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Security from the First Phases of 5irechain Life Cycle

  • Un1ty Ventures
  • Dr. M A Wazed Miah Textile Engineering College, Rangpur, Bangladesh.

Abstract and Figures

The security of blockchain technology is more than ever in the point of view. Attacks on DLTs (Distributed Ledger Technology), including blockchain, which highlight the need to reinforce their security. The use of security reference architectures (SRA) has proven useful in addressing safety in the early phases of development facilitating the definition of security requirements and helping to implement security policies that allow us to protect a system throughout the life cycle. This article presents an SRA for the technology Blockchain defined through models and checking its application through an example of use.
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International Journal of Social Sciences and Management Review
Volume: 05, Issue: 05 “September - October 2022”
ISSN 2582-0176 Copyright © IJSSMR 2022, All right reserved Page 88
15irechain, Dubai Silicon Oasis, United Arab Emirates
25irechain, Dubai Silicon Oasis, United Arab Emirates
3Narre Warren South State VIC 3805, Australia
The security of blockchain technology is more than ever in the point of view. Attacks on
DLTs (Distributed Ledger Technology), including blockchain, which highlight the need to
reinforce their security. The use of security reference architectures (SRA) has proven useful
in addressing safety in the early phases of development facilitating the definition of security
requirements and helping to implement security policies that allow us to protect a system
throughout the life cycle. This article presents an SRA for the technology Blockchain defined
through models and checking its application through an example of use.
Keywords: Blockchain, 5ire, SRA, reference architecture
Since the appearance of Bitcoin in 2008, blockchain technology has not stopped add
followers. Proof of this interest is the growing investment being made on blockchain in both
industry and academia. This growing investment can be seen reflected in the
MarketsandMarkets study, in which it is estimated that the use of blockchain will go from
258 million dollars in 2020 to 2,409 million dollars in 2026, with an average annual growth
rate of 45.1%. In addition, the results of the 2020 global annual survey on blockchain
conducted by Deloitte revealed that 53% of organizations consider blockchain to be one of its
five strategic priorities. Even though blockchain technology is presented as a ledger
technology of tamper-proof transactions, it is a reality that blockchain networks they are not
immune to cyberattacks and fraud. In fact, it is estimated that during the first quarter of 2019
saw the loss of more than 356 million dollars in blockchain networks due to security- related
issues. Some concrete examples of these actions are the loss of 13 million dollars of EOS and
6 million of dollars in Ripple only during the month of March 2019. Also, a new report from
cryptocurrency forensics and blockchain threat intelligence firm Ciphertrace shows that $100
million has been stolen from distributed networks only in 2020, which reinforces the
importance of security being present in any blockchain solution. There are many variables to
consider when designing a security solution. In general, security threats fall into three main
categories: Endpoint vulnerabilities, untested code, and risk in your own ecosystem or third
parties. First of all, endpoint vulnerabilities are presented as the most direct and potentially
easier to attack over any technological solution such as digital wallets, devices, or
applications. If one of these points is compromised and a malicious actor gains access to an
account, unless additional security protections are put in place, it is possible that a fraudulent
action without producing any external alarm or behavioral abnormal signal. Second, the
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untested code is a reflection of how as new technologies enter the market, developers are
incentivized to be the first to submit a solution, often at the risk of deploying code
insufficiently tested on active blockchains. A well-known example is an attack on the
decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) of the Ethereum network in 2016, where code
and smart contracts were developed in which vulnerabilities existed in the code. This led to
the exploitation of a vulnerability that had the ability to manipulate smart contracts to extract
money due to a mistake in a recursive call with which it was possible to divert nearly 60
million dollars. As the last threat, it highlights the risk inherent in the ecosystem of
applications that use blockchain which may include association with vendors or third parties.
Poor ecosystem security or flawed code can expose user credentials and blockchain data to
unauthorized persons. To deal with security threats, security must be addressed from of high-
level policies that can be transferred to lower levels. The Architectures Reference Models
(RA) provides an abstract model that supports one or more domains and has no
implementation features thus allowing them to be reusable, scalable, and configurable.
Incorporating a set of elements that facilitate the definition of security requirements and
allow a better understanding of security, policies, threats, and vulnerabilities, we get a
Security Reference Architecture (SRA), that is, the architecture of a high level that can be
used to describe a conceptual security model of a system. In this work we have defined an
SRA for blockchain, based on the different proposals from the scientific community, the
different proposals from the industry, and the usual implementation of multiple blockchain
systems abstracting their components and based on the main attacks that make a blockchain
system vulnerable to identify the elements of the architecture that are most vulnerable and on
which the implementation of a security solution should be focused. Our study presents an
architecture that serves as a basis for the development of a blockchain system, whether for
academic purposes or in industry, considering the security from system design integrated into
the technology stack blockchain to prevent it from being considered only at launch, or as
something that surrounds an application once it has been developed. We organize the content
of the manuscript as follows: first, existing related works are presented; Second, we present
our SRA proposal for blockchain which we will use in 5irechain; Third, we compare our
architecture with a real case study showing how the different components can be instantiated
that are involved in their approach. Finally, we include a section in which conclusions and
future work are discussed.
The standardization of blockchain technology is an important step toward a concept common,
interoperability, scaling, auditing, and possible subsequent regulation of technology.
Although there are several initiatives to define norms and standards for the development and
maintenance of the blockchain, they are in a very preliminary phase, this being an obstacle to
the settlement of the technology. There are multiple initiatives of organizations that are
working on documents of standardization. NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Technology which is a physical sciences laboratory and a non-regulatory agency of the
United States Department of Commerce) published in 2018 NISTIR 8202 - Blockchain
Technology Overview. The document addresses the functionalities and fundamental
components of a system blockchain as well as cybersecurity concerns and the general
applicability of blockchain in organizations. The purpose of this document is solely to serve
as an entry point to blockchain technology, as it explains the structure and models, consensus
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mechanisms, and known examples of it, as well as a series of questions and considerations
specific to the blockchain without going into depth in the technical elements. ANSI SCX9
(American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the
development of voluntary consensus standards) also published in 2018 the report of its study
group on DLT and blockchain. In this study, they worked together with experts from various
fields and evaluated what types of standardization efforts would be both necessary and
beneficial especially for the financial sector, but also for other industries, as well as to
increase the adoption of DLT. The biggest part of the document focuses on blockchain
security needs and issues which he deals with mainly by focusing on the financial field. To
facilitate understanding of the key components of blockchain systems, the high-level
reference architecture is included in the appendix to provide an overview of the operation of a
DLT system. The UNE 71307-1 standard defines a generic reference framework for the
management of identities of individuals or organizations, allowing control of your own
digital identity in a self-managed way in a blockchain system. ISO/TR 23455:2019 offers an
extensive discussion of smart contracts within a blockchain system/DTL and its operation. It
is also possible to appreciate the interest in addressing security by design, the standard DIN
SPEC 4997 Privacy by Blockchain Design describes a standardized model for the processing
of personal data through blockchain taking into account the Regulation General Data
Protection (GDPR) of the EU. The document presents an overview of the risks and
mitigations of data protection principles with a clear focus on privacy by design, as well as a
privacy architecture project by the design of blockchain. Homoliak proposes a specific
version-based architecture for the blockchain of the ISO/IEC 15408 threat risk assessment
standard by adaptation of a customized version of the presented four-layer stacked model in
the work of Wang et al. This proposal differs from this work, which focuses solely on risk
without considering business objectives or orchestration of security policies. Despite the
growing interest in the standardization of blockchain systems, it is not Studies have been
carried out that have defined security architectures in which address the implementation of its
different components. In this article, we studied an SRA sketch for 5irechain where the
components of the blockchain are specified technology as well as the relationships between
the different components and subcomponents. Different security concepts are also integrated
to ensure the protection of these types of systems.
In this work we have analyzed the functionalities and fundamental components of a
blockchain system that have been proposed by NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Technology), as well as the concerns of cybersecurity and the general applicability of
blockchain. Also they have been considered the main implementations of blockchain in the
market focusing on in Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Hyperledger for being the most consolidated
technologies today and its main components have been abstracted to create our architecture.
We have defined our SRA through UML diagrams as we found a lack of proposals that
precisely define the relationships between the different components and subcomponents.
Likewise, it is a language widely accepted that facilitates the understanding of the
relationships between the different components. A layered model has been used since it offers
us simplicity in the implementation and maintenance, flexibility and scalability.
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The architecture is divided into six different components that interact with each other with
different objectives: business layer, orchestration layer, application layer, service layer,
platform layer, and network layer.
3.1. Business layer
The purpose of the business layer is to define the business rules that collect the functionalities
that the blockchain network must offer. Due to the characteristics of this layer, related
security activities are generally focused on defining of security policies from the
orchestration layer, described in the next section, and how to implement and monitor them.
The blockchain system must satisfy the objective for which it has been created by fulfilling
with the objectives while staying aligned with the different objectives business and company
policies. In this sense, the role of the manager security is crucial to ensure compliance with
security requirements. These safety requirements must comply with the regulations that affect
each context of the ecosystem and will be defined in the next layer.
3.2. Orchestration layer
The orchestration layer aims to address the different requirements that must be fulfilling the
blockchain ecosystem. According to Biktimirov, technology requirements blockchain can be
divided into the following groups:
Structural requirements on the availability of certain types of data in blockchain links
to ensure the technology works.
Business requirements related to enforced policies, such as standards of international
cryptography, as well as national or institutional standards in the areas of application:
taxation, voting technologies, the workflow of internal documents, etc. These
requirements must be aligned with the objectives of the business process to fulfill the
function for which they have been defined.
Technological requirements on the reliability of block storage, using the technology
proposed by Zitsev to maintain the parameters of reliability and availability of link
Reliability requirements with a clear blockchain structure, technologies regulated link
processing and an interface for link operations. All applied interfaces must be
available with source code to ensure a high level of trust.
Security requirements can be satisfied by different security solutions that follow the
company's security policies and aim to address threats to control vulnerabilities. The
definition of these security solutions can be guided by the use of security patterns, which can
be defined as a solution to recurring problems that indicate how to defend against a threat, or
a set of threats, concisely and reusable.
3.3. Application Layer
The application layer contains solutions for the end user and applications that are built on the
blockchain network; therefore, security threats are specific for each application. This layer
may exist totally or partially outside the network [19]. One of the core elements of the
application layer are Applications. Decentralized or DApps. These are software applications
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that run on a network. A decentralized peer-to-peer network is usually a blockchain network.
DApps usually include a user interface running on another system (centralized or
decentralized). DApps also include blockchain explorers, monitoring tools, and other
business intelligence tools. Browsers implemented on a blockchain network are the most
common way of retrieving information, the trusted parties usually being centralized. In the
case of monitoring tools, they facilitate the management of multiple networks, the
identification of problems and the general maintenance of the health of the network of the
block chain. Business intelligence tools also provide a platform for tracking records held in
your database encrypted ledger-based.
Since developers are allowed to develop their own DApps with contracts custom smart apps
are highly vulnerable to attack. In some cases, it is common for an attack to occur in the
information transfer phase of the node. Apply a specific security solution based on how the
application works will reduce their impact.
3.4. Service layer
The service layer makes it possible to make the blockchain more accessible, in particular for
businesses, reducing the costs and overhead of technology adoption. The precise nature of a
SaaS (Software as a Service) implementation will depend on the service provider, application
specifications and objectives of the client. This layer integrates asset managers, blockchain
events. Asset management aims to ensure the management of the assets of the platform layer,
with assets stored on the blockchain being the reason principal of the chain's existence. The
digital asset can be monetary units or of another type, on which an organization wants to
interact. Asset management can be integrated with business management systems through
external interfaces using APIs, libraries and common techniques. A connection directly with
the blockchain core allows the correct functioning of these tools. In addition to deployment
and configuration capabilities, it is important that there are possibilities to manage events
such as failure notification of software, performance management, security management,
integration with other business software and historical analysis tools. These events can be
generated through these common APIs, libraries and techniques.
In the case of blockchain, the use of offchains and oracles stands out for the management of
events. Offchain transactions, which occur outside the chain, are won popularity due to its
zero/low cost. Off-chain transactions offer many advantages: they can be executed instantly,
they do not usually have a commission per transaction, since nothing happens within the
blockchain, and they offer more security and anonymity to the participants, since the details
are not transmitted publicly, which makes it impossible to partially ascertain the identity of a
participant by studying the transaction patterns. Oracles offer an external service to the chain
that is called to provide information from an external source, for example, a rate of change or
the result of a mathematical calculation. Oracles are a safe bridge between smart contracts
and real-world information sources.
Identity management is essential for the management of cryptographic private keys that are
associated with a user's account. Blockchain clients often choose to offer local management
of user credentials, such as system and wallet keys. These facilities can also be applied
outside the scope of a client.
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The security solution in this layer acquires relevance as it is composed of sensitive items.
Policies should be implemented to prevent improper exploitation protecting that all
transactions are legitimate and that asset management and identities is not exploited by
adulterating assets.
3.5. Platform Layer
It is the core of the architecture and is responsible for the execution of the network logic; it
contains the necessary elements for the publication of each block. In function of the
implementation of this component, there is the possibility of creating and managing third-
party part of cloud-based networks for construction companies of blockchain. The platform
layer security solution aims to mitigate the damage that can be caused to a blockchain
network by exploiting vulnerabilities identified, and protecting the digital assets contained in
the chain. All the infrastructure of the blockchain platform can be understood as a
Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS) that allows the creation and management by third parties of
networks cloud-based for companies dedicated to building blockchain applications.
This is beginning to be a growing trend and is one of the main reasons to separate the
platform layer from the service layer. The underlying idea is to get a function similar to that
of a web host. That is, run the operation from the backend of an application.
Blockchain technology works in such a way that each block stores a number of valid
registrations or transactions, information related to that block its link with the previous and
next block through the hash of each block. Each block is linked to the previous block by
means of a cryptographic hash. All transactions must be encrypted with public-key
infrastructure (PKI) to prevent it from being compromised by unwanted parties. The multi-
signature function will be available for sensitive transactions on the blockchain. The blocks
also contain information regarding the smart contracts in which the clauses are collected and
information about any physical contract in the form of a code and that must be fulfilled to
publish a new block.
3.6. Network layer
The network layer is the foundation on which blockchain technology is built. Basically,
blockchain networks are networks that overlay other networks; therefore they inherit the
security and privacy issues of the underlying networks. The network layer is therefore, one of
the bases on which this architecture is based, being crucial to have with security solutions that
can cover network problems. The main services provided by the network layer in blockchain
technology are peer-to-peer management and discovery, which are based on the operation of
the underlying network, such as domain name resolution (DNS) or network routing (for
example, LAN routing for IP, routing WAN as BGP). Network layer security issues are one
of the research topics most popular in the field of blockchain security. Between the different
attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Likewise, the attacks eclipses are also
very popular. These attacks disable the connection of a network node with the rest of the
nodes that are used by the attacker.
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A real case has been used to analyze the applicability of the proposed architecture. We have
used the case proposed by Sladic et al. where they present the implementation of a notary on
the blockchain network that supports the transactions carried out in the Serbian cadastre. The
system stores the legal link between the properties and their owners, as well as the cadastral
map containing the geometric data and the topographic attributes of the soil. Figure below
details the correlation of the case of study with the proposed architecture. For a better
understanding of the proposed case, the elements that correlate with our architecture have
been highlighted, leaving in gray those that are not used in the proposal. In the business layer,
it is proposed to use a hybrid block chain that allows consultation of the cadastre by the
population, but that guarantees that the property registries are always carried out by a notary.
In this case, the business layer fully maps with the architecture proposed in this study.
Figure: Architecture of the case proposed by Sladic et al.
Through the orchestration layer, we ensure compliance with one of the main system security
requirements that all users are able to consult the data of the cadastre, but they can only be
modified by the figure of a notary. To this end, it is proposed that users can only access using
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their digital certificates, digital documents that link the key public of the user with the
identity of this, and the certification authority that verified the content of the certificate. The
use of digital certificates allows for controlling the risks of unwanted access is a widely used
identification security pattern extended. On the other hand, the requirements of the chain
must comply with the regulation that exists. In this sense, it must be governed by the
Electronic Document Law, electronic identification, and trust services in electronic
Likewise, in the application layer, the cadastre information remains accessible for all users
through a DApp consisting of a web front end that allows access to data stored on the chain.
The DApp frontend uses a standard web for frontend development, i.e. HTML, CSS, and
JavaScript to render a page and retrieve details directly from the backend. On the other hand,
a second DApp is presented that allows notaries to store the keys hashes of documents during
rights transfer activities. Despite that security measures are not specified for both DApps,
they must be considered taking into account the technology used. The service layer is aimed
at making the blockchain more accessible than it differs with the objective of the proposed
architecture. The incorporation of elements of this layer will depend on whether it is intended
to carry out an implementation-oriented to obtain multi- user shared services that save social
resources and achieve a larger scale. The identity management component offers the
possibility to centralize identity management since it is not expected that just anyone can
generate transactions, but only a selected group of users. The identity manager contains the
information related to the user since in the access controls they include the verification that
the user can make changes.
The platform of the proposed system comprises alphanumeric data on rights of property, the
holders of the rights and the attributes of the properties, like the surface; and geospatial data
(cadastral map) as a result of the activities topographical. These data comprise our assets and
may be subject to a transaction on the blockchain. The transaction constitutes an input of data
that is stored in a block, belonging to the distributed ledger, and containing the transaction
information, i.e. user ID, unique ID of a property, change number, type of change, and
description of the change.
In addition, the transaction is completed with transaction details about the change that has
occurred (change number, type of change, description, date, etc). The result of the execution
is also stored in the block when performing a transaction. Finally, the chain of blocks
contains the information of the users who have made the transaction. Users have two keys: a
private key that only the user knows and a public key shared with the entire network. The
user who made the change digitally signs the transaction with your private key. Once created,
the transaction is inserted into a newly created block and after being verified by the network,
the block is added to the chain. The architecture of this case study makes use of the P2P
network to support the rest of the layers of architecture. At this point, there is no difference
between the components of architecture and our MRS. As mentioned above, an SRA aims to
offer architecture with a high level of abstraction that allows covering any implementation
scenario in a blockchain system, applying the implementation of some or other components
depending on the need of the blockchain chain itself. If we look at the ingredients proposed
by Sladic it can therefore be concluded that the case is aligned with the SRA proposed in this
document, allowing us to validate the applicability of the proposal.
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In this work, an SRA has been presented that serves as a basis for the development of
blockchain systems and integration security from the first phases of the life cycle of this
technology. We have defined our SRA through UML diagrams, a widely accepted language
that facilitates the understanding of the relationships between the different components. In
addition, the use of UML has allowed us to precisely define the relationships between the
different components and subcomponents. In this article, we studied an SRA sketch for
5irechain where the components of the blockchain are specified technology as well as the
relationships between the different components and subcomponents. Finally, the applicability
of our outline has been shown through the realization of a real example demonstrating how to
fit effectively and incorporate all the necessary elements for the implementation of the
system. In future work intends to carry out a complete case study that allows us to validate
and refine our proposal.
5.1 Acknowledgment
The authors would like to acknowledge a research grant from “Innovation and Research of
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Full-text available
The proposal for review of the eIDAS Regulation published in June 2021 has opened strong expectations for a deep change in traditional identity models. The user-centric identity model proposed takes as point of departure the creation of European Digital Identity Wallets that will enable citizens' control over their data in identification and authentication processes without been controlled by part of the entities providing the identification services. Likewise, with the proposed legal rules for giving legal certainty to electronic ledgers and blockchains, eIDAS 2.0 opens possibilities to decentralization, in particular, for the provision and management of user's attributes. Simultaneously the implementation of qualified trust services for attestations or electronic ledgers limits decentralization by requirement of a trusted third party. In any case, the success of eIDAS 2.0 relies on the development of common solutions. Standardization will be key in assuring interoperability at the EU level. What are the challenges and opportunities of eIDAS 2.0? And what are the main focuses and needs of (European) standardization? These and other questions will be analysed and discussed in the paper. European Review of Digital Administration and Law: July 2022
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Background Digital technologies have unique characteristics for achieving radically disruptive transitions within the energy sector. They provide opportunities for new production and consumption models between micro-producers and consumers of electricity within communities in a way that transforms the traditional energy generation and consumption model. The study critically assessed the digitalisation of energy systems in Africa within the context of existing policy frameworks in the quest to achieve sustainable energy transitions in Africa. It investigated how digital technologies such as blockchain, digital platforms and smart grids were adopted and implemented within the energy sector to achieve new energy production and consumption models that are both environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive. This assessment was done within the context of existing policy and regulatory frameworks of the society where the use cases were domiciled. Methods The aim of the research was to investigate how sustainable energy transitions are being achieved in Nigeria and South Africa through the digitalisation of energy systems. A qualitative methodological approach was done in three stages—a document analysis that reviewed relevant literature on the energy sector policies in Nigeria and South Africa; the next step involved a comparative case study conducted to assess the characteristics of digital technology deployment in each country’s energy transition. Finally, outcomes of the comparative case studies were then situated within the context of existing policies within the countries covered by the study. Results Results from the research indicate that Africa is still in the early stages of adoption and application of digital technologies such as blockchain and smart grids within the energy sector. The results also showed a disconnect between the policy environment and industry efforts at achieving this. The current applications as exemplified in the use cases by the three companies covered in this study indicates that Africa's sustainable energy transition is in a rudimentary or early adoption stage, and they are not currently aided by the policy environments in which such projects are domiciled. Conclusions The research provides deep insights into the current state and developments within the energy sector especially in relation to how digital technologies are being adopted and implemented in solving the energy poverty prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa.
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The origins of digital money and blockchain technology goes back to the 1980s, but in the last decade, the blockchain technology gained large popularity in the financial sector with the appearance of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, recently, many other fields of application have been recognized, particularly with the development of smart contracts. Among them is the possible application of blockchain technology in the domain of land administration, mostly as a tool for transparency in the developing countries and means to fight corruption. However, developed countries also find interest in launching pilot projects to test their applicability in land administration domain for reasons such as to increase the speed and reduce costs of the real property transactions through a more secure environment. In this paper, we analyse how transactions are handled in Serbian land administration and how this process may be supported by modern ledger technologies such as blockchain. In order to analyse how blockchain could be implemented to support transactions in land information systems (LIS), it is necessary to understand cadastral processes and transactions in LIS, as well as legislative and organizational aspects of LIS. Transactions in cadastre comprise many actors and utilize both alphanumeric (descriptive or legal) data and geospatial data about property boundaries on the cadastral map. Based on the determined requirements for the blockchain-based LIS, we propose a system architecture for its implementation. Such a system keeps track of transactions in LIS in an immutable and tamper-proof manner to increase the security of the system and consequently increase the speed of transactions, efficiency, and data integrity without a significant impact on the existing laws and regulations. The system is anticipated as a permissioned public blockchain implemented on top of the Ethereum network.
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Blockchains are distributed systems, in which security is a critical factor for their success. However, despite their increasing popularity and adoption, there is a lack of standardized models that study blockchain-related security threats. To fill this gap, the main focus of our work is to systematize and extend the knowledge about the security and privacy aspects of blockchains and contribute to the standardization of this domain. We propose the security reference architecture (SRA) for blockchains, which adopts a stacked model (similar to the ISO/OSI) describing the nature and hierarchy of various security and privacy aspects. The SRA contains four layers: (1) the network layer, (2) the consensus layer, (3) the replicated state machine layer, and (4) the application layer. At each of these layers, we identify known security threats, their origin, and countermeasures, while we also analyze several cross-layer dependencies. Next, to enable better reasoning about security aspects of blockchains by the practitioners, we propose a blockchain-specific version of the threat-risk assessment standard ISO/IEC 15408 by embedding the stacked model into this standard. Finally, we provide designers of blockchain platforms and applications with a design methodology following the model of SRA and its hierarchy.
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The past decade has witnessed the rapid evolution in blockchain technologies, which has attracted tremendous interests from both the research communities and industries. The blockchain network was originated from the Internet financial sector as a decentralized, immutable ledger system for transactional data ordering. Nowadays, it is envisioned as a powerful backbone/framework for decentralized data processing and data-driven self-organization in flat, open-access networks. In particular, the plausible characteristics of decentralization, immutability, and self-organization are primarily owing to the unique decentralized consensus mechanisms introduced by blockchain networks. This survey is motivated by the lack of a comprehensive literature review on the development of decentralized consensus mechanisms in blockchain networks. In this paper, we provide a systematic vision of the organization of blockchain networks. By emphasizing the unique characteristics of decentralized consensus in blockchain networks, our in-depth review of the state-of-the-art consensus protocols is focused on both the perspective of distributed consensus system design and the perspective of incentive mechanism design. From a game-theoretic point of view, we also provide a thorough review of the strategy adopted for self-organization by the individual nodes in the blockchain backbone networks. Consequently, we provide a comprehensive survey of the emerging applications of blockchain networks in a broad area of telecommunication. We highlight our special interest in how the consensus mechanisms impact these applications. Finally, we discuss several open issues in the protocol design for blockchain consensus and the related potential research directions.
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With the purpose of identifying cyber threats and possible incidents, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are widely deployed in various computer networks. In order to enhance the detection capability of a single IDS, collaborative intrusion detection networks (or collaborative IDSs) have been developed, which allow IDS nodes to exchange data with each other. However, data and trust management still remain two challenges for current detection architectures, which may degrade the effectiveness of such detection systems. In recent years, blockchain technology has shown its adaptability in many fields such as supply chain management, international payment, interbanking and so on. As blockchain can protect the integrity of data storage and ensure process transparency, it has a potential to be applied to intrusion detection domain. Motivated by this, this work provides a review regarding the intersection of IDSs and blockchains. In particular, we introduce the background of intrusion detection and blockchain, discuss the applicability of blockchain to intrusion detection, and identify open challenges in this direction.
There are fair amount of reasons and requirements for both the IoT and blockchain concepts to cooperate closely to solve bigger problems at hand. This deadly combination is to result in scores of fresh and fabulous opportunities and possibilities for the total human society. The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has made it possible to have digitized and connected things in plenty in our everyday environments. That is, all kinds of physical, mechanical, electrical, and electronics systems are systematically being digitized and connected through proven and potential edge and connectivity technologies. The leading market analysts and researchers have come out with forecasts that there will be billions of connected devices and trillions of digitized entities in the years ahead. The noteworthy point here is that all these empowered entities, on purposefully collaborating and correlating with one another, can generate massive amounts of multistructured data. The challenge is how to secure IoT devices and data. The arrival of the blockchain technology is being celebrated as the best thing toward convincingly meeting up the IoT security requirements. This chapter is to explore and expound how the cool linkage between IoT and blockchain is to substantially enhance the security and privacy needs of IoT devices and data.
Well-structured and organized cadastral records and cadastral maps are a prerequisite for improving land administration services. In recent years, numerous problems and issues associated with cadastral data have been encountered in Serbia, and attempts to overcome these problems have been made. The integration of land registry data with cadastral data containing land use component usually results in inconsistencies in land administration databases. To address this problem, an appropriate domain model has been developed using the Unified Process methodology and considering the Land Administration Domain Model and other ISO 19000 standards. Examples of verifying land administration data integrity in relational and object-oriented data models are presented.
The problem of the development of an architectural project and a mathematical model for storing confidential information in centers for processing general purpose data is discussed.