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The Hind Wing of Coleoptera (Insecta): Morphology, Nomenclature and Phylogenetic Significance: Part 2. Further Discussion, Histeroidea, Bostrichoidea to Curculionoidea

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Abstract

Part 2 of this work includes a review of morphological and systematic work on Histeridae (G07, revision), Bostrichoidea (G15), Coccinelloidea (G16), Lymexyloidea + Tenebrionoidea (G17), Cleroidea (G18), Cucujoidea (G19), Chrysomeloidea (G20) and Curculionoidea (G21), discussions of hind wing structure in each group based on 702 wing images, references to additional published figures and comments on wing morphology and, if possible, how these wing features may or may not be correlated with recent phylogenetic hypotheses. The introduction is followed by brief discussions of some important works not mentioned in Part 1, particularly those dealing with relationships of extinct taxa.

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... Elytra completely covering abdomen, apex rounded jointly. Hind wing (Lawrence et al. 2022: Fig 15A-B) complete radial cell; medial field with five free veins, wedge cell well developed. Mesoventrite (Fig. 10A) narrow, procoxal rests separated by median ridge, without groove posteriorly. ...
... Elytra not completely covering abdomen, each elytron broadly rounded apically (Fig. 23A). Hind wing (Lawrence et al. 2022: Fig. 15B) with radial cell complete and anal region with two free veins. Mesoventrite with procoxal rests narrowly separated by median groove extending from middle to posterior margin. ...
... Elytra not completely covering abdomen, each separately rounded apically. Hind wing with complete radial cell (Lawrence et al. 2022 : Fig. 15A); median field with 2-3 veins. Mesoventrite with shallow procoxal rests narrowly separated by complete median groove bordered by carinae. ...
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A review of genus-group names for darkling beetles in the family Tenebrionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) is presented. A catalogue of 4122 nomenclaturally available genus-group names, representing 2307 valid genera (33 of which are extinct) and 761 valid subgenera, is given. For each name the author, date, page number, gender, type species, type fixation, current status, and first synonymy (when the name is a synonym) are provided. Genus-group names in this family are also recorded in a classification framework, along with data on the distribution of valid genera and subgenera within major biogeographical realms. A list of 535 unavailable genus-group names (e.g., incorrect subsequent spellings) is included. Notes on the date of publication of references cited herein are given, when known. The following genera and subgenera are made available for the first time: Anemiadena Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Cheirodes Gené, 1839), Armigena Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Nesogena Mäklin, 1863), Debeauxiella Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Hyperops Eschscholtz, 1831), Hyperopsis Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Hyperops Eschscholtz, 1831), Linio Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Nilio Latreille, 1802), Matthewsotys Bouchard & Bousquet, gen. nov. , Neosolenopistoma Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Eurynotus W. Kirby, 1819), Paragena Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Nesogena Mäklin, 1863), Paulianaria Bouchard & Bousquet, gen. nov. , Phyllechus Bouchard & Bousquet, gen. nov. , Prorhytinota Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Rhytinota Eschscholtz, 1831), Pseudorozonia Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Rozonia Fairmaire, 1888), Pseudothinobatis Bouchard & Bousquet, gen. nov. , Rhytinopsis Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Thalpophilodes Strand, 1942), Rhytistena Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Rhytinota Eschscholtz, 1831), Spinosdara Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Osdara Walker, 1858), Spongesmia Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Adesmia Fischer, 1822), and Zambesmia Bouchard & Bousquet, subgen. nov. (in Adesmia Fischer, 1822). The names Adeps Gistel, 1857 and Adepsion Strand, 1917 syn. nov. [= Tetraphyllus Laporte & Brullé, 1831], Asyrmatus Canzoneri, 1959 syn. nov. [= Pystelops Gozis, 1910], Euzadenos Koch, 1956 syn. nov. [= Selenepistoma Dejean, 1834], Gondwanodilamus Kaszab, 1969 syn. nov. [= Conibius J.L. LeConte, 1851], Gyrinodes Fauvel, 1897 syn. nov. [= Nesotes Allard, 1876], Helopondrus Reitter, 1922 syn. nov. [= Horistelops Gozis, 1910], Hybonotus Dejean, 1834 syn. nov. [= Damatris Laporte, 1840], Iphthimera Reitter, 1916 syn. nov. [= Metriopus Solier, 1835], Lagriomima Pic, 1950 syn. nov. [= Neogria Borchmann, 1911], Orphelops Gozis, 1910 syn. nov. [= Nalassus Mulsant, 1854], Phymatium Billberg, 1820 syn. nov. [= Cryptochile Latreille, 1828], Prosoblapsia Skopin & Kaszab, 1978 syn. nov. [= Genoblaps Bauer, 1921], and Pseudopimelia Gebler, 1859 syn. nov. [= Lasiostola Dejean, 1834] are established as new synonyms (valid names in square brackets). Anachayus Bouchard & Bousquet, nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Chatanayus Ardoin, 1957, Genateropa Bouchard & Bousquet, nom. nov. as a replacement name for Apterogena Ardoin, 1962, Hemipristula Bouchard & Bousquet, nom. nov. as a replacement name for Hemipristis Kolbe, 1903, Kochotella Bouchard & Bousquet, nom. nov. as a replacement name for Millotella Koch, 1962, Medvedevoblaps Bouchard & Bousquet, nom. nov. as a replacement name for Protoblaps G.S. Medvedev, 1998, and Subpterocoma Bouchard & Bousquet, nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Pseudopimelia Motschulsky, 1860. Neoeutrapela Bousquet & Bouchard, 2013 is downgraded to a subgenus ( stat. nov. ) of Impressosora Pic, 1952. Anchomma J.L. LeConte, 1858 is placed in Stenosini: Dichillina (previously in Pimeliinae: Anepsiini); Entypodera Gerstaecker, 1871, Impressosora Pic, 1952 and Xanthalia Fairmaire, 1894 are placed in Lagriinae: Lagriini: Statirina (previously in Lagriinae: Lagriini: Lagriina); Loxostethus Triplehorn, 1962 is placed in Diaperinae: Diaperini: Diaperina (previously in Diaperinae: Diaperini: Adelinina); Periphanodes Gebien, 1943 is placed in Stenochiinae: Cnodalonini (previously in Tenebrioninae: Helopini); Zadenos Laporte, 1840 is downgraded to a subgenus ( stat. nov. ) of the older name Selenepistoma Dejean, 1834. The type species [placed in square brackets] of the following available genus-group names are designated for the first time: Allostrongylium Kolbe, 1896 [ Allostrongylium silvestre Kolbe, 1896], Auristira Borchmann, 1916 [ Auristira octocostata Borchmann, 1916], Blapidocampsia Pic, 1919 [ Campsia pallidipes Pic, 1918], Cerostena Solier, 1836 [ Cerostena deplanata Solier, 1836], Coracostira Fairmaire, 1899 [ Coracostira armipes Fairmaire, 1899], Dischidus Kolbe, 1886 [ Helops sinuatus Fabricius, 1801], Eccoptostoma Gebien, 1913 [ Taraxides ruficrus Fairmaire, 1894], Ellaemus Pascoe, 1866 [ Emcephalus submaculatus Brême, 1842], Epeurycaulus Kolbe, 1902 [ Epeurycaulus aldabricus Kolbe, 1902], Euschatia Solier, 1851 [ Euschatia proxima Solier, 1851], Heliocaes Bedel, 1906 [ Blaps emarginata Fabricius, 1792], Hemipristis Kolbe, 1903 [ Hemipristis ukamia Kolbe, 1903], Iphthimera Reitter, 1916 [ Stenocara ruficornis Solier, 1835], Isopedus Stein, 1877 [ Helops tenebrioides Germar, 1813], Malacova Fairmaire, 1898 [ Malacova bicolor Fairmaire, 1898], Modicodisema Pic, 1917 [ Disema subopaca Pic, 1912], Peltadesmia Kuntzen, 1916 [ Metriopus platynotus Gerstaecker, 1854], Phymatium Billberg, 1820 [ Pimelia maculata Fabricius, 1781], Podoces Péringuey, 1886 [ Podoces granosula Péringuey, 1886], Pseuduroplatopsis Pic, 1913 [ Borchmannia javana Pic, 1913], Pteraulus Solier, 1848 [ Pteraulus sulcatipennis Solier, 1848], Sciaca Solier, 1835 [ Hylithus disctinctus Solier, 1835], Sterces Champion, 1891 [ Sterces violaceipennis Champion, 1891] and Teremenes Carter, 1914 [ Tenebrio longipennis Hope, 1843]. Evidence suggests that some type species were misidentified. In these instances, information on the misidentification is provided and, in the following cases, the taxonomic species actually involved is fixed as the type species [placed in square brackets] following requirements in Article 70.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: Accanthopus Dejean, 1821 [ Tenebrio velikensis Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783], Becvaramarygmus Masumoto, 1999 [ Dietysus nodicornis Gravely, 1915], Heterophaga Dejean, 1834 [ Opatrum laevigatum Fabricius, 1781], Laena Dejean, 1821, [ Scaurus viennensis Sturm, 1807], Margus Dejean, 1834 [ Colydium castaneum Herbst, 1797], Pachycera Eschscholtz, 1831 [ Tenebrio buprestoides Fabricius, 1781], Saragus Erichson, 1842 [ Celibe costata Solier, 1848], Stene Stephens, 1829 [ Colydium castaneum Herbst, 1797], Stenosis Herbst, 1799 [ Tagenia intermedia Solier, 1838] and Tentyriopsis Gebien, 1928 [ Tentyriopsis pertyi Gebien, 1940]. The following First Reviser actions are proposed to fix the precedence of names or nomenclatural acts (rejected name or act in square brackets): Stenosis ciliaris Gebien, 1920 as the type species for Afronosis G.S. Medvedev, 1995 [ Stenosis leontjevi G.S. Medvedev, 1995], Alienoplonyx Bremer, 2019 [ Alienolonyx ], Amblypteraca Mas-Peinado, Buckley, Ruiz & García-París, 2018 [ Amplypteraca ], Caenocrypticoides Kaszab, 1969 [ Caenocripticoides ], Deriles Motschulsky, 1872 [ Derilis ], Eccoptostira Borchmann, 1936 [ Ecoptostira ], † Eodromus Haupt, 1950 [† Edromus ], Eutelus Solier, 1843 [ Lutelus ], Euthriptera Reitter, 1893 [ Enthriptera ], Meglyphus Motschulsky, 1872 [ Megliphus ], Microtelopsis Koch, 1940 [ Extetranosis Koch, 1940, Hypermicrotelopsis Koch, 1940], Neandrosus Pic, 1921 [ Neoandrosus ], Nodosogylium Pic, 1951 [ Nodosogilium ], Notiolesthus Motschulsky, 1872 [ Notiolosthus ], Pseudeucyrtus Pic, 1916 [ Pseudocyrtus ], Pseudotrichoplatyscelis Kaszab, 1960 [ Pseudotrichoplatynoscelis and Pseudotrichoplatycelis ], Rhydimorpha Koch, 1943 [ Rhytimorpha ], Rhophobas Motschulsky, 1872 [ Rophobas ], Rhyssochiton Gray, 1831 [ Ryssocheton and Ryssochiton ], Sphaerotidius Kaszab, 1941 [ Spaerotidius ], Stira Agassiz, 1846 (Mollusca) [ Stira Agassiz, 1846 (Coleoptera)], Sulpiusoma Ferrer, 2006 [ Sulpiosoma ] and Taenobates Motschulsky, 1872 [ Taeniobates ]. Supporting evidence is provided for the conservation of usage of Cyphaleus Westwood, 1841 nomen protectum over Chrysobalus Boisduval, 1835 nomen oblitum.
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Acritus sutirca sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber on the basis of one adult male specimen. As the first extinct member of the subfamily Abraeinae (Histeridae) and the smallest known fossil histerid specimen, this material was examined using a combination of light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT). Internal features of the abdomen are well preserved, allowing us to study sclero-tized parts of the aedeagus and illustrate these structures in detail. The current finding expands the range of known Histeridae diversity from the Eocene (48-34 Ma) "amber forests" of Europe. The absolute size limits and the probable average size for Baltic amber coleopteran inclusions are also briefly discussed (urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A2B17479-8628-47C7-A8D4-3E0789BF088B).
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The Leptolycini are a group of Lycidae endemic to the West Indies. Leptolycini adult females have been hypothesized to be extreme paedomorphic (i.e., larviform), however, females and larvae of the group are currently unknown. Here we provide the first association of adult male and immature life stages from the Puerto Rico using DNA barcoding, also collections-based associations and descriptions of immature Leptolycini and the first description of a paedomorphic female from the Virgin Islands. To carry out these life-stage associations we prepared an in-depth review of the Leptolycini fauna of the Puerto Rican bank (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands). Several new taxa and taxonomic arrangements are proposed: Cessator crypticusnew species, Cessator tortolensisnew species, Cessator obrienorumnew species; Dracolycus chupacabranew genus and species, Dracolycus marshallinew species; Leptolycus falsoheterocornisnew species, and Leptolycus viensisnew species. Nanolycus gnomus Kazantsev is moved to Cessator gnomus (Kazantsev) new combination, rendering Nanolycus Kazantsev a new junior synonym of Cessator Kazantsev. The subgenus Baholycus Bocak is a new junior synonym of Leptolycus Leng and Mutchler. Leptolycus heterocornis var. flavicollis Leng and Mutchler is elevated to Leptolycus flavicollis Leng and Mutchler new status; Leptolycus (Leptolycus) albicauda Kazantsev is a new junior synonym of Leptolycus flavicollis Leng and Mutchler. An updated key to the adults and immature forms of Leptolycini from the Puerto Rican bank and a discussion on the importance of scientific collections in biodiversity studies is also provided.
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The hide, larder and carpet beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) are a family of mainly scavenger beetles, with numerous species such as the khapra beetle , the black carpet beetle and the hide beetle, being widely recognised as serious economic pests of stored products and museum collections. In this study we examined and sequenced mitochondrial genomes of 477 dermestid specimens, representing all subfamilies and 90% of tribes and subtribes. Our study provides the most comprehensive, taxonomically verified and vouchered resource of mitochondrial reference sequences and occurrence records of pests and their relatives, enabling eDNA surveys, metabarcoding and molecular species identification. It also reconstructs the phylogeny of Dermestidae based on molecular and morphological data for the first time, thereby providing robust phylogenetic hypotheses for a stable classification system from family to genus-level. Accordingly, a revised classification of Dermestidae with formal nomenclatural changes is proposed, recognising six subfamilies: Orphilinae, Trinodinae, Trogoparvinae subfam. nov. (type genus Trogoparvus Háva, 2001), Dermestinae, Attageninae and Megatominae. Attageninae is strongly supported and includes the monogeneric Adelaidiini and polygenic Attagenini. Former subgenera of Attagenus Latreille are elevated to generic level. The largest clade, Megatominae, is confirmed as monophyletic and is divided into three tribes. Megatomini is divided into three subtribes: Megatomina, Orphinina subtribe nov. and Trogodermina. Within the economically important lineage Trogodermina, Trogoderma is delimited to contain Holarctic species including the Khapra beetle T. granarium, while a Southern Hemisphere clade is here recognised as Eurhopalus Solier in Gay. A revised classification of the extant genera of Dermestidae is also provided.
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General review of the taxonomy and composition of the subfamily Cillaeinae with description of Conotelini trib. nov. (type genus: Conotelus Erichson, 1843 with some necessary notes on the position and rank of some recent and fossil taxa are given. The rank of the following supraspecific taxa are changed: former subgenus Paracillaeopsis Kirejtshuk, 2001 is now regarded as a separate genus (stat. nov.) and former genus Grouvellepeplus Kirejtshuk, 2001 is considered to be a subgenus (stat. nov.) of the genus Liparopeplus Murray, 1864. There is completed a revision of all cillaeine genera and species found in Australia and some others from adjacent territories, including the genera Adocimus Murray, 1864 with new subgenus Belonotus subgen. nov. (type species: Adocimus (Belonotus) bartenevi sp. nov.), Allenipeplus Kirejtshuk et Kovalev 2016, Brachypeplus Erichson, 1842, Brittonoma Kirejtshuk et Kovalev, 2016, Caledomus Kirejtshuk et Kovalev, 2017, Cillaeopeplus, Ithyphenes Murray, 1864, Laferollaeus gen. nov. (type species: Laferollaeus angustissimus sp. nov.), Matthewsianus gen. nov. (type species: Brachypeplus olliffi Blackburn, 1902), Onicotis Murray, 1864 and Oniphenes gen. nov. (type species: Oniphenes lobanovi sp. nov.). The following new species are described: Adocimus (Belonotus) bartenevi sp. nov., Brachypeplus instriatus sp. nov. B. makarovi sp. nov., B. nypicola sp. nov., Cillaeopeplus rectinotus sp. nov., C. temporalibus sp. nov., Ithyphenes australiaensis sp. nov., I. marinae sp. nov., I. rectifrons sp. nov., Matthewsianus polinae sp. nov., Oniphenes bicoloratus sp. nov., O, lobanovi sp. nov. and O. subunicolor sp. nov. The systematic placement is re-defined for the following species: Adocimus (Belonotus) modiglianii (Grouvelle, 1897), comb. nov. (former Cillaeus Laporte, 1835), A. (B.) nitidulus (Grouvelle, 1897), comb. nov. (former Brachypeplus), Brachypeplus cascus Powell et Cline, 2021, comb. nov. (former Palaeopeplus Powell et Cline, 2021), Brittonoma mandibulare (Kirejtshuk, 2011), comb. nov. and B. pygidiatum (Kirejtshuk, 2011), comb. nov. (former Brittonema Kirejtshuk, 2011), Campsopyga xanthura (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Hypodetus Murray, 1864), Cillaeopeplus rastrus (Gillogly, 1962), comb. nov. (former Cillaeus), Ithyphenes angustus (Grouvelle, 1917), comb. nov. (former Platynema Ritsema, 1885), I. breviceps (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma Murray, 1864), I. dentipes (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. fissiceps (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. fuscipennis (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. japonicus (Hisamatsu, 1985), comb. nov. (former Platynema), I. longiceps (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. olliffi (Ritsema, 1885), comb. nov. (former Platynema), I. planiceps (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. puncticeps (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. ritsemai (Grouvelle, 1897), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma), I. saundersii (Murray, 1864), comb. nov. (former Orthogramma) and Matthewsianus olliffi (Blackburn, 1902), comb. nov., (former Brachypeplus). The following generic and species names are considered to be junior synonyms (senior synonym listed first): Brachypeplus Erichson, 1842 = Palaeopeplus Powell et Cline, 2021, syn. nov.; Ithyphenes Murray, 1864 = Platynema Ritsema, 1885, syn. nov.; Adocimus bellus Murray, 1864 = A. nigripennis Reitter, 1880, syn. nov. and A. dimidiatus Reitter, 1877, syn. nov.; Nitidulopsis aequalis Walker, 1858 = Brachypeplus (Selis) pallidus Dasgupta et Pal, 2019, syn. nov. and B. (S.) riang Dasgupta, Pal et Hodge, 2015, syn. nov.; Brachypeplus (Brachypeplus) obesus Grouvelle, 1895 = B. (B.) arengae Kirejtshuk, 1994, syn. nov. and very probably B. (B.) registernus Dasgupta et Pal, 2019; Brachypeplus (Selis) apicalis Murray, 1864 = B. (S.) fimbriatus Reitter, 1880, syn. nov.; B. (S.) dorsalis Grouvelle, 1897 = B. (S.) decoratus Grouvelle, 1917, syn. nov. and very probably B. (S.) ornatus Grouvelle, 1914; Brachypeplus (Tasmus) basalis: Murray, 1864 = B. (T.) brevicornis Sharp, 1878, syn. nov.; Brachypeplus (Tasmus) binotatus Murray, 1864 = B. cowleyi Blackburn, 1902, syn. nov. = B. koebelei Blackburn, 1902 and B. murrayi Macleay, 1873, syn. nov.; Brachypeplus kemblensis Blackburn, 1902 = Brachypeplus mauli Gardner et Clasey, 1962, syn. nov.; Brachypeplus (Brachypeplus) macLeayi Murray, 1864 = B. inquilinus Lea 1912, syn. nov.; Brachypeplus olliffi Blackburn, 1902 = B. insignis Lea, 1925, syn. nov. Because of insufficiency of available material the synonymy of Brachypeplus (Brachypeplus) nitidulus Grouvelle, 1897 and Cillaeus modiglianii Grouvelle, 1897 (currently both in Adocimus (Belanotus subgen. nov.)) is considered preliminary. The recent studies of additional specimens make it possible to consider Brachypeplus apicalis Murray, 1864 and B. dorsalis Grouvelle, 1897 (previously synonymized by Kirejtshuk, 2005) as separate species. The lectotypes of the following species are designated: Adocimus nigripennis Reitter, 1880, Brachypeplus barronensis Blackburn, 1902, B. basalis Erichson, 1842, B. Cowleyi Blackburn, 1902, B. inquilinus Lea, 1912, B. insignis Lea, 1925, B. kemblensis Blackburn, 1902, B. Koebelei Blackburn, 1902, B. Murrayi Macleay, 1873, B. Olliffi Blackburn, 1902, B. planus Erichson, 1842, B. wattsensis Blackburn, 1902, B. xanthorrhoeae Lea, 1925, Brachypeplus (Brachypeplus) nitidulus Grouvelle, 1897, B. (B.) obesus Grouvelle, 1895, B. (Selis) apicalis Murray, 1864, B. (S.) caudalis Murray, 1864, B. (S.) dorsalis Grouvelle, 1897, B. (S.) fimbriatus Reitter, 1880, B. (Tasmus) binotatus Murray, 1864, B. (T.) blandus Murray, 1864, B. (T.) brevicornis Sharp, 1878, Cillaeus Modiglianii Grouvelle, 1897, Ithyphenes Bouchardi Grouvelle, 1907, I. Gestroi Reitter, 1880, Brachypeplus (Onicotis) auritus Murray, 1864, Orthogramma breviceps Murray, 1864, O. dentipes Murray, 1864. O. fuscipennis Murray, 1864 and Platynema Olliffi Ritsema, 1885 are designated. The composition of the genus Ithyphenes and synonymy of the names proposed for it (Orthogramma Murray, 1864, nec R.L., 1817 et Guenée, 1852 and Platynema) are discussed and substantiated. The erroneous identification of Brachypeplus macleayi invasive pest of bees in U.S.A. is corrected (Sagili et al. 2016 published these data with the wrong name “Brachypeplus basalis”). The mature larvae of Brachypeplus aff. instriatus sp. nov. and Onicotis auritus are described. The key to genera of the cillaeine genera from Australia and adjacent territories, and also keys to Australian and Tasmanian species of the genera Brachypeplus, Ithyphenes and Oniphenes gen. nov. are presented.
Article
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Seven species of Carpophilinae: Urophorus humeralis (Fabricius), Carpophilus (Carpophilus) jelineki Audisio & Kirejtshuk, Carpophilus (Carpophilus) obsoletus Erichson, Carpophilus (Carpophilus) flavipes Murray, Carpophilus (Myothorax) nepos Murray, Carpophilus (Ecnomorphus) plagiatipennis Motschulsky, and Carpophilus (Ecnomorphus) venkataramani Dasgupta, Pal & Powell sp. nov., are recorded from Tripura state of India. The genera and species are (re)described and a key to the genera and species of Carpophilinae of Tripura is given.
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The hind wings of all known families and most subfamilies of Coleoptera are illustrated, annotated and discussed utilising the terminology of Kukalová-Peck and Lawrence (2004), with a few changes in nomenclature suggested by the senior author. The beetle families are discussed in 21 groups, based on recent classifications of Coleoptera. For each of these groups, the most recent works on phylogeny and classification are reviewed, and the wing characters are discussed to determine if some of the wing features might support or refute relationships based on recent molecular and morphological analyses. Part 1 includes a general discussion of wing structure divided into the following sections: hind wing fields, veinal systems (including the history of wing nomenclature), wing folding, wing edge and embayments, hinges and bending zones, cross-veins and braces, cells and other landmarks. It is followed by discussion of the first 14 groups (Archostemata to Elateroidea), 15 figures supporting general discussions, and 426 labelled wing images of the discussed groups, representing 380 genera.
Article
Dermestidae (Bostrichoidea) exploit diverse food sources including fungal mycelia, but notably they as saprophagous, feeding on decomposing and dried flesh and keratin of animals and plants. Some of them live in spider webs, vertebrate and social insect nests, while others cause damage in human dwellings. Here, we use mitogenomics to reconstruct their phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies. We recovered serial splits of Orphilinae, Thorictinae + Dermestinae, Attageninae, Trinodinae and Megatominae, and we dated the origins of all subfamilies between the Middle Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous. Extant genera started their diversification in the Middle Cretaceous, except for Dermestes that originated in the Eocene. Mycetophagy, the likely feeding style of the common ancestor with Endecatomidae, was retained only by Orphilinae. Since the Late Jurassic, most dermestids have been saprophagous with the preference for desiccated tissue. We infer a scenario of feeding preferences from mycetophagy moving to saprophagy, always depending on food with low water content, followed by the shift from cryptic life in crevices and wood, to commensalism with social Hymenoptera, and ultimately feeding on angiosperm pollen as adults. The dependence on spider larders evolved already in the Early Cretaceous, but lineages with this specialized strategy remained species-poor. We date the origin of exploitation of vertebrate carcasses to the Eocene when modern mammalian fauna became dominant. The diversification of Megatominae (62% of known dermestids) and Attagenus Latreille (17%) coincides with the radiation of angiosperms.
Article
The systematics of Megalopodidae is not adequately known, in spite of it being a relatively small group of phytophagous beetles. The first phylogenetic analysis of Megalopodidae with a comprehensive generic representation (25 genera of 30 described, 10 subgenera and 77 species) is undertaken. A parsimony analysis under equal and implied weights was carried out based on 147 adult and larval morphological characters. Subfamilies Palophaginae and Zeugophorinae were recovered as monophyletic, by contrast with Megalopodinae, which proved to be paraphyletic. Atelederinae are proposed as a new subfamily. Also, three tribes and three subtribes within Megalopodinae are proposed: Leucasteini trib.n., Sphondyliini trib.n. and Megalopodini, the latter including Macrolophina subtrib.n., Temnaspidina subtrib.n. and Megalopodina. The genera Macrolopha, Kuilua, Poecilomorpha, Temnaspis, Antonaria, Agathomerus, Megalopus and Bothromegalopus were recovered as non‐monophyletic. New delimitations of the polyphyletic genera Poecilomorpha and Macrolopha are proposed, Clythraxeloma is resurrected, and the subgenera of Agathomerus are suppressed. The following new combinations are proposed: Kuilua apicata (Fairmaire), K. nyassae (Jacoby), Poecilomorpha cribricollis (Pic), P. minuta (Pic), Clythraxeloma assamensis (Jacoby), C. bipartita (Lacordaeri), C. discolineata (Pic), C. downesii (Baly), C. gerstaeckeri (Westwood), C. laosensis (Pic), C. maculata (Pic), C. mouhoti (Baly), C. nigrocyanea (Motschulsky), C. pretiosa (Reineck), Temnaspis tricoloripes (Pic) and Barticaria faciatus (Dalman). Clythraxeloma cyanipennis Kraatz is a restored combination. Distribution patterns of Megalopodidae largely conform to the breakup of Gondwanaland, with its main clades having particular distributions: Andean‐Australian (Palophaginae), Ethiopian (Leucasteini, Sphondyliini, and Macrolophina), Neotropical (Ateledrinae and Megalopodina) and Ethiopian‐Oriental‐Palaearctic (Temnaspidina the result of a secondary expansion. Zeugophorinae present a worldwide distribution, except for the Neotropical and Andean regions, which may be the result of geodispersal. The findings of the present study also shed light on groups with taxonomic issues, where phylogenetic analyses are strongly needed.
Article
The first fossil representative of the cleroid family Trogossitidae is described from mid‐Cretaceous Burmese amber. Microtrogossita qizhihaoi Li & Cai gen. et sp. nov. is unique among Trogossitidae in the relatively widely separated procoxal and mesocoxal cavities, weakly asymmetrical antennal clubs, coarsely facetted eyes, coarse sculpture of dorsal and ventral surfaces of thorax in comparison with tiny body size, and the absence of spines along side margin of tibiae. Morphological characters of the fossil were analyzed together with representatives of 44 extant genera of Cleroidea (Peltidae, Lophocateridae, and Trogossitidae) in a matrix of 93 characters. Microtrogossita qizhihaoi was resolved as a member of Trogossitini within Trogossitidae. The tribal composition of Trogossitidae is discussed in light of our re‐analysis of a previously published four‐gene dataset under a site‐heterogeneous model. The recently described lophocaterid Mesolophocateres pengweii Yu, Leschen & Ślipiński syn. nov. from Burmese amber is suggested to be a junior synonym of Burmacateres longicoxa Kolibáč & Peris. The first fossil representative of the cleroid family Trogossitidae is described from mid‐Cretaceous Burmese amber. Microtrogossita qizhihaoi Li & Cai gen. et sp. nov. has a unique character combination among Trogossitidae. The fossil was resolved as a member of Trogossitini within Trogossitidae based on a morphological phylogenetic analysis. The tribal composition of Trogossitidae is discussed in light of our re‐analysis of a previously published four‐gene dataset under a site‐heterogeneous model.
Article
The Western Palaearctic species of Ptinomorphus Mulsant & Rey, 1868 (Coleoptera: Ptinidae, Eucradinae) described by M. Pic and synonymized under P.imperialis (Linnaeus, 1767) and P. magnificus (Reitter, 1880) are reviewed. A new species P. janae sp. nov. is described. P. tauricolus (Pic, 1906) and P. caucasicus (Pic, 1901) are removed from synonymy with P. magnificus; the status of P. perpulchrus (Obenberger, 1917) is clarified and P. angustior (Pic, 1896) is reinstated as a full species. P. angustior var. maculatus (Pic, 1922), which is currently treated as a synonym of P. imperialis is synonymised with P. magnificus. A key is provided to the Western Palaearctic species of Ptinomorphus.
Article
Studies on the spermatogenesis of Tenebrionidae beetles (Tenebrionoidea) have shown an unusual organization of spermatozoa, in which they are arranged antiparallelly within the testicular cysts. Despite such works, many taxa of Tenebrionoidea remain to be studied, including the minute tree-fungus beetles (Ciidae). Among the challenges in the study of the internal morphology of ciids is their small body size (about 2 mm or less), which makes dissections and comparisons extremely arduous. Here, we provide, for the first time, an anatomical and histological study of the reproductive system (female and male) and a description of sperm structure of Ceracis cornifer Mellié (Ciidae), under light and transmission electron microscopes. We pointed out the growth of a single oocyte at a time in females, aside of evidences toward a constant copulatory activity that can provide a continuous supply of sperm in their small spermatheca. In males, sperm have an antiparallel organization within the cysts, a condition observed so far only in members of Tenebrionoidea. Furthermore, we observed sperm dimorphism in C. cornifer. We described, for the first time, this characteristic in a Tenebrionoidea taxon, and discussed the possible relationship between sperm dimorphism and antiparallel organization of sperm.