S.G.M.; supervision, S.G.M.; project ad-
ministration, S.G.M.; funding acquisition, A.B.R. All authors have read and agreed to the published
version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research was funded by Russian Science Foundation, grant number 22-14-00026.
Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable.
Data Availability Statement: Not applicable.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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There are few studies on the vertical distribution and seasonal activity of arthropods in open habitats (in glades) in temperate forests due to methodological problems associated with the arrangement of certain structures for trapping. However, glades in forests are places of significant biodiversity of native animals, which are attracted to such areas by the possibilities of nutrition, reproduction, and wintering. The research was carried out on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (the center of the European part of Russia). Fermental traps (bait—fermenting beer with sugar) were used to collect Coleoptera. They were installed on a special structure at heights of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 m. The collections were carried out from May to October 2020 in a glade with an area of 0.93 hectares in a deciduous forest. At the end of the research, 745 specimens of 80 species were registered from 30 Coleoptera families. The greatest species diversity was recorded in Nitidulidae (11 species), Cerambycidae (10 species), Scarabaeidae (7 species), Elateridae, Coccinellidae, and Curculionidae (5 species each). The greatest species diversity (53 species) and numerical abundance were obtained at a height of 2 m, and the smallest one (16 species) at a height of 10 m. The largest differences in the Jaccard similarity index were obtained between samples from a height of 2 and 10 m. The maximum values of the Shannon index and the minimum values of the Simpson index were recorded at the height of 2 m. The most significant relative number of saproxylic species was obtained at a height of 4 m. The relative number of anthophilic species was minimal at a height of 10 m. The seasonal dynamics of Coleoptera abundance were the same at different heights and the highest abundance was observed in late May and early June. However, the seasonal dynamics were different for some Coleoptera species in the glade located and inside the forest. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling in open biotopes at different heights in the study of arthropod biodiversity.
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Biodiversity is in crisis, and insects are no exception. To understand insect population and community trends globally, it is necessary to identify and synthesize diverse datasets representing different taxa, regions, and habitats. The relevant literature is, however, vast and challenging to aggregate. The Entomological Global Evidence Map (EntoGEM) project is a systematic effort to search for and catalogue studies with long‐term data that can be used to understand changes in insect abundance and diversity. Here, we present the overall EntoGEM framework and results of the first completed subproject of the systematic map, which compiled sources of information about changes in dragonfly and damselfly (Odonata) occurrence, abundance, biomass, distribution, and diversity. We identified 45 multi‐year odonate datasets, including 10 studies with data that span more than 10 years. If data from each study could be gathered or extracted, these studies could contribute to analyses of long‐term population trends of this important group of indicator insects. The methods developed to support the EntoGEM project, and its framework for synthesizing a vast literature, have the potential to be applied not only to other broad topics in ecology and conservation, but also to other areas of research where data are widely distributed. A systematic approach to reviewing the literature can reduce bias in the types of datasets identified to understand conservation issues. Here, we present a community‐driven evidence synthesis framework that can be adapted to gather and assess evidence from many broad topics in conservation and apply the approach to gather datasets documenting long‐term changes in insect populations.
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800 species (in 71 families) of the order Coleoptera are registered for a forested area of c. 8 km2 in the northern Sambian Peninsula during a 20-year study (2001–2021). A preliminary list of beetles’ species of the Svetlogorsk Forest is presented which includes the only known locality in Kaliningradskaya Oblast for 12 coleopteran species (Hylis olexai, Denticollis rubens, Pyropterus nigroruber, Dryophilus pusillus, Pityophagus ferrugineus, Conopalpus testaceus, Phryganophilus auritus, Curtimorda maculosa, Oomorphus concolor, Phaedon laevigatus, Cotaster cuneipennis and Dendroctonus micans). Six beetle species included in the Red Data Book of Kaliningradskaya Oblast (Calosoma inquisitor, Carabus coriaceus, Dendroxena quadrimaculata, Protaetia marmorata, Gnorimus nobilis, and Prionus coriarius) regularly occur in the Svetlogorsk Forest. Considering the high diversity of the associated fauna, as demonstrated by the Coleoptera, as well as presence of rare beetle populations, the Svetlogorsk Forest bears a great conservation value and can contribute to preserving the insect fauna in Kaliningradskaya Oblast. Taking in consideration of the high diversity and unique nature of the territory, the establishment of a large complex nature reserve or even national park «Warnicken Forest» in the northern coastal area of the Sambian peninsula is recommended.
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Protected areas are organised in different climatic zones, which usually include typical ecosystems characteristic of certain climatic zones. In most cases, protected areas are biodiversity hotspots. These areas are benchmarks in terms of nature conservation and to determine their biological diversity is becoming an important task. It is important to investigate the carabid family of protected areas within the framework of understanding the overall biological diversity of these systems. In addition, ground beetles, as one of the largest groups of ground-based inhabitants, are indicators of the state of ecosystems and serve as markers of their well-being. We present 2,969 new occurrence records comprising 226 species of Carabidae, belonging to eight subfamilies, from the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (central Russia). Ten species are listed for the first time for the Mordovia State Nature Reserve fauna after previous research: Cicindela maritima , Bembidion striatum , Dyschirius angustatus , Dyschirius arenosus , Notiophilus aestuans , Bembidion argenteolum , Bembidion velox , Bradycellus caucasicus , Cymindis angularis and Syntomus truncatellus , five of which were first recorded for the Republic of Mordovia (Egorov et al. 2020). Previously, this information was not published anywhere and we wanted to make it available to everyone by embedding it in the global database on biodiversity (GBIF).
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This article is devoted to the inventory of ground beetles of the tribe Trechini on the southern Kuril Islands. Until the beginning of the XXI century, only one species of tribe was noted from the islands. As a result of our survey in 2008–2018 on the islands of Kunashir, Shikotan, Yuri, and Polonskogo, 764 specimens of ground beetles of the tribe Trechini were collected and studied, belonging to four species from two genera: Blemus discus (Kunashir Island), Trechus nakaguroi (Kunashir Island), T. dorsistriatus (Kunashir, Shikotan, Polonskogo and Yuri islands) and T. nigricornis (Kunashir and Yuri islands). To clarify their taxonomic status, type specimens of T. alexandrovi, T. dorsistriatus, T. nigricornis, Epaphius arsenjevi, and E. plutenkoi, as well as 475 specimens of these species from other parts of their ranges, were studied as comparative materials. Based on the study of this material, the following taxonomic changes were proposed: T. dorsistriatus laferi ssp. nov.; Blemus discus alexandrovi, stat. rest.; T. nigricornis, stat. resurr.; T. nakaguroi sachalinensis, stat. nov.; T. nigricornis arsenjevi, stat. nov.; Epaphius arsenjevi = Epaphius plutenkoi, syn. nov. The holotype of T. nigricornis was designated. Blemus discus alexandrovi has been recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Kuril Islands. The features of distribution and ecology of all species on the surveyed islands are discussed. Currently, B. discus is found only on the west coast of Kunashir Island, suggesting a recent colonisation of this island. Trechus nakaguroi inhabits only the mountainous dark coniferous forests of the northern Kunashir, which indicates a relict distribution of this species. Trechus dorsistriatus is the most abundant species of Trechini, inhabiting the most diverse biotopes on all the islands of the South Kurile. Trechus nigricornis is an inhabitant of moss mires in river floodplains. Unlike the specimens of this species from the mainland and Hokkaido, all specimens of T. nigricornis from the Southern Kuril Islands are wingless; we associate this with the impossibility of flying in the cold and foggy climate of the Kuril Islands. The proposed hypothesis on the formation of the Trechini fauna of the South Kurile is based on the geological youth of the Kuril Islands, which makes it necessary to take into account that by the time ground beetles colonised their ranges, most of the currently existing Trechini groups already existed, and their modern distribution was largely determined by climate and landscape changes in the Quaternary period. The compiled identification key includes the four species of the South Kuril fauna and Trechus ephippiatus, repeatedly erroneously indicated from Kunashir Island.
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Spatial patterns of biodiversity are inextricably linked to their collection methods, yet no synthesis of bias patterns or their consequences exists. As such, views of organismal distribution and the ecosystems they make up may be incorrect, undermining countless ecological and evolutionary studies. Using 742 million records of 374 900 species, we explore the global patterns and impacts of biases related to taxonomy, accessibility, ecotype and data type across terrestrial and marine systems. Pervasive sampling and observation biases exist across animals, with only 6.74% of the globe sampled, and disproportionately poor tropical sampling. High elevations and deep seas are particularly unknown. Over 50% of records in most groups account for under 2% of species and citizen-science only exacerbates biases. Additional data will be needed to overcome many of these biases, but we must increasingly value data publication to bridge this gap and better represent species' distributions from more distant and inaccessible areas, and provide the necessary basis for conservation and management.
Collembola is a group of numerous ubiquitous small soil-dwelling arthropods decomposing the plant residues. The study analyses the diversity structure of this group in mesic conditions of coniferous, mixed, and broad-leaved forests. Sample plots were located in three Protected Areas in the Moscow Region (Losiny Ostrov National Park and the Valuyevsky Forest Park) and Smolensk Region (Smolenskoe Poozerye National Park). In total, 70 species of Collembola were registered in the forest litter. Two Collembola species were of Asian origin, namely Appendisotoma stebayevae (noted in Europe for the first time) and Vertagopus asiaticus (the second record of this species in the study area). The number of species was close to the number of genera, indicating the allochthonous character of the forest fauna of Collembola of the central Russian Plain. A multiscale approach was applied for sampling design. This allowed us to assess the diversity of Collembola at various spatial scales: from 1 m to hundreds of kilometres. The study scheme included two regions, four localities, 12 sample sites, and 36 plots; the latter was 1 m2 (the smallest area unit). The data analysis was based on the concept of alpha-beta diversity accompanied by the additive partitioning method. The region (the largest area unit) was the most important factor in forming the species diversity. The type of forest litter (coniferous vs. broad-leaved) was less significant; the habitat heterogeneity factor made even a less contribution. On average, 1 m2 of forest litter comprised about a quarter of the entire list of Collembola species in the studied forests. The species richness of Collembola in the broad-leaved forests was more variable in space and in time compared to coniferous forests and mixed forests; a transitional pattern was observed. The species composition of Collembola varied between the seasons of the year by about a quarter when considering the same sites of coniferous and mixed forests. In broad-leaved forests of various areas, seasonal changes in species composition varied highly, from very pronounced to insignificant. The new concept of plant litter traits is discussed as a factor for affecting the patterns of the structure and dynamics of the Collembola species diversity.