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Biodiversity of Coleoptera (Insecta) in Lipetsk Region (Russia)

Authors:
  • Государственный природный заповедник "Присурский"

Abstract and Figures

(1) Background: Coleoptera is one of the most diverse insect lineages. Coleoptera species live in many ecosystems around the globe and their role in ecosystems is very diverse. To study the number and distribution of species, lists of species were compiled and then added into the database generation platforms. The aim of the work was to describe the modern fauna of Coleoptera based on a recently published dataset. (2) Methods: Studies were conducted from 1971 to 2022. Insects were collected by different means (searching under the bark of trees and stumps, sifting litter and wood dust, soil samples, caught in the light, in soil traps, window traps, etc.). For each observation, the coordinates of the place of discovery, the number of individuals, dates were noted. (3) Results: The dataset presents data on 2416 species and subspecies of Coleoptera from 89 families found in the Lipetsk region. In total, the number of studied specimens in the dataset was 16,184, the number of occurrences was 6192. The largest families in terms of species diversity were Staphylinidae (541 species), Curculionidae (416), Chrysomelidae (315) and Carabidae (285). (4) Conclusions: In addition, based on the analysis of additional references, 452 more species and 2 families are indicated. Thus, the biodiversity of Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region is 2868 species from 89 families.
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Diversity 2022, 14, 825. https://doi.org/10.3390/d14100825 www.mdpi.com/journal/diversity
Data Descriptor
Biodiversity of Coleoptera (Insecta) in Lipetsk Region (Russia)
Sergei G. Mazurov 1, Leonid V. Egorov 2, Alexander B. Ruchin 3,* and Oleg N. Artaev 4
1 Secondary School, 399675 Leski, Russia
2 Prisursky State Nature Reserve, Cheboksary 428034, Russia
3 Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny”,
Saransk 430005, Russia
4 Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok 152742, Russia
* Correspondence: ruchin.alexander@gmail.com; Tel.: +7-83445-296-35
Abstract: (1) Background: Coleoptera is one of the most diverse insect lineages. Coleoptera species
live in many ecosystems around the globe and their role in ecosystems is very diverse. To study the
number and distribution of species, lists of species were compiled and then added into the database
generation platforms. The aim of the work was to describe the modern fauna of Coleoptera based
on a recently published dataset. (2) Methods: Studies were conducted from 1971 to 2022. Insects
were collected by different means (searching under the bark of trees and stumps, sifting litter and
wood dust, soil samples, caught in the light, in soil traps, window traps, etc.). For each observation,
the coordinates of the place of discovery, the number of individuals, dates were noted. (3) Results:
The dataset presents data on 2416 species and subspecies of Coleoptera from 89 families found in
the Lipetsk region. In total, the number of studied specimens in the dataset was 16,184, the number
of occurrences was 6192. The largest families in terms of species diversity were Staphylinidae (541
species), Curculionidae (416), Chrysomelidae (315) and Carabidae (285). (4) Conclusions: In addi-
tion, based on the analysis of additional references, 452 more species and 2 families are indicated.
Thus, the biodiversity of Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region is 2868 species from 89 families.
Dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/9dh2gy.
Dataset License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License
Keywords: species diversity; beetles; comparison of fauna; dataset; Center of European Russia
1. Summary
Coleoptera is one of the most diverse insect orders in the world, which dominates
many ecosystems in terms of individual abundance and occupied niches [1]. The order
Coleoptera plays an important role in the development of organic matter, pollination of
angiosperms, biotic interactions in communities, in the formation of soil cover [2–7]. How-
ever, in recent years, there has been a decrease in the number and species diversity of
many insect groups, including Coleoptera [8,9]. The massive decline in insect diversity
and biomass in human-dominated ecosystems is often associated with habitat loss (e.g.,
agricultural intensification), landscape fragmentation, chemical pollution, climate change,
destructive fires, the introduction and increase in the number of invasive species, as well
as a combination of these factors [10–16].
To understand how the number and biodiversity of insects change and the relative
importance of various threats in the development of these trends, it is necessary to go
beyond the results of individual studies and systematically summarize the available data
on insects [17–20]. However, to understand the changes taking place on a global scale, it
is important to know local and regional faunas. Most faunal studies focus on systemati-
cally or methodologically limited groups of insects [19,21]. However, there is an urgent
Citation: Mazurov, S.G.; Egorov,
L.V.; Ruchin, A.B.; Artaev, O.N.
Biodiversity of Coleoptera (Insecta)
in Lipetsk Region (Russia). Diversity
2022, 14, 825. https://doi.org/10.3390/
d14100825
Academic Editor: Ming Bai
Received: 17 September 2022
Accepted: 30 September 2022
Published: 30 September 2022
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neu-
tral with regard to jurisdictional
claims in published maps and institu-
tional affiliations.
Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Li-
censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and con-
ditions of the Creative Commons At-
tribution (CC BY) license (https://cre-
ativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 2 of 9
need to document and understand nature at a speed that will provide us with an informed
systemic response to the accelerating impact that humans have on the world [22]. For doc-
umentation, there are various platforms for creating databases that can be accessed by all
users [17,23]. Such platforms provide the largest collections of species occurrence records.
The data on these platforms have served as the basis for numerous analyses and assess-
ments of biodiversity, but also revealed clear distortions, gaps and heterogeneity of qual-
ity, and therefore they should be handled carefully to cope with these problems [19,24].
P.P. Melgunov started studying Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region. He visited this re-
gion from 1871 to 1881 and collected barbel beetles from there. Subsequently, the main
entomological works were associated with the creation of the Galichya Gora Nature Re-
serve in 1925 [25,26]. However, the most significant number of publications about the Col-
eoptera of the Lipetsk region appeared from the 1990s to the present. M.N. Tsurikov
[27,28] summed up the general biodiversity of the Coleoptera fauna of the Lipetsk region.
At that time, the known regional biodiversity was 2288 species of Coleoptera. However,
further intensification of entomological research allowed us to find other Coleoptera spe-
cies in the Lipetsk region. The purpose of this work is to describe the modern fauna of
Coleoptera based on a recently published dataset [29].
2. Data Description
2.1. Data Set Name
In the dataset, each observation includes basic information: location (latitude/longi-
tude), date of observation, the name of the observer and the name of the identifier. The
coordinates were determined on the spot using a GPS device or after research using
Google Maps (Table 1).
Table 1. Description of the data in the dataset.
Column Label
Column Description
occurrenceID An identifier for the Occurrence (as opposed to a particular digital record of the occur-
rence).
basisOfRecord
The specific nature of the data record: HumanObservation
scientificName The full scientific name including the genus name and the lowest level of
taxonomic rank with the authority
kingdom The full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of location in decimal degrees
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude of location in decimal degrees
geodeticDatum
The ellipsoid, geodetic datum, or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geo-
graphic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude is based.
country The name of the country in which the Location occurs
countryCode The standard code for the country in which the Location occurs.
individualCount The number of individuals represented present at the time of the Occurrence.
eventDate The date when material from the trap was collected or the range of dates during which
the trap collected material
year
The integer year in which the Event occurred.
month The ordinal month in which the Event occurred.
day The integer day of the month on which the Event occurred
recordedBy A person, group, or organization responsible for recording the original Occurrence.
identifiedBy A list of names of people, who assigned the Taxon to the subject
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 3 of 9
2.2. Figures, Tables and Schemes
The dataset presents data on 2416 species and subspecies of Coleoptera from 89 fam-
ilies found in the Lipetsk region and documented simultaneously with the coordinates
(Table 2). The total number of occurrences was 6192, the number of studied specimens
was 16,184. The largest families in terms of species diversity were Staphylinidae (includ-
ing Silphinae) (541 species), Curculionidae (416), Chrysomelidae (315) and Carabidae
(285).
Table 2. Species diversity of beetles of the Lipetsk region.
Family Number of S
pecies
(Our Data)
Number of Species (Literary
Data *)
Sphaeriusidae
Gyrinidae
0
5
1
6
Haliplidae 8 8
Noteridae 2 2
Dytiscidae 77 81
Carabidae 253 285
Scirtidae 8 9
Clambidae 1 2
Eucinetidae
1
1
Dascillidae 0 1
Byrrhidae 6 8
Buprestidae 43 51
Dryopidae 3 4
Elmidae 1 2
Heteroceridae 5 5
Throscidae
3
3
Eucnemidae 4 5
Lycidae 3 4
Cantharidae 26 32
Elateridae 42 52
Drilidae 1 1
Lampyridae 1 1
Histeridae
35
49
Georissidae 1 1
Helophoridae 9 11
Hydrochidae 5 5
Spercheidae 1 1
Hydrophilidae 46 54
Ptiliidae 7 22
Hydraenidae
8
9
Leiodidae 22 32
Staphylinidae 407 541
Trogidae 4 4
Lucanidae 3 3
Bolboceratidae 1 1
Geotrupidae 2 3
Ochodaeidae
1
1
Scarabaeidae 69 84
Dermestidae 20 23
Bostrichidae 5 5
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 4 of 9
Ptinidae
21
31
Byturidae
Biphyllidae
2
1
2
1
Cleridae 8 9
Trogossitidae 3 4
Melyridae 17 21
Lymexylidae 1 1
Mordellidae
14
21
Scraptiidae 7 10
Aderidae 5 5
Oedemeridae 12 12
Boridae 1 1
Pythidae 1 1
Salpingidae
2
6
Pyrochroidae 1 1
Meloidae 7 15
Anthicidae 13 15
Melandryidae 9 10
Zopheridae 3 4
Ciidae 16 16
Tetratomidae
1
1
Mycetophagidae 11 11
Tenebrionidae 50 54
Bothrideridae 1 1
Cerylonidae 2 3
Latridiidae 25 33
Corylophidae 5 7
Endomychidae
6
7
Coccinellidae 52 52
Erotylidae 10 11
Sphindidae 1 2
Monotomidae 12 12
Kateretidae 8 8
Nitidulidae 65 70
Cryptophagidae
35
38
Cucujidae 2 2
Silvanidae 6 7
Phalacridae 11 15
Laemophloeidae 6 9
Megalopodidae 1 1
Orsodacnidae 1 2
Cerambycidae
82
92
Chrysomelidae 297 315
Cimberididae 2 2
Nemonychidae 1 1
Anthribidae 8 10
Attelabidae 14 18
Brentidae 64 71
Curculionidae
354
416
Total 2416 2868
*—literary data [27,30–37].
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 5 of 9
However, it was impossible to accurately document and give geographical coordi-
nates for some species. This was due to the inaccuracy of the data from the labels of the
places of finds, incorrect location indication and other reasons. However, such finds of
many species do not cause any doubts on the accuracy of the definition and their habitat
in the territory of the Lipetsk region. Therefore, Table 2 provides additional information
from various literature data.
Thus, the total species diversity of Coleoptera of the Lipetsk region was 2868 species
from 89 families. To compare this data with the species diversity of Coleoptera in some
regions of the European part of Russia: Moscow region—4010 [38], Ulyanovsk region—
more than 3000 species [39], Chuvash Republic—about 3000 species [40], Udmurt Repub-
lic—more than 2400 species [41], Samara region—1844 species [42], 1827 species in the
Voronezh region [43]. Significant differences in the biodiversity of Coleoptera of separate
regions are associated with different problems. The richest in terms of the number of spe-
cies are regions that have been studied by specialists using a variety of methods for many
decades.
In the territory of the Lipetsk region, there are six species that are listed in the Red
Book of Russia. Dytiscus latissimus lives in rivers, ponds, lakes. The frequency of occur-
rence of the species in the region is low. Calosoma sycophanta is very rare and not caught
every year. It is detected at single instances. Carabus hungaricus was discovered once in
1948 in the Zadonsk district [27]. Lucanus cervus has been recorded in the oak forests of
the Gryazi and Usman districts; however, this information requires confirmation by mod-
ern studies [31]. The range of Protaetia fieberi includes the Lipetsk region. However, there
is no reliable information about the findings of this species yet [44]. Protaetia speciosissima
is periodically caught in some areas of the Lipetsk region. The frequency of the occurrence
of the species in the region is low.
3. Methods
The Lipetsk region is located in the central part of the East European Plain within
two Central Russian Uplands (covering 75.2% of the territory) and the Oka-Don Plain
(24.8%). The border between them runs along the valleys of the Voronezh River and the
Stanovaya Ryasa River (Figure 1).
The Central Russian upland is an undulating plain with absolute marks of 210–260
m with river valleys, gullies, ravines. The slopes of the valleys here often drop off steeply
to floodplains and in riverbeds, forming high limestone cliffs. The interfluve of the Don
and Voronezh has slightly elevated plains. Ravines have developed on the slopes of river
valleys and gullies, landslides occur. Karst processes take an important place. The climate
of the region is moderately continental with warm summers and comparatively cold win-
ters. The continentality of the climate increases from the north-west to the south-east, sum-
mer temperatures increase in the same direction along with a decrease in average relative
humidity. The average temperature for the year is + 5.2°C. The warm period on average
begins in early April and ends about November 6–10. A characteristic feature of the spring
period is an extremely rapid rise in temperature. An average of 660 mm/year of precipi-
tation falls on the territory of the region. The region belongs to the zone of insufficient
humidification, and signs of an arid climate are often recorded [45].
Chernozems dominate in the soil cover of the Lipetsk region. The main types of veg-
etation consist of oak forests and meadow steppes. Some extrazonal and intrazonal ele-
ments of vegetation influence the vegetation cover in a specific way. Its active spread deep
into the region is facilitated by the directions of rivers: pine forests penetrate from the
north along the valley of Voronezh, and elements of southern typical steppes penetrate
from the south along the valleys of Olym, Don and Voronezh. The intrazonal types of
vegetation in the region include meadows, sphagnum swamps, floodplain vegetation,
vegetation of reservoirs, rock groupings, fragments of a halophilic complex. Along with
the dominant oak forests (30% of the total forest area), there are elm, aspen, birch, alder,
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 6 of 9
poplar and pine forests. The Lipetsk region is one of the most economically developed in
Russia (81.2% of the area is occupied by agricultural land) [46].
Figure 1. Map of the Lipetsk region.
The material for the work was Coleoptera collections on the territory of the Lipetsk
region mainly over the last 50 years (1971–2022). All samples were collected mainly by
V.T. Kuznetsova (1965–1997), N.Yu. Panteleeva (1976–1988), M.N. Tsurikov (1995–2017),
S.G. Mazurov (since 2006), Ya.A. Urbanus (since 2000), A.A. Prokin (since 1998), D.I.
Pereverzev (2000–2008). All reliable published information from the territory of the Li-
petsk region is also summarized. The main part of the samples is kept in the collection of
the state reserve “Galichya Gora”, as well as in the personal collections of A.A. Prokin,
Diversity 2022, 14, 825 7 of 9
Ya.A. Urbanus, S.G. Mazurov. Parts of the collections were transferred to a number of
scientific centers of Russia and the Czech Republic.
In the course of the research, traditional and diverse methods were used: manual
collection, searching under the bark of trees and stumps, sifting litter and dust in the
spring, soil samples, the use of air, migration and soil traps, light fishing, catching flying
individuals, mowing with an entomological net, splashing and trampling on the shores of
reservoirs, collecting in rotting substrates, in places of shelters and wintering, etc. [47].
The research was carried out in all districts of the region, about 300 geographical locations
were surveyed.
The classification of the family–group taxa used predominantly follows Cai et al. [48]
and McKenna et al. [49]. The lists of species were verified according to the Catalogue of
Palaearctic Coleoptera [50–58], to Robertson et al. [59], and to Alonso-Zarazaga et al. [60].
The years of description of some beetle species are specified according to Bousquet [61].
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, S.G.M.; methodology, S.G.M.; software, A.B.R. and
O.N.A.; validation, S.G.M. and L.V.E.; formal analysis, S.G.M. and O.N.A.; investigation, S.G.M.;
resources, A.B.R.; data curation, A.B.R. and L.V.E.; writing—original draft preparation, S.G.M. and
A.B.R.; writing—review and editing, L.V.E.; visualization, S.G.M.; supervision, S.G.M.; project ad-
ministration, S.G.M.; funding acquisition, A.B.R. All authors have read and agreed to the published
version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research was funded by Russian Science Foundation, grant number 22-14-00026.
Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable.
Data Availability Statement: Not applicable.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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