Biodiversity and Structure of Rotifera Communities in the Great Garraf Drain Channel, Southern Iraq

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Three sites, selected on the Great Garraf Drain Channel (GGDC) demonstrated the first ever study dealing with rotifers biodiversity features from August 2019 till July 2020. Seventy-two taxonomic units were identified. The high densities of rotifera ranged from 733.32 - 32300 Ind./m3. Brachionus urceolaris, Keratella quadrata (long spin), Keratella quadrata (short spin) and Syncheta obloga were the most common relative abundance recorded in the index. In contrast the results of the constant index showed that there were nine constant taxonomic units. The species richness index was recorded from 1.489- 6.900. Jaccard presence similarity index revealed a strong link between stations 2 and 3 with a value of 83.30%. Hereinafter Shannon-Weiner diversity index recorded values ranging from 0.821-2.901 bit/Ind. The species uniformity index ranged from 0.296- 0.925. Nevertheless, the values of this index indicated no environmental stress on rotifera assemblage in the river environment. Also, it was concluded that GGDC was considered generally ranging from moderately polluted in some sites to highly polluted water in other locations during the study period.

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This study was the first of its kind on the Dejiala River, which is considered one of the main branches of the Tigris River in Wasit Province. Therefore, the study aimed to identify the classification, biodiversity and abundance of rotifera in the Dejiala River. Monthly sampling stations were conducted for 12 months, which wasstarting from January to December 2016, during those five stations was chosen which divided along about 58 Km of river; each station was located at a distance of ±10 Km.The finding of our study showed 79 taxonomic units new record in the Dejiala Riverof rotifer was identified. Also,the high densities of rotifer were ranging from 88-4616 Ind./m 3. While the results of the relative abundance index showed that Rotaria neptunia, Euchlanis delatata, Monostyla quardridentata were the most common relative abundance in the waters of the Dejiala River. Also the results of the constant index showed that there were sex constant taxonomic units and the other taxonomic units ranged between accessory and accidental species according to their presence in the study stations. The values of the species richness index were varied from 0.444-5.643. Greatest values were recorded during December and the lowest were recorded during January. The results of the Jaccard Presencesimilarity index showed a close association between stations 2 and 5 with a value of 60%. Whereas, Shannon Weiner's index diversity showed a value varied from 0.282-2.507 bit./Ind. Greatest values were recorded in Decemberwhile as the lowest was recorded during January. During this study, it was found that the uniformity index showed a value recorded from 0.256-1, nevertheless the values of this index indicate that there is no environmental stress on zooplankton in the river environment.
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The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and vertical distribution of zooplankton community in the Al-Diwaniyah River during the period from the spring of 2015 to the winter of 2016. Three stations were chosen along the course of the river. The samples were collected from the middle-stream of the river at two depths 30cm and 60cm. Some physical and chemical properties of the water were studied such as: Air temperature, water temperature, pH, turbidity, light penetration, water flow and dissolved oxygen, also the study included some biological aspects which represented by a qualitative and quantitative study of zooplankton. The results showed that the total identified zooplankton taxa in the 30cm depth was 36, 45, 36 taxa at study stations respectively. While in the depth 60cm the study identified at first station was 50, 59, 34 taxa at study stations respectively. The dominance groups were Rotifera, Copepoda followed by Cladocera. A total number of zooplankton varied in depth 30cm and 60cm from 633 to 3367Ind./m 3 and 2033 to 6933Ind./m 3 , respectively. Also the current study recorded two peaks of zooplankton community bloom, the first once in spring and the other in autumn. Finally it was concluded from the current study that the properties of water specially water flow velocity effects on the occurrence and vertical distribution of zooplankton, which are depending on sources and distribution of food, also it was founded that the number of the taxa and the total density in the depth 60cm was higher than its in the depth 30cm.
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Monthly samples were collected from seven stations at Basrah city by a plankton net (0.090 mm mesh-size and 40 cm mouth aperture) from November 1995 to December 1996 at stations 3, 4, 7 (St.3 is a small pool at the university campus, Garmat-Ali ; St.4 Al-Maqal creek, a small creek connected to Shatt Al-Arab River ; St.7 Abdulyan creek in Abi-Al-Khasib, South of Basrah) and from December 1995 to May 1996 at station 5 and from June 1996 to May 1997 at stations 1, 2, 6. The population density of zooplankton ranged between 110 ind/m 3 during August 1996 at sta. 1 to 1769250 ind/m 3 during April 1996 at sta. 5. Copepoda constitute 36.8 % of the total zooplankton. The second important group was Rotifera (33.7 %), then Ostracoda (10.7 %), whereas Cladocera came fourth (8.8 %) followed by the cirripede larvae (4 %). Biomass of zooplankton estimated as wet weight, it ranged from 0.5 mg/m 3 during June 1997 at sta. 6 to 67241 mg/m 3 during March 1996 at sta. 5. The biomass in terms of dry weight, ranged from 1.028 mg/m 3 during July 1996 at sta. 4 to 21929 mg/m 3 during March 1996 at sta. 5 and in terms of displacement volume and standing crop, the biomass ranged between 0.028 ml/m 3 and 1.820 mg C/ m 3 during June 1996 at sta. 4 and 88.6 ml/ m 3 and 5757 mg C/ m 3 during April 1996 at sta. 5, respectively.
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A total of 175 morphospecies belonging to 47 genera of the monogonont Rotifera are reported here, representing the highest rotifer biodiversity recorded from any body of water in Turkey; 34 of these species are new records for the Turkish fauna. The genera Donneria De Smet, Octotrocha Thorpe and Stephanoceros Ehrenberg are recorded for the first time in Turkey. The eastern Oriental taxon Brachionus murphyi Sudzuki and the tropicopolitan Trichocerca braziliensis (Murray) are new records for both the Palearctic region and western Asia. Additionally, the Palearctic European species Cephalodella cf. ungulata Fischer and Ahlrichs and Lecane margalefi De Manuel are recorded for the first time in Asia and for the second time outside of their type localities. The Tigris River is the third locality reported for the distribution of Donneria sudzukii (Donner). All observed species were members of 23 families with the majority (72%) of the examined fauna belonging to the following families: Notommatidae (33 species) > Lecanidae (30 species) > Brachionidae (25 species) > Dicranophoridae (14 species) > Lepadellidae (13 species) > Trichocercidae (11 species). Littoral rotifers made a significant contribution to the overall species diversity observed. Due to the strategic geographic position of Turkey, it is important to conduct species inventories in different localities of the country to fill distributional gaps for many rotifer species. The rotiferan species richness found in the study region and the biogeographically interesting elements of this river are remarkable and are discussed here. Additionally, this report represents the most up-to-date review of Turkish rotifers.
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Loss of species caused by widespread stressors, such as drought and fragmentation, is likely to be non-random depending on species abundance in the community. We experimentally reduced the number of rare and uncommon plant species while independently reducing only the abundance of dominant grass species in intact, native grassland. This allowed us to simulate a non-random pattern of species loss, based on species abundances, from communities shaped by natural ecological interactions and characterized by uneven species abundance distributions. Over two growing seasons, total above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) declined with reductions in abundance of the dominant species but was unaffected by a threefold decline in richness of less common species. In contrast, productivity of the remaining rare and uncommon species decreased with declining richness, in part due to loss of complementary interactions among these species. However, increased production of the dominant grasses offset the negative effects of species loss. We conclude that the dominant species, as controllers of ecosystem function, can provide short-term resistance to reductions in ecosystem function when species loss is nonrandom. However, the concurrent loss of complementary interactions among rare and uncommon species, the most diverse component of communities, may contribute to additional species loss and portends erosion of ecosystem function in the long term.
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Cladocera communities were studied in lotic and lentic environments of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A total of 63 species of Cladocera were identified in 108 samples. Of these, 24 species are considered new records for that floodplain, and one is a new record for Brazil. Chydoridae was the most representative family with 19 genera and 39 species.
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In the present study, two small lakes on the margins of the River Cuiabá were analyzed regarding taxonomic composition and population densities of the zooplankton. Diversity was evaluated for two groups, Rotifera and Cladocera; sampling was carried out on two dates: 2 March 1999, in the rainy season, and 25 August 1999, in the dry season. Seventy-nine rotifer taxa, 30 cladoceran taxa, and 6 copepod taxa were found. Comparing the species identified in the present study with those recorded by other authors for several water bodies in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, it was found that 9 species of Cladocera, 2 of Copepoda, and 14 of Rotifera are new records for the region. The most abundant rotifer species were Keratella cochlearis, Brachionus angularis, Polyarthra vulgaris, and Keratella americana. Moina minuta and Bosminopsis deitersi were dominant among the cladocerans, and Notodiaptomus transitans and N. devoyorum among the copepods. Comparing both lakes, the greatest species richness of both Rotifera and Cladocera was observed in Lake Souza Lima, during the rainy season. This is probably linked to the fact that the littoral region of this lake is densely colonized by macrophytes. The lake also has better environmental conditions since it does not receive domestic sewage inputs, as does Lake Parque Atalaia. The diversity of the Rotifera was markedly low in Lake Parque Atalaia, during the dry season, again perhaps linked domestic sewage input found in this water body.
This study was the first of its kind on the Hindiya Dam, which is considered one of the important dams in Euphrates River. Five sites were chosen on the north of Babil Governorate in order to know the rotifers biodiversity features and the impact of the Hindiya Dam on it's during the 2019. Site2(S2) was located near the dam to reflect the rotifers diversity of this site, whereas , S1 was located at the upstream of the dam as a control site, and S3, S4 and S5 were located down the dam. Rotifers showed higher density average at Hindiya Dam site compared with sites downstream the dam which was 9164 Ind./m3, whereas density average at the site downstream the dam was 5540 Ind./m3, site (downstream the dam ) decreased clearly compared with the dam site. It was showing the relative abundance index of rotifers: Keratella cochlearis was with the highest percentages followed by Rotaria neplunia, Syncheta oblonga and K. valga at the sites of study area. The study confirmed that the dam reservoir was the source of pelagic rotifers for the outflowing river which led to increase species numbers about 104 species of rotifers. The average values of species richness index of rotifers declined from 1.64 at Hindiya Dam site to 1.58 at site below the dam. Euphrates River rotifers were considered generally from moderate richness to disturbed during 2019 in study area. Site 3(downstream the dam) had the lowest similarity values with site 5 which was 47.5% in rotifers group. Whereas, the highest Jaccard similarity index percentage was between sites 1 with 4 which reached to 76.2%. The Shanon- Weiner index of rotifers reported average values at the dam site 1.7 and 1.8 bit/Ind. at site below the dam. Also, the average values uniformity index of rotifers increased from 0.6 at Hindiya Dam site to 0.7 at site downstream the dam. Euphrates River rotifers were considered generally as little diversified because of index value was ranged from 1 to 2 during 2019 in study area. According to uniformity index values, Euphrates River rotifers were considered generally from unbalanced to moderate balanced in study area. The constant species of rotifers showed that constant species were 8 at the dam site. While, it decreased to 7 constant species at site (downstream the dam). It was concluded that Hindiya Dam had a great effect on the spatial composition of the rotifers community related to the change in the hydrological conditions from current water in site1 to limnetic basins in site 2 (the dam reservoir) then again to current water at site 3, 4 and 5 downstream the dam.
In this investigated the life span of Brachionus plicatilis under laboratory conditions has been estimated to be between 62 to 84 hours at 22 Cº and salinity 1.5 ‰. Generally, the larvae become adult after 18 to 27 hours and females thereafter start to lay eggs approximately every 5 to 6 hours. The number of eggs laid before death were 18 – 21 eggs.
Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is the most commonly produced microalgae for commercial applications, such as nutraceuticals and feed. While crop productivity of commercial Spirulina farms is often compromised by grazers and contaminating microzooplanktons, the biodiversity and identity of the most harmful microzooplanktons in Spirulina farms have not been extensively studied. As China is the number one producer of Spirulina in the world, comprehensive information on the biodiversity and identity of microzooplanktons in Spirulina farms is essential for the long-term commercial viability of these farms. Therefore, we determined the biodiversity and identity of the major microzooplanktons that are present in eight commercial Spirulina cultivation sites throughout China. Furthermore, we identified the major grazers that appear to directly affect the productivity of Spirulina cultures. Among twenty-three species that include 2 flagellates, 2 amoebae, 15 ciliates, and 4 rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis, Frontonia sp. and one unknown Heterolobosean amoeba appeared to be the most harmful to Spirulina due to their high density and ability to graze Spirulina. The similarity of the biodiversity and abundance of the microzooplankton was > 80% among two out of eight mass cultivation sites (C and D), while the remaining cultivation sites exhibited their own unique microzooplankton biodiversity characteristics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there was a positive relationship between harmful species of Brachionus plicatilis and salinity, while the other two harmful species of Heterolobosean amoeba and Frontonia sp. had a positive relationship with oxidation reduction potential (ORP). As this is the first report to identify the major harmful microzooplankton species in commercial Spirulina farms, our study not only provides a theoretical basis for the relationship between environmental factors and biodiversity of harmful grazers but also lays a scientific foundation for developing effective monitoring and management strategies for commercial Spirulina farms.
1. Zooplankton density and biomass was examined in a Danube River floodplain section with highly variable hydrological dynamics. Temporal patterns were analysed to assess the effects of hydrological conditions on zooplankton community structure and the differential response of the two major zooplankton taxa, rotifers and crustaceans. 2. Calculated floodplain water age was used as an integrated parameter describing hydrological conditions and connectivity. 3. Total zooplankton biomass, crustacean biomass and crustacean species number were significantly positively related to water age. Rotifer biomass followed a hump-shaped relationship with water age, and rotifer species number decreased with increasing water age. 4. Rotifers dominated the community in periods of low to medium water ages. In periods of higher water ages the community was dominated by crustaceans. 5. We propose that the hydrological regime of floodplains is crucial for zooplankton biomass patterns and succession, through the alternation of washing-out effects, taxon-specific potential of reproduction and biological interactions. Flood events and high water levels reset the community to an early successional phase.
Zooplankton abundance, composition and environmental parameters were monitored in two tropical rivers over a twenty month period. The data was subjected to cluster, factor and correlation analysis to determine the grouping pattern of zooplankton and their relationship to environmental parameters. Environmental factors in Ogunpa and Ona rivers--included buffering capacity, trace metal ions, pH-temperature/transparency--were primarily influenced by rainfall. The dominance of the Rotifera in both rivers was attributed to their short developmental rate and fish predation on larger zooplankton. Two groups of associations were identified in each river--a commonly occurring species group exhibiting strong homogenous correlation with environmental factors and a predominant group exhibiting weak correlation with environmental factors and whose abundance/composition may be defined by biotic factors.
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