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55 xenobiotic organic compounds in Tripoli landfill-Lebanon leachate and their fluxes to the Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea


Abstract and Figures

Pollution generated from landfill solid wastes constitute one of the major threat to the environment. The landfill leachate contains various toxic pollutants, making it the most dangerous issue of the landfills. Monitoring the xenobiotic organic concentrations in landfill leachate is an important step to evaluate the environmental impacts. This work aims to characterize the seasonal variation of 55 xenobiotic organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and bisphenols (BPs) in the leachate from municipal solid waste landfill of Tripoli, Lebanon. And also, the quantity of the pollutant’s flux to the Abou Ali River and the Mediterranean Sea nearby has been estimated. The organic pollutants were extracted by using the solid-phase extraction and quantified by using GC–MS/MS. The results showed high level of PAEs, BPs, PCBs, and PAHs in the leachate samples. The fluxes of pollutants to the Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea have been detected at 0.23 kg, 0.01 kg, 116.85 kg, 15.93 kg, and 7.58 kg for Σ16PAHs, Σ28PCBs, Σ6PAEs, Σ4BPs, and 4-NP respectively.
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Environ Monit Assess (2022) 194:856
55 xenobiotic organic compounds inTripoli
landfillLebanon leachate andtheir fluxes totheAbou Ali
River andMediterranean Sea
AhmadMoustafa· MariamHamzeh·
MoomenBaroudi· BaghdadOuddane ·
Received: 8 July 2022 / Accepted: 23 September 2022
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022
of pollutants to the Abou Ali River and Mediter-
ranean Sea have been detected at 0.23kg, 0.01kg,
116.85kg, 15.93kg, and 7.58kg for Σ16PAHs,
Σ28PCBs, Σ6PAEs, Σ4BPs, and 4-NP respectively.
Keywords Landfill· Leachate· Persistent organic
pollutants· Xenobiotic organic compounds· PAHs·
Landfills are the most used method in waste manage-
ment in developing countries. The landfill waste is
exposed to biological and physicochemical transfor-
mations leading to highly polluted effluent called lea-
chate. The leachate characteristics are influenced by
several factors like waste composition, landfill age,
landfill structure, compaction technique, and weather
Abstract Pollution generated from landfill solid
wastes constitute one of the major threat to the envi-
ronment. The landfill leachate contains various toxic
pollutants, making it the most dangerous issue of the
landfills. Monitoring the xenobiotic organic concen-
trations in landfill leachate is an important step to
evaluate the environmental impacts. This work aims
to characterize the seasonal variation of 55 xenobiotic
organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and bisphenols
(BPs) in the leachate from municipal solid waste
landfill of Tripoli, Lebanon. And also, the quantity
of the pollutants flux to the Abou Ali River and the
Mediterranean Sea nearby has been estimated. The
organic pollutants were extracted by using the solid-
phase extraction and quantified by using GC–MS/
MS. The results showed high level of PAEs, BPs,
PCBs, and PAHs in the leachate samples. The fluxes
Supplementary Information The online version
contains supplementary material available at https:// doi.
A.Moustafa· B.Ouddane· S.Net(*)
CNRS, LASIRE UMR 8516, Equipe Physico-chimie de
l’Environnement, Univ. Lille, F-59000Lille, France
A. Moustafa
B. Ouddane
Department ofEnvironmental Biotechnology,
Biotechnology Laboratory, Doctoral School-AZM Center
forResearch inBiotechnology andIts Application,
Lebanese University, Tripoli, Lebanon
A.Moustafa· M.Hamzeh· M.Baroudi
Department ofHealth andEnvironment, Laboratory
ofSciences andWater Environment, Faculty ofPublic
Health Section III, Lebanese University, Tripoli, Lebanon
M. Baroudi
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conditions (a. The leachate pollutants are classified
into four types: dissolved organic matter, inorganic
macrocompounds, heavy metals, and xenobiotic
organic compounds. These last include polychloro-
biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs), bisphenols (BPs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs),
pharmaceutical residues, and pesticides (Gallen etal.,
2017; Kalčíko etal., 2011). PAHs can be gener-
ated from anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources, while
PCBs have anthropogenic origin; they are used in
many industries and commercial applications such as
electrical and heat transfer equipment, dyes, and car-
bonless copy paper (USEPA, 2014). Municipal dump-
sites constitute an important source of PAHs and PCBs
into marine environment via leachate (Merhaby etal.,
2019). PAHs and PCBs are listed as persistent organic
pollutants (POP) in the Stockholm Convention (United
Nation Enviromental Programme, 2019) and as prior-
ity pollutants due to their toxicity, mutagenicity, and
carcinogenicity effect (USEPA, 2014), while PAEs and
BPs are endocrine disrupting chemicals, and their envi-
ronmental behavior has attracted considerable attention
due to their potential impact on ecosystem and on pub-
lic health. PAEs are present in many materials or prod-
ucts including PVC and building materials, personal
care products, medical devices, children’s toys, and
food containers (Net etal., 2015b), while BPs are used
in the production of polycarbonates, epoxy resins, ther-
mal papers, cans, and plastics industry, the automotive
industry, glasses, and others. PAEs and BPs are classi-
fied as endocrine disruptors and as priority pollutants
(USEPA, 2014). PAEs and BPs are ubiquitous in the
environment including in fresh and marine waters, soil,
sediments, manure,compost, effluents, waste dump
water, and discharge percolates (Idowu etal., 2019; Net
etal., 2015a,b; Paluselli etal., 2018a,b; Ben Sghaier
etal., 2017a,b; Xing etal., 2022).
Open dumps and uncontrolled landfills are domi-
nant in Lebanon especially in big cities like Beirut and
Tripoli (Idowu etal., 2019). The inappropriate strategy
of waste in Lebanon is characterized by the absence
of waste sorting and recycling policy (Halwani etal.,
2020). Due to the dumping of many hazard waste into
landfills, such as unused pharmaceutical product, med-
ical waste, personal care product, paints, pesticides,
plastics, electronic materials, and nylon, the landfill
leachate constitutes an important source of organic pol-
lutants like PAHs, PCB, PAEs, and phenols (Crawford
& Quinn, 2017). The landfills constitute a high risk to
the environment due to the various pollutants in lea-
chate. Landfill’s leachate is frequently rejected into
the aquatic system without any treatment especially
in developing countries. Thus, toxic compounds can
affect fauna, flora, human health, and also aquatic sys-
tem (Qi etal., 2018; Singh etal., 2016). Several studies
have focused on the physicochemical characteristics of
landfill leachate (Naveen etal., 2017). However, there
is a lack of data on the state of xenobiotic organic com-
pounds release from landfill into leachate and into the
aquatic environment. This paper focused on the evalua-
tion the level of 55 xenobiotic compound including 16
PAHs, 28 PCBs, 6 PAEs, 4 BPs, and 4-nonyl phenol
in Tripoli landfill leachate, North of Lebanon, where
no previous studies have investigated. The objective
was to characterize the seasonal variation of these 55
xenobiotic organic compounds in the leachate from
municipal solid waste landfill of Tripoli, Lebanon, and
to assess quantity of the pollutants flux to the Abou
Ali River and the Mediterranean Sea nearby. This last
could affect the marine fauna and thus human health
via the food chain and touristic activities.
Materials andmethods
Chemicals and materials
C-18 cartridge (200mg/6ml), the standards of PAEs,
bisphenols, and 4-nonyl phenol were purchased from
Sigma-Aldrich (USA). PAHs standard were pur-
chased from Restek (Bellefonte, USA). Naphthalene-
d8, Acenaphtene-d10, Phenanthrene-d10, Pyrene-
d10, and Perylene-d12 used as internal standard for
PAHs quantification were obtained from LGC-Pro-
mochem (UK). PCBs standard was purchased from
AccuStandard Inc. (USA). TCN, CB112, and OCN
used as internal standards for PCBs quantification
were obtained from Dr. Ehrenstorfer (Augsburg,
Targeted compounds
Four families of micro-pollutants including 16 PAHs,
28 PCBs, 6 PAEs, and 5 phenolic compounds were
studied. (i) 16 PAHs are as follows: Naphthalene
(Nap), Acenaphthylene (Acy), Acenaphthene (Ace),
Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phen), Anthracene
(Ant), Pyrene (Pyr), Fluoranthene (Flt), Benzo[a]
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anthracene (B(a)A), Chrysene (Cry), Benzo[b]
fluoranthene (B(b)F), Benzo[K]fluoranthene (B(k)
F), Benzo[a]Pyrene (B(a)P), Benzo[ghi]perylene
(B(g,h,i)P), Dibenzo[ah]anthracene (D(ah)A), and
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP). (ii) 28 PCBs are as
follows: CB8, CB18, CB28, CB44, CB52, CB66,
CB101, CB77, CB81, CB114, CB105, CB123,
CB128, CB126, CB138, CB187, CB118, CB167,
CB157, CB156, CB169, CB170, CB180, CB153,
CB189, CB195, CB206, and CB209. (iii) 6 PAEs are
as follows: Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phtha-
late (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP), butyl benzyl
phthalate (BBP), bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP),
and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). (iv) 5 BPs are as
follows: bisphenol C (BPC), bisphenol E (BPE), bis-
phenol F (BPF), bisphenol G (BPG), and 4-nonyl-
phenol (4-NP). Chemical formula, the abbreviation,
qualification and quantification ions, retention time
(RT), internal standard for the quantification of each
compound, and number of chlorinated atom or cycle
of PCBs, PAHs, PAEs, and BPs are presented in the
TableS1, S2, and S3 in supplemental information.
Study area
The Tripoli landfill is located in Tripoli, on the
coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea and at the level
of the Abu Ali estuary with the coordinates 34° 27
19.49 N and 35° 50 26.91 E. Tripoli is the largest
city in northern Lebanon with 450000–550000 inhab-
itants and is characterized by a Mediterranean cli-
mate, cold and wet during the winter. Tripoli landfill,
located in Tripoli along the coastline of the Mediter-
ranean Sea and adjacent to the Abou Ali River, cov-
ers an area of 60000 m2. Tripoli landfill was used
as an uncontrolled dumpsite for over 20years until
1999 when the site was rehabilitated and operated as
a controlled landfill receiving the waste from Al Fay-
haa Union municipalities, with an average of 14000
tons/month. Tripoli landfill received various types
of wastes without sorting process where the organic
wastes represents 64% of the total volume of wastes,
followed by papers and cardboards (15%), plastics
(10%), glass (5%), and metal wastes (2%). Collected
wastes are landfilled by spreading and compression
in layers of 50cm and then covered by inert soil.
The landfill body features a heterogeneous physical
structure, which is constituted of two sections, the
lower section (old—unit A), and the upper section
(new—unit B). These units present different con-
ditions like height and degree of compaction. Age
of waste in unit A is about 30years and lower than
10years in unit B. The flow rates of leachate reach 3
m3/d in unit A and 40 m3/d in unit B. The generated
leachate is drained out by a pipes system and periph-
ery ditches and then passes into the estuary of Abou
Ali River, which leads to the Mediterranean Sea. The
continuous accumulation of rubbish has transformed
the site into a mountain of trash with about 45m
levels making Tripoli’s dumpsite one of the highest
landfills in Lebanon. Figure1 presents the sampling
Sample collection
The samples were collected in duplicate from the out-
put leachate pipe of both sections every 2months from
September 2017 to September 2018. Six sampling cam-
paigns were performed in the new section of landfill,
and four sampling campaigns were performed in the old
section due to the drying of leachate during summer.
The drying contribute to the sorting of organic matter
from landfilled waste and/or the deviation of leachate
flow rate caused by the damage of periphery wall in
section A (Halwani etal., 2020). Samples collected in
pre-cleaned glass bottles were directly transported to the
laboratory. The coordinates of the two sampling points
of leachate are 34° 27 21.26 N and 35° 50 29.6 E
for point A and 34° 27 19.22 N and 35° 50 25.46 N
for point B, and they are depicted in the Fig.1. The lea-
chate was generated by Tripoli landfill draining directly
to the Abou Ali River by pipes and then reached the
Mediterranean Sea without any treatment.
Sample extraction
The samples were directly filtered with pre-calcinated
0.47µm Whatman GMF. The target compounds were
extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with
C-18 cartridge. Firstly, each sample was spiked with
the internal standards. Briefly, the cartridges were
conditioned by 9ml of acetonitrile, 9ml of 2-pro-
panol, and then 12ml of a mixture of Milli-Q/2-pro-
panol (85/15, v/v) acidified to pH 2.5 with sulfuric
acid. After conditioning step, 100ml of leachate sam-
ples were passed through the cartridges with a flow
rate of 1 drop/second. The cartridges were washed
with 30ml of a mixture of Milli-Q/2-propanol (85/15,
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v/v) acidified to pH 2.5 and then dried with N2. The
targeted compound was eluted with a 12ml of a mix-
ture of hexane/acetone/2-propanol (90/5/5, v/v/v)
followed by 3ml of dichloromethane. The extract was
then concentrated to a volume of 200µl by N2 and
kept at –18°C until GC–MS analysis (Fig.2).
Fig. 1 Photo of sampling site and sampling points from September 2017 to September 2018, for every 2months
Fig. 2 PAHs distribution
prole for the leachate of
units A and B
Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun
Ring 2 Ring 3 Ring 4 Ring 5 Ring 6
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GC–MS analysis
Each family of organic compound was analyzed
separately, using an Agilent 7890B GC, equipped
with ZB-XLB-HT a Zebron capillary column
(30m × 0.25mm i.d. × 0.25-µm film thickness), and
coupled with a TQ Agilent series 7000/7010 MS.
Helium was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1ml/
min. Samples were analyzed in the splitless mode at
280°C. The oven temperature was programmed as
follows: from 48°C (1.5min) to 170°C at 13°C/min,
then ramped at 4°C/min to 230°C, and then at 3°C/
min (32min) to 280°C.
Quantitative analysis andquality control
The concentration of each compound was determined
according to 6-point internal calibration methods.
Internal standards were added for each calibration
point in order to better fit to the properties of each
targeted compounds. To minimize the error of quanti-
fication, the procedural blank for the entire analytical
procedure was performed in triplicate together with
each environmental sample batch. Our results showed
that the procedural blanks were for PCBs, PAHs, and
BPs and were free from any targeted PCBs, PAHs,
and BPs. However signification level higher than
LOQ of PAEs was sometimes detected in procedural
blanks, especially for DNBP and DEHP. The concen-
tration of DNBP and DEHP measured in blanks could
reach up to 4% of the concentration measured in lea-
chate sample. Consequently, the results of DNBP and
DEHP were corrected by subtracting the values found
in procedural blanks as recommended by Net etal.
(2015c). The precision and accuracy of the method
were confirmed by duplicate analysis of the sam-
ples. The precision of the technique, specified by the
standard deviation, was found between 1 and 5%.
Results anddiscussion
PAHs concentration and composition profile
Among the 16 PAHs, 12 of them were detected,
and their concentrations are presented in Table1.
High heterogeneity of the number of detected com-
pound and the concentration level of each sampling
point and each campaign were found. In unit A, Nap
showed the highest level and followed by Acy and
Pyr. In unit B, similarly, Nap was detected dominant,
and it followed by Phen and Flu (Fig.3). Our results
showed the dominant of low molecular weight PAH
with 2 and 3 aromatic rings (Nap, Ace, Phen, and
Flu). High molecular weights with 5–6 aromatic ring
including B(b)F, B(a)P, D(ah)A, and B(ghi)P were
bellow LOQ in both units. However, the Σ16PAHs in
leachate from unit B were found to be 5 times higher
than which found in unit A. The Σ16PAHs ranged
from 0.1 to 5.9µg l1, average of 1.8µg l1 in unit A,
and from 0.8 to 29.6µg l1 (average of 9.2µg l1) in
unit B (Table1).
The differences between these two units can
be attributed to the type, age, degradation state of
waste, and leachate flow rate. In comparison, our
results were much higher than which found by Borjac
etal. (2019) in south Lebanon (0.19–1.1µg l1) and
Kalmykova etal. (2013) in leachate of Sweden at
0.6µg l1. However, our results were much lower
than which reported by Jiries etal. (2005) in Jordan
where the Σ16PAH ranged at 7.1–12.6mg l1 with
an average of 9.1mg l1. 8 PAHs are classified as
probably (B(a)A, B(a)P, DB(ah) A) or possibly
carcinogenic (Nap, Chry, B(b)F, B(k)F, I(cd)P) to
humans by the (USEPA, 1993; IARC,2002). The
highest Σ8PAHs carcinogenic were determined in unit
B at 4.4µg l1 of average (0.2–13.8µg.l1), while the
average in unit A were determined at 1.6µg l1, and
Fig.2 shows the composition profile of PAHs.
PAHs source distribution
The PAHs source can be identify by various ratios.
Among the ratios, B(a)A/B(a)A + Chry (BaA/228)
ratio is commonly used. The ratio < 0.20 indicates
petroleum origin and > 0.35 indicates combustion
source (Yunker etal., 2002; Christensen & Bzdusek,
2005). From Table1, the B(a)A/(B(a)A + Chry) ratio
was calculated. The ratio shows the mixture of com-
bustion and petrogenic source of PAHs pollution.
Moreover, Phe/Ant ratio can be used to distinguish the
petrogenic and combustion sources. When Phe/Ant
ratio < 10 indicatesthe pyrolytic sources and > 10 indi-
cates thepetrogenic sources (Maliszewska-Kordybach
etal., 2008). Our results showed the ratio of 0–13.6,
where 75% of Phe/Ant ratio is < 10 and 25% > 10.
Thus, the combustion is the dominant source in the
unit A. Similarly for unit B, the Phe/Ant ratio was
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Table 1 Individual concentration of PAHs in units A and B from September 2017 to September 2018
“-” : < LOQ; n = 4 replicate
* Human carcinogen compounds IARC (2002)
Sampling date Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun 2018 Sep 2018
PAHs ng·l1A B A B A B A B B B
Nap* 260 ± 10 153 ± 7 5751 ± 12 12,221 ± 14 8 ± 0.1 5345 ± 11 154 ± 7 1867 ± 11 754 ± 12 2946 ± 12
Acy 357 ± 13 503 ± 14 - - 9 ± 0.3 358 ± 10 19 ± 2 22 ± 1 845 ± 2 18 ± 1
Ace - - 13 ± 1 38 ± 2 5 ± 0.1 172 ± 6 3 ± 0.3 8 ± 1 246 ± 4 50 ± 2
Flu 3 ± 0.1 11 ± 1 5 ± 0.4 67 ± 3 8 ± 0.4 2720 ± 9 21 ± 2 48 ± 3 84 ± 1 203 ± 3
Phen 16 ± 1.6 125 ± 10 - - 15 ± 2 18,843 ± 8 - - 352 ± 5 1111 ± 10
Ant 1 ± 0.01 3 ± 0.2 59 ± 6 169 ± 6 5 ± 0.1 432 ± 4 24 ± 2 84 ± 4 414 ± 7 370 ± 9
Pyr - - 81 ± 7 1488 ± 13 3 ± 0.1 263 ± 2 22 ± 1 108 ± 4 232 ± 4 98 ± 1
Flt 9 ± 0.7 53 ± 4 - - - - - - - -
B(a)A* - - - - 11 ± 1 670 ± 6 44 ± 3 527 ± 6 334 ± 6 8 ± 1
Chry* - - 5 ± 0.3 12 ± 1 0.01 429 ± 5 5 ± 0.4 37 ± 1 21 ± 1 10 ± 1
B(b)F* - - - - - - - - - -
B(k)F* - - 10 ± 1 54 ± 4 13 ± 1 40 ± 1 49 ± 3 49 ± 1 80 ± 2 107 ± 2
B(a)P* - - - - - - - - - -
DB(ah)A* - - - - - - - - - -
B(g,h,i)P - - - - - - - - - -
I(cd)P* - - - 101 ± 6 14 ± 1 349 ± 3 34 ± 2 61 ± 3 34 ± 1 121 ± 3
Min - - - - - - - - - -
Max 357 503 5751 12221 15 18843 154 1867 754 2946
Σ 16 PAHs 647 849 5931 14150 90 29620 375 2810 2636 5041
Σ8 Carcinogenic PAHs 261 153 5774 12389 45 6833 286 2542 1224 3192
BaA/BaA + Chry - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 -
Phe/Ant 14 39 - - 3 44 - - 1 3
Ant/Ant + Phe - - 1 1 - - 1 1 - -
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from 0 to 43.6, where 67% is < 10 and 33% > 10. The
results indicate the combustion as dominant source of
PAHs pollution. Besides, Ant/Ant + Phe ratio < 0.1
indicates a petrogenic source and > 0.1 indicates a
pyrogenic source (Bucheli etal., 2004). From the data
in Table1, the Ant/Ant + Phe ratio can be calculated
where the values ranged from 0 to 1 for both unit.
For the unit A, 25% of Ant/Ant + Phe ratio is < 0.1
and 75% > 0.1, while in the unit B, 33% < 0.1 and
67% of Ant/Ant + Phe ratio > 0.1. Ant/Ant + Phe ratio
confirms the combustion process as the major ori-
gin of PAHs in our leachate. The cross plots of BaA/
BaA + Ch and Ant/Ant + Phe in the two units indi-
cated that PAHs originated mainly from combustion
sources (Fig.3). Our results show that the PAHs in
leachate samples of Tripoli landfill were predomi-
nantly pyrogenic sources. These results may be due
to the historical state of waste incineration, and it is
compatible with research established by Borjac et al.
(2019) in leachate in south Lebanon (Borjac etal.,
2019; Halwani etal., 2020; Zhang etal., 2013). In
addition, the atmospheric deposition can be a source
of PAHs from the incineration of tire and electric
cable near the landfill and the incineration of fossil
fuel in the power plants and road traffic (Lebanese
Ministry of Environment, 2006).
PCBs composition profile
Among the 28 PCBs, 15 were detected, and the level
of Σ28PCBs was in the range of 30–400ng l1 with an
average of 200ng l1 in unit A and 90–2000ng l1
with an average of 500ng l1 in unit B. The individ-
ual concentration of PCB is presented in Table2.
Our results are in the same range of which found by
Herbert etal. (2006) in leachate of Portugal landfill
(700–2090ng l1). However, our results were much
lower than which founded by Yusoff etal. (2013) in
leachate of Malaysians landfill where 8.9mg l1 of
Σ28PCBs were found. PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138,
153, and 180 were classified as PCB-indicators
(PCBi) which are frequently detected in the environ-
ment. Also 12 PCBs were classified as PCBs-dioxin-
like (PCBs-DL: 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156,
157, 167, 169, and 189) known to be toxic to humans
and persistent in the environment (Kimbrough etal.,
2010; Tanabe & Minh, 2010; Merhaby etal., 2019).
The composition profile of PCB in leachate of unit A
and unit B is presented in Fig.4.
In unit A, the Σ7PCBi were 4–324ng l1 with
an average of 126ng l1 and represents 45% of
the Σ28PCBs. For unit B, the average Σ7PCBi was
47ng l1 (8–148ng.l1) and represents 12% of
Σ28PCBs. The Σ7PCBi detected in this study are
much lower than those founded in the leachate of
Portuguese landfills at 713–2098ng l1 (Herbert
etal., 2006) and Malaysian landfill at 770,000ng l1
(Yusoff etal., 2013), while the Σ12PCB-DL was
quantified at 18.8ng l1 of average (3.7–38ng l1)
and represents 14% of Σ28PCBs in unit A. In unit B,
Σ12PCB-DL was 240ng l1 of average (25–1105ng.
l1) and represents 37%. These finding is similar to
which found by Herbert etal. (2006) and Yusoff etal.
(2013). The Σ7PCBi and Σ12PCB-DL represent 59%
and 50% of Σ28PCBs for units A and B respectively.
The present of PCBs in Tripoli landfill leachate
might be related to the dumping of PCB-containing
waste like e-waste, ink, capacitors, and transformers;
Fig. 3 Cross plot of Ant/
Ant + Phe versus BaA/
BaA + Ch for leachate sam-
ples during the study period
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atmospheric deposition from the incineration of the
tire and electric cable in the study area; and from the
power plants. The PCBs in unit A lower than in unit
B can be due to the age and the type of waste.
PAEs concentration profile
Five PAEs among the six were detected, and the
result is shown in Fig.5. The individual concentration
of PAEs is presented in Table3. PAEs were detected
at the highest level compared to PAHs and PCBs
in the leachate obtained from points A and B. The
Σ6PAEs varied from 571 and which can be up to
8031µg l1 with an average of 2673µg l1 in unit A.
Similar value was found in unit B with the Σ6PAEs of
399–4892µg l1 and average of 2891µg l1.
PAEs in the leachate of Tripoli landfill is
higher than which found in China at 50–62µg l1
Table 2 The concentration of PCBs in units A and B leachate from September 2017 to September 2018
“-” : < LOQ; N.A.not analyzed
Sampling date Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun 2018 Sep 2018
PCBs ngl1A B A B A B A B B B
CB8 40 ± 3 40 ± 1.4 60 ± 2.8 163 ± 7.1 5 ± 0.3 80 ± 4.2 15 ± 1.4 116 ± 7.2 840 ± 11.3 44 ± 3.5
CB18 - - - - - - - - - -
CB28 374 ± 11 18 ± 1.1 28 ± 0.7 15 ± 1.4 3 ± 0.2 2 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1 14 ± 0.9 28 ± 1.4 6 ± 0.6
CB44 4 ± 0.4 2 ± 0.1 2 ± 0.1 6 ± 0.6 7 ± 0.4 6 ± 0.5 6 ± 0.4 7 ± 0.6 38 ± 1.8 6 ± 0.6
CB52 - - - - - - - - - -
CB66 - - - - - - - - - -
CB101 - - 63 ± 2.5 18 ± 1.6 20 ± 1.4 16 ± 1 - - 3 ± 0.3 -
CB77 5 ± 0.4 N.A 19 ± 1.3 61 ± 3.5 3 ± 0.1 40 ± 1.4 1 ± 0.03 42 ± 1.7 44 ± 1.4 43 ± 3
CB81 2 ± 0.1 2 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1 2 ± 0.2 - 1 ± 0.04 1 ± 0.03 6 ± 0.3 926 ± 11 4 ± 0.4
CB114 - - - - - - - - - -
CB105 - - - - - - - - - -
CB123 - - 6 ± 0.2 4 ± 0.3 - - - 3 ± 0.1 9 ± 0.7 -
CB128 1 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1 - 1 ± 0.03 - 1 ± 0.01 2 ± 0.1 -
CB126 1 ± 0.03 2 ± 0.2 2 ± 0.1 4 ± 0.4 - 2 ± 0.1 - 13 ± 1.3 3 ± 0.3 2 ± 0.1
CB138 - - - - - - - - - -
CB187 7 ± 0.7 9 ± 0.9 9 ± 0.8 12 ± 1.1 4 ± 0.3 3 ± 0.2 2 ± 0.1 7 ± 0.4 3 ± 0.2 8 ± 0.7
CB118 N.A N.A 9 ± 0.6 5 ± 0.2 1 ± 0.01 1 ± 0.1 2 ± 0.03 35 ± 1.4 117 ± 7.1 1 ± 0.1
CB167 - - - - - - - - - -
CB157 2 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.04 1 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.03 - - - 2 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.04 -
CB156 - - - - - - - - - -
CB169 12 ± 1.1 17 ± 1.4 1 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1 8 ± 0.8 25 ± 1.4 - 17 ± 1.1 4 ± 0.03 -
CB170 - - - - - - - - - -
CB180 - 1 ± 0.1 - - - 1 ± 0.1 - 1 ± 0.03 - -
CB153 - - - - - - - - - -
CB189 - - - - - - - - - -
CB195 1 ± 0.05 1 ± 0.1 - - - 2 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.03 1 ± 0.04 2 ± 0.1 -
CB206 - - - - - - - - - -
CB209 - - - - - - - - - -
Min - - - - - - - - - -
Max 374 39 63 163 20 79 15 116 926 44
Σ7PCBi 374 19 101 38 25 19 4 49 148 8
Σ12PCBDL 21 25 38 77 13 69 4 117 1105 50
Σ28PCB 446 96 202 293 52 178 30 261 2020 115
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(He etal., 2009) and in Sweden landfill leachate
(1.2–46.8µg l1) (Kalmykova etal., 2013; Öman &
Junestedt, 2008). High levels of Σ6PAEs might be
attributed to the abundance of plastics material and
the absence of sorting of recyclable materials and the
landfilling of various hazardous wastes containing
PAEs. Indeed, PAEs have been used in a very broad
range of applications, and their content can be up
to 10 60% by weight of final product (Net etal.,
2015b). PAEs have been used in many materials or
products including PVC products, building materi-
als including paint, adhesive, wall covering, personal
Fig. 4 PCB composition
prole in leachate of unit A
and unit B from September
2017 to September 2018 in
ng l1
Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun 2018 Sep
Σ 7 PCBi Σ 12 PCB-DL Σ other PCB
Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun 2018 Sep 2018
Fig. 5 PAEs composition prole in leachate of unit A and unit B from September 2017 to September 2018 in µg l1
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Table 3 The concentration of PAEs and BPs in leachate from September 2017 to September 2018
Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun 2018 Sep 2018
PAEs µgl1A B A B A B A B B B
DMP 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.007 1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 0.001 ± 0.0001 3 ± 0.2 1 ± 0.02
DEP 71 ± 1.8 47 ± 1.4 70 ± 6.5 66 ± 2.8 3388 ± 11.3 692 ± 16 510 ± 9.9 184 ± 10.6 1477 ± 8 1403 ± 15.5
DnBP 3 ± 0.2 4 ± 0.01 19 ± 1.4 19 ± 1.6 115 ± 2.8 155 ± 2.8 5 ± 0.4 44 ± 1.4 48.9 ± 2.8 72 ± 3
BBP 0.2 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.001 10 ± 0.4 5 ± 0.4 3 ± 0.1 3 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.01 1 ± 0.01 1 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.05
DEHP 497 ± 14.1 1985 ± 15.5 1043 ± 16.9 4110 ± 19.8 4525 ± 17 4042 ± 20 433 ± 18.5 170 ± 2.8 1809 ± 17 1005 ± 18.4
DNOP - - - - - - - - - -
Min - - - - - - - - - -
Max 497 1985 1043 4110 4525 4042 510 184 1809 1403
Σ 6 PAE 571 2036 1143 4200 8031 4892 948 399 3340 2481
BPs µg l1A B A B A B A B B B
BPF 199 ± 10 268 ± 14.1 175 ± 11.3 170 ± 5.6 140 ± 3.5 132 ± 3.5 175 ± 8.4 154 ± 5.7 122 ± 4.3 156 ± 5
BPE 200 ± 9.4 281 ± 18.4 175 ± 9.1 173 ± 7.7 140 ± 2.8 163 ± 5.7 98 ± 4.5 175 ± 8.2 153 ± 6.3 162 ± 3.6
BPC - - - - - - - - - -
BPG 23 ± 1.2 47 ± 1.4 27 ± 1.2 89 ± 2.1 1 ± 0.08 64 ± 1.3 3 ± 0.12 51 ± 2 107 ± 1.5 45 ± 0.8
4NP 200 ± 11.3 276 ± 16.9 175 ± 9.8 173 ± 7 140 ± 4.2 173 ± 7 175 ± 7.3 175 ± 8.4 155 ± 5.7 175 ± 7.9
Min - - - - - - - - - -
Max 200 281 175 173 140 173 175 175 155 175
Average 124 174 111 121 84 106 90 111 107 108
Σ 4 BPs 422 596 378 433 282 359 277 380 382 363
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care products, medical devices, packaging, print-
ing inks and coatings, pharmaceuticals and food
products, and textiles. These products and materials
have been frequently used in everyday life of Trip-
oli inhabitants and then reached the Tripoli landfill
as solid waste. It is interesting to note that PAEs are
not chemically but only physically bound to the poly-
meric matrix. Thus, they can be easily released from
the waste containing PAEs to the leachate (Net etal.,
2015b). DEHP was the most detected followed by
DEP, DnBP, BBP, and DMP with concentration of
1624, 1010, 35, 3, and 1µg l1 in unit A and 2187,
645, 57, 2, and 1µg l1 in unit B, respectively. DnOP
is under LOQ for both units. Our results were similar
to previous studied with references herein (He etal.,
2009; Kalmykova etal., 2013; Öman & Junestedt,
High level of DEHP could be due to the wide and
abundant in material and products used in everyday
life. DEHP could be persistence in Tripoli land-
fill since it was detected at high concentration even
in the old unit (A) after more than 40years of waste
storage. All types of rubbish including PVC prod-
ucts have been dumped into Tripoli landfill without
sorting, which can be the important source of DEHP.
Indeed, DEHP is abundantly used as PCV plasticiz-
ers (Kalmykova etal., 2013; Net etal., 2015b). Also,
other types of waste might be the sources of PAEs in
Tripoli landfill like fibers, lubricants, cosmetics, and
pharmaceutical residue (Peijnenburg, 2008). Figure5
shows the PAEs composition profile in leachate of
unit A and unit B from September 2017 to September
Phenolics and its derivatives composition profile
The results of phenolic compounds are shown in
Table3 and in Fig.6. The 4-nonylphenoland all BPs,
except for BPC, were found in leachate samples in
both units. Lower concentrations of the Σ4BPs were
found in unit A at 277–422µg l1 (340µg l1 of
average) versus 359–596µg l1 (419µg l1) in unit
B. The Σ4BPs are in the same range of which found
in the Japanese landfills (0.009–3600µg l1, aver-
age of 230µg l1) and higher than which reported for
the leachate in south Lebanon (Borjac etal., 2019;
Kurata etal., 2008). A minor deviation of BPs con-
centration was observed between the sampling period
Sep 2017 Dec 2017 Feb 2018 Apr 2018 Jun 2018 Sep 2018
Fig. 6 Phenolic compound prole in leachate of unit A and unit B from September 2017 to September 2018 in µg l1
Environ Monit Assess (2022) 194:856
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for both units, which might be due to the seasonal
variation (Asakura etal., 2004; Urase & Miyashita,
2003). Different concentrations of BPs were observed
between units A and B, which might be due to the
stability of BPs with time. The levels of BPs in solid
waste landfill leachates depend on the types of waste.
The BPs in leachate can be due to the landfilling of
many wastes containing BPs like food contact materi-
als (Česen etal., 2016; Liao & Kannan, 2013), digital
media, electronic equipment, medical instruments,
pipes and toys (Chen etal., 2016), thermal paper
(Skledar & Mašič, 2016), dyes, and leather tanning
products (Cao etal., 2012).
The 4-nonylphenolwere detected at 173µg l1
(140–200µg l1) in unit A and 188µg l1
(155–276µg l1) in unit B. The detected values are
much higher than which found in Japanese landfills
at 0.027–6.4µg l1 (Kurata etal., 2008), and in Swe-
den at 0.1–7.3µg l1 (Kalmykova etal., 2013). The
high levels of 4-nonylphenol could be explained by
the disposal of detergent containers, paints, personal
care products, plastics, incombustible, and incinera-
tion residues (Kurata etal., 2008). The PBs in Tripoli
landfill leachates are thought to be important pollut-
ants and pose a high risk to the surrounding environ-
ment and human. For example, BPA can cause a pro-
found effect on organism at low centration. Indeed,
BPA can impact on the endocrine and reproductive
systems, on the nervous systemand has genotoxicity
caracter and many others (Xing etal., 2022).
Fluxes andpotential sources totheAbou Ali River
andMediterranean Sea
The annual rainfall and the surface of landfill were
determined at 700mm/year and 60000 m2 respec-
tively. If the total among of rainfall on the landfill
surface solubilize pollutants containing in the land-
fill and then, they throw in the Abou Ali River and
Mediterranean Sea, the annual volume of leachate
throw out is approximately 42000 m3/year. A rough
estimation of the pollutant inputs of the Tripoli land-
fill to the Abou Ali River and then to the Mediter-
ranean Sea can be estimated by the contaminant
flux by multiplying the concentrations measured
with the corresponding annual volume of leachate.
The annual fluxes of xenobiotic organic pollutants
thrown out from the Tripoli landfill to the Abou
Ali River and Mediterranean Sea were calculated at
0.23kg, 0.01kg, 116.85kg, 15.93kg, and 7.58kg
for Σ16PAHs, Σ28PCBs, Σ6PAEs, Σ4BPs, and 4-NP,
respectively. These assessments givean imageabout
the pollution effect of Tripoli landfill on the Abou Ali
estuary andMediterraneanSea. In view of this result,
the flow of PAEs, BPs, and 4-NP were significant
and can strongly impact the ecosystem functioning
due to their potential impact on the endocrine system
of wild flora and fauna (Net etal., 2015b; Xing etal.,
2022). Moreover, a recent study conducted by our
group showed high contamination level of physico-
chemical parameter and metallic pollutants in Tripoli
leachate. The annual fluxes of TDS, COD, chloride,
BOD, TKN, ammonium, TSS, VSS, sulfates, total
phosphorus, and nitrates were 711 tons, 577 tons,
253 tons, 207 tons, 137 tons, 96 tons, 58, 38 tons, 25
tons, 7 tons, and 3 tons, respectively. And, the annual
fluxes of the Σ21metals achieved 217 tons (Moustafa
etal., 2022).
Due to the absence of waste management strategy in
Lebanon, environmental pollution generated from
uncontrolled landfills become more complicated to
manage especially in big cities like Tripoli. The con-
centration of fifty-five organic pollutants including 16
PAHs, 28 PCBs, 6 PAEs, 4 BPs, and 4-nonylphenol in
the leachate of Tripoli landfill has been investigated.
The concentration of the selected xenobiotic organic
pollutants in leachate collected from old unit is lower
than which collected from new unit, which may be due
to the age and the transformation of waste in each unit.
The concentration of carcinogenic POPs detected the
high level in leachate and thus may cause high toxic-
ity. Among the selected compounds, the highest levels
were determined for PAEs and followed by phenolic
compounds (PBs and 4-nonyl phenol). It is worth to
note that PAEs and phenolic compounds are known
as endocrine disruptor compounds. The annual fluxes
of Σ6PAEs, Σ4BPs, and 4-NP were estimated, respec-
tively, at 116.85kg, 15.93, and 7.58kg to the Abou
Ali River and Mediterranean Sea. The release of these
endocrine disruptor compounds may impact on the
ecosystem functioning.
There are no landfills for chemical and hazardous
waste in Lebanon, and the results of the present study
Environ Monit Assess (2022) 194:856
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reflect the historical use of chemicals and provide
additional insight into the nature of wastes eliminated
at Tripoli landfill. The disposable of waste containing
POPs in a municipal solid waste landfill harms envi-
ronmental and human health. It is clear that stopping
the dumping of hazardous waste into Tripoli landfill
is one of the solutions to prevent the damage. The
treatment of the leachate becomes the necessity to
reduce the impacts on the surrounding environment
and particularly the Abou Ali River and coastal area
nearby. That summons attention from the national
authorities to stop the landfilling of hazardous waste
in a municipal solid waste landfill and to stop the
drainage of leachate to the water resources and also
the citizens to stop any touristic activities and reap
seafood in the study area.
Acknowledgements The authors are grateful for the techni-
cal support provided by CPER CLIMBIO project. We acknowl-
edge the nancial support from the “Agence Universitaire de la
Francophonie (AUF)” of Tripoli, North Lebanon, which pro-
vided a PhD scholarship for Ahmad Moustafa.
Author contribution Moustafa A and Net S conducted
the experiments and analyzed the data. Hamzeh, Baroudi M,
and Ouddane B assisted in the experiments and discussed the
results. Moustafa A and Net S wrote the manuscript and drew
the graphs. All the co-authors revised and approved the nal
Funding Ahmad Moustafa is nancially supported by a PhD
fellowship from the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie
(AUF)” of Tripoli, North Lebanon.
Data availability The authors declare that all relevant data
supporting the ndings of this study are included in this article.
Conflict of interest The authors declare no competing inter-
Disclaimer The funders had no role in the writing of the man-
uscript or in the decision and use of data.
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... Indeed, both BPs and PAEs are well-known environmental pollutants, which have been detected in every natural compartment, including air, soil, sediments, fresh and marine waters (Xie et al., 2007;Zeng et al., 2009;Ben Sghaier et al., 2017;Paluselli et al., 2018;Moustafa et al., 2022;Torres-García et al., 2022;Xing et al., 2022), as well as in the tissues of several animal species (Kang et al., 2007;Koelmans et al., 2014;Nehring et al., 2017;Routti et al., 2021). Both in vivo and in vitro studies have proven their toxic effects to living organisms. ...
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Bisphenols (BPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) are important compounds for the plastics industry, also called “everywhere chemicals” due to their ubiquity in daily use products. Both chemical groups are well-known environmental contaminants, whose presence has been reported in all environmental compartments, and whose effects, mainly associated to endocrine disruption, are detrimental to living organisms. Cetaceans, due to their long life-span, low reproduction rate and high position in the trophic web, are especially vulnerable to the effects of contaminants. However, little is known about BP and PAE concentrations in cetacean tissues, their potential relation to individual biological variables, or their trends over time. Here, the concentration of 10 BPs and 13 PAEs was assessed in the muscle of 30 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Spanish Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) between 1990 and 2018. Six BP and 6 PAE compounds were detected, of which only 4,4′-(cyclohexane-1,1-diyl)diphenol (BPZ) was detected in all the samples, at the highest concentration (mean 16.06 μg g−1 lipid weight). Sex or reproductive condition were largely uninfluential on concentrations: only dimethylphthalate (DMP) concentrations were significantly higher in immature individuals than in adults, and the overall PAE concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females. Temporal variations were only detected in bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane (BPE), diethylphthalate (DEP) and dimethylphthalate (DMP), whose concentrations were lower, and 9,9-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene (BPFL), which were higher, respectively, in samples taken between 2014 and 2018, probably reflecting shifts in the production and use of these chemicals. These results provide the first assessment of concentrations of several BP and PAE compounds in the muscle of an odontocete cetacean.
Emerging contaminants (ECs) are commonly found in environmental media. Yet leachate from municipal solid waste incineration plants (MSWIPs), which can serve as a reservoir for various contaminants, including ECs, has received little investigation. To address this gap, 65 ECs were analyzed in the fresh leachate and biological effluent from three major MSWIPs in Shanghai. Results indicated that over half (56%) of the 65 ECs were detected in fresh leachate. Different ECs would be removed to varying degrees after biological treatment, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (65%), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (51%), phthalate esters (PAEs) (36%), and organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (34%). Notably, for tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a PBDE substitute, only 2% was removed after biological treatment, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were effectively removed at 83%. Water solubility and the octanol-water partition coefficient are key factors influencing the distribution and removal of ECs in leachate. the effluent will still contain refractory ECs even after the biological treatment. These residual ECs discharged to sewers can impact wastewater treatment plants or contaminate surface water and groundwater. These findings provide insights into the leachate contamination by ECs, their environmental fate, factors affecting their behavior, and potential environmental impacts.
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Environmental pollution generated from uncontrolled dumping is a major problem in Lebanon due to the lack of proper waste management plans. Deir Kanoun Ras El Ain is the village that harbors the worst dumps in Lebanon. Wastewater leachates of this dump influx into an adjacent nearby canal used for irrigation and drinking purposes. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg) and the presence of organic compounds (phthalates, bisphenol A, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) in water samples collected from two different sites around the dump and two canal sites during winter and summer seasons. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while the identification of the extracted organic compounds was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (HPLC–MS). The carried analyses revealed that water samples collected from dump and canal were heavily polluted by Cd, As, Hg, phthalates, bisphenol A, and PAHs caused by pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The concentrations of the found heavy metals were far above the maximum tolerable levels set by different guidelines. The findings suggest that the studied water sources are not safe for irrigation and drinking. The serious implications of dumping wastes on the health of inhabitants recall for an immediate employment of efficient waste management policies to resolve this problem. Keywords: Environmental science, Dump, Contamination, Heavy metals, Organic compounds, Water pollution
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Lebanon appears as the bad student in solid waste management (SWM) in Middle East Region, varying techniques of SWM is currently practiced in different parts of the country, a comprehensive approach to SWM in Lebanon is still now virtually absent, slow burning and uncontrolled dumping on hillsides and seashores are still common methods practiced for solid waste disposal. Except SWM in the Greater Beirut Area (GBA), solid waste continues to be managed in a manner that is not protective of either human health and/or the environment. Even in the extended GBA, serious questions are raised about the policy commitments to promoting and eventually requiring sustainable and environmentally friendly SWM practices. Tripoli (second city and capital of North Lebanon) is facing an environmental disaster; the actual landfill is over saturated and can collapse in any moment causing dangerous damage in the environment. Landfill must be closed in 2012, but continue to dump waste in reason of lack an alternative new site. Certainly, the trend will be changing and there will a great deal of effort to develop integrated SWM systems for most areas in Lebanon, particularly large urban areas. These efforts center on the construction of controlled sanitary landfills in combination with sorting, recycling, and composting facilities or waste-to-energy systems (incinerator or biological anaerobic plant).
The failure of the waste management system and the distribution of uncontrolled dumpsites across Lebanon has turned this small state into a source of major environmental concern in the Eastern Mediterranean. The coastline of Lebanon hosts several landfills, such as the Tripoli Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, which are often poorly studied. The situation is particularly concerning because the drainage of their untreated leachate often seeps into the surrounding water systems including the Mediterranean Sea and nearby ricers. In the case of the Tripoli Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, no previous studies have investigated the composition of this leachate and its effect on the surrounding water systems. The aim of this study is to assess the seasonal variation of leachate characteristics in this landfill’s two units and their potential of contamination on the nearby Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea. In accord with the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 40 leachate quality parameters (19 physicochemical, and 21 metals) were monitored for two years. The results of this study showed the heterogeneous state of the landfill’s body. Leachate quantity and quality heavily depended on weather conditions. The annual fluxes of chemical oxygen demand, chloride, biological oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, sulphates, and total phosphorus, were 577 tons, 253 tons, 207 tons, 38 tons, 25 tons, and 7 tons, respectively. The annual fluxes of the Σ21metals achieved 217 tons. The leachate pollution index of Tripoli’s landfill indicates its high contaminating potential on Abou Ali River and Mediterranean Sea.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic organic compound that is mainly used in the production of polymer materials polycarbonate and epoxy resin. Widespread use and irregular processing methods have led to BPA being detected globally, raising concerns about its environmental and health effects. This review outlines an overview of the presence and removal of BPA in the environment and consumer products. We also summarized the endocrine-disrupting toxicity of BPA, and the relatively less summarized neurotoxicity, cytotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Human exposure data show that humans have been exposed to low concentrations of BPA for a long time, future research should focus on the long-term exposure and the migration of BPA from consumer products to humans and the possible health risks associated with human exposure to BPA. Exploring economical and effective methods to reduce and remove BPA from the environment is imperative. The development of safe, functional and reproducible BPA analogs and the study of its degradation products can be the focus of subsequent research.
We reviewed 194 studies concerning POPs in Mediterranean basin; 38% were related to the origin and emission sources, as well as their physico-chemical properties and transport processes and 62% were related to ∑10-26PAHs and ∑7-41PCBs distribution in Mediterranean basin. Only 57% of Mediterranean countries with coasts on the Mediterranean Sea, have a published research papers about POPs. As results of the survey study: Italy, France, Spain and Egypt were identified as the main polluted Mediterranean countries. The highest concentrations were reported at areas influenced by harbor and industrial activities as the case of Gulf of Taranto (Italy), Lazaret Bay (France) and Napels Bay (Italy). However, lack of data is available for some area. We can suggest that Mediterranean Sea is in critical situation and some measures whether on global and regional scale were recommended in order to protect it and save the natural resources for the future generations.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management remains a challenge in developing countries due to increasing waste generation, high costs associated with waste management and the structure of the containment systems implemented. This study analyses the classification of landfilling systems by using documented cases reported mainly in publications in waste management in relation to non-engineered landfilling systems/approved dumpsites in Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries from 2000 to 2018. The work identifies an existing system for the classification of landfill sites and utilises this system to determine the situation of landfill sites in SSA countries. Each article was categorised according to the main landfilling management practice reported: Uncontrolled dumping, semi controlled facility, medium controlled facility, medium/high-engineered facility or high state-of the-art facility. Findings suggested that 80% of the documented cases of landfill sites assessed in SSA countries were classified as level 0 or 1. The structure of the containment and controlled regime were identified by the focus group discussion participants as important predictors of possible strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the landfill sites considered. The study represents the first identifiable and comprehensive academic evaluation of landfill site classification based on site operations reported in the available peer reviewed literature. The information provides insight on the status of landfill sites in SSA countries with respect to the landfilling management practice and a baseline for alternative corrective measures.
This review paper summarizes the occurrence, removal and ecological risk of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) reported in landfill leachate in China since 1996 (43 studies in 10 regions). Results show that many more studies are conducted in developed southeastern China than in developing western and northeastern regions in China. Phthalate esters (PAEs, with 15 studies) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs, with 13 studies) are the two most frequently studied CEC classes. Concentrations of nine CECs classes were in a wide range from 0.03 (organochlorine pesticides) to approximately 4500 μg/L (alkylphenol polyethoxylates/bisphenol analog). Meanwhile, concentrations of CEC compounds range from below detection limit (e.g. doxycycline) to approximately 4500 μg/L (bisphenol A). Several PAEs (diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) and PPCPs (diclofenac and gemfibrizol) have significant variation between sampling sites. Typically, advanced treatment processes can achieve higher removal efficiencies of CEC compounds from landfill leachate compared with conventional treatment processes. Furthermore, environmental risk assessments of CEC compounds in treated landfill leachate using a risk quotient method show that 2 (substituted) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (sPAHs) (benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), 2 PPCPs (bezafibrate and sulfapyridine), γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, and bisphenol A pose high risk. The importance of monitoring and potential risks of CECs in the leachate to vicinity aquatic environment cross China is addressed.
Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) are a group of emerging organic contaminants that have become a serious issue because of their ubiquitous presence and hazardous impact on the marine environment worldwide. Seawater samples were collected monthly from December 2013 to November 2014 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Marseille Bay). The samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as well as the molecular distribution of dissolved PAEs by using solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. The results demonstrated the occurrence of six PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), with total concentrations ranging from 130 to 1330ngL-1 (av. 522ngL-1). In Marseille Bay, the highest concentrations were detected in the bottom water from June to November 2014 and in the whole water column during the winter mixing period. This result suggests that resuspension of PAE-rich sediment, in relation to the accumulation of plastic debris above the seabed, or the higher degradation rate in the upper layer of the water column, plays a significant role in the PAE dynamics in coastal water. DEHP was the most abundant PAE in all of the surface samples and the summer bottom samples, followed by DiBP and DnBP, which also represent the largest fractions in the other bottom samples.
A sensitive and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water was developed and validated. This quantification method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by a derivatization with BSTFA and finally the seven EDCs were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A 23 factorial design was used to optimize the extraction procedure. Three factors, namely sample volume, elution solvent, and pH of sample were investigated using Doehlert matrix. The optimal conditions of SPE method were: HLB cartridge, 540 mL of water sample with a pH 8 and 10 mL of mixture of ethyl acetate/acetone with a ratio of (55/45, v/v) in the elution step. For validation of the technique, accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity were determined. Extraction recovery of these seven EDCs were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD) ≤ 2%. The method limit of detection and limit of quantification were in the range of 0.33–3.33 and 1–10 ng/L, respectively.