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Research on Design of Extensible Mobile Flood Control Wall in Underground

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The current natural environment is unpredictable with heavy rains and floods happening from time to time. In order to ensure the safety of underground workers, infrastructure, and rail transit, a mobile and expandable underground flood control wall was optimized and designed. The use of mortise-and-tenon structure splicing and modular extension design effectively increases the stability and useable area of the flood wall. The finite element analysis software was used to simulate and study the force of each component under combined loads, such as static water, dynamic water, and impact, to analyze the stability performance of the assembly such as anti-sliding, anti-tilting, and internal stress. The verification results show that when the designed and studied underground flood control wall equipment is fully deployed, the maximum stress is 220.762 MPa, and the maximum offset distance is 32.334 mm, which are all within the safe range. It provides innovative ideas for the optimization of the related flood control wall structure.
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Research Article
Research on Design of Extensible Mobile Flood Control
Wall in Underground
Chen Su
1
,
2
and Zhiwei Yuan
1
,
2
1
School of Industrial Design, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 432200, China
2
Hubei Packaging Equipment Engineering Technology Research Center, Wuhan 432200, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Zhiwei Yuan; 201911003@hbut.edu.cn
Received 14 July 2022; Revised 13 August 2022; Accepted 23 August 2022; Published 27 September 2022
Academic Editor: Lianhui Li
Copyright ©2022 Chen Su and Zhiwei Yuan. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
e current natural environment is unpredictable with heavy rains and floods happening from time to time. In order to ensure the
safety of underground workers, infrastructure, and rail transit, a mobile and expandable underground flood control wall was optimized
and designed. e use of mortise-and-tenon structure splicing and modular extension design effectively increases the stability and
useable area of the flood wall. e finite element analysis software was used to simulate and study the force of each component under
combined loads, such as static water, dynamic water, and impact, to analyze the stability performance of the assembly such as anti-
sliding, anti-tilting, and internal stress. e verification results show that when the designed and studied underground flood control
wall equipment is fully deployed, the maximum stress is 220.762 MPa, and the maximum offset distance is 32.334 mm, which are all
within the safe range. It provides innovative ideas for the optimization of the related flood control wall structure.
1. Introduction
In recent years, a short period of heavy rain has frequently
caused waterlogging problems in cities and towns, especially
in underground garages, subway, and other underground
space entrances. e timely blocking of flood inflow can
effectively avoid the crisis of human safety and the normal
operation of rail transit. In addition to the rational design of
the flood drainage pipe network, there is an urgent need for a
device that is convenient, quick, and easy to install and has a
good flood control effect to play an active role. e mobile
flood control wall can not only be installed quickly during
the flood season but also can be easily disassembled and
folded for storage during the non-flood season. As a tem-
porary flood control equipment to deal with sudden storms
and floods, it is widely used at the entrances and exits of
important underground spaces in cities and towns.
e first mobile flood wall in the world was installed in
the urban area of Cologne, Germany in 1984, and then the
same type of flood wall was put into use successively in
places such as the Danube River in Austria, Baja, Hungary,
and Brado in the Czech Republic [1–3]. At the beginning of
the 21
st
century, China begins to design and produce mobile
flood control wall equipment. e new mobile flood control
wall with aluminum alloy material instead of steel plate has
been successfully put into use in Suzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan,
and other places [4–6]. Many scholars at home and abroad
have conducted a lot of research work on the structural
design, material selection, and performance analysis of flood
control walls [7–10]. Pan [11] designed an ecological flood
control based on the full use of the basic functions of flood
control projects. e wall is used for flood control and river
treatment during flood season, which can effectively im-
prove river pollution and protect the ecological environment
on both sides of the bank. Xu et al. [12] used the elastic
mechanics method to analyze and solve the problems of
material selection and size design in order to better grasp the
force and deformation of the mobile flood control wall
during work, which played a guiding role in the flood control
project. Ni et al. [13] elaborated on the application prospects
and structural characteristics of light mobile flood control
walls, combined with theoretical calculations and finite
Hindawi
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2022, Article ID 9173769, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9173769
element analysis techniques and focused on explaining the
structural forces and failure modes of light mobile flood
control walls. Zhang et al. [14] studied a new type of mobile
flood control wall based on urban underground space en-
trances and exits. e stability and safety of flood control
walls were analyzed through the material mechanics
method, which provided a positive reference for urban
underground space flood control. Getter et al. [15] used
dynamic methods to carry out finite element simulations
and analyzed the maximum impact load that the flood wall
can withstand under dynamic conditions, providing addi-
tional guidance for static design schemes. In addition, the
scientific research team and the company also applied for a
number of patented technologies related to mobile flood
control walls under the strong support of national policies
[16–19] and manufactured various types of assemblies for
use in flood control projects. However, most of the existing
mobile flood control walls are made of aluminum alloy
materials and have a single structure. ere is still room for
optimization in terms of overall structure design and ma-
terial selection of key components such as main baffles,
support rods, and beams.
According to the requirements of flood control at the
entrances and exits of important underground spaces,
considering the versatility of equipment and the conve-
nience of installation and disassembly, this paper designs an
expandable and mobile underground flood control wall.
Corrosion-resistant and impact-resistant interstitial-free-
steel materials are selected for key components such as the
connecting column, rotating handle, and support rods to
effectively increase the stability and impact resistance of the
flood wall. e modular flood control wall is seamlessly
spliced through the structural design of the connecting
column, and the expansion of the flood control wall is
controlled by rotating the handle, and the pressure is re-
duced by increasing the contact area during the flood control
process. It can effectively alleviate the adverse effects of
urban waterlogging on underground space projects.
2. Design Principle
e expandable and mobile underground flood control wall
has well flood control and impact resistance. It is mainly
composed of a retractable baffle, a plug-in support rod, a
mortise-and-tenon structure connecting column, a rotating
handle, a safety bolt, and pins. e design principle of the
equipment is universal performance and easy installation
and disassembly. e schematic diagram of the assembly is
shown in Figure 1 below. e main stressed components are
the baffle, support rods, and connecting column. When
sudden storms and floods cause serious waterlogging
problems in towns, the retractable baffle with support rods
on the back is fixed to the entrance and exit of the un-
derground space with pins, and the baffle and support rods
are connected by plug-in connection with a tilt angle θof 45
degrees to 105 degrees. If the waterlogging area is large, the
baffle can be unfolded by the rotating handle; or the baffle
can be spliced according to the modularity through the
connecting column, and the different working methods of
the flood control wall can be determined according to the
different intensity and scope of the waterlogging. e un-
derground flood walls designed in this paper are all me-
chanical structures, which are convenient to assemble,
disassemble, and maintain. ey ensure that there is no risk
of leakage during the process of blocking waterlogging and
ensure that the maximum stress and offset distance are
within a safe range when the flood wall is fully expanded.
3. Basis of Theoretical
3.1. Combined Load Analysis. is paper considers the ef-
fects of combined loads such as static water, dynamic water,
and impact to calculate and analyze the bearing capacity of
the expandable and mobile flood wall assembly. Static water
load is the most common load state of flood control walls, as
shown in Figure 2. e pressure of static water acts on the
baffle of the flood wall, and the load of the baffle is trans-
ferred to the support rod. erefore, the hydrostatic pressure
q
1
can be calculated by the following:
q1ρghL, (1)
where, ρis the density of water (if the content of suspended
solids in the water is large, a larger water density can be
selected appropriately), his the water retaining height of the
flood wall, Lis the span length of the flood wall, and gis the
acceleration of gravity.
When the flood control wall is fixed in the flowing water
area, if the longitudinal direction of the flood control wall is
not parallel to the direction of the water flow, the movement
of the water will generate a dynamic water load on the baffle,
as shown in Figure 3. Since the dynamic water load is caused
by the impulse of water, according to the impulse, we get
F·Δtm· (vsin α).(2)
en the calculation (3) of the dynamic water load q
2
is
as follows:
q2hΔtρ(hLv sin αΔt)vsin α,
q2ρ(vsin α)2L,
􏼨(3)
where, αrepresents the angle between the flood and the
baffle, and vrepresents the water velocity.
When waterlogging disasters occur, the floods are often
accompanied by drifting objects of different shapes. When
they hit the flood wall, the impact load generated cannot be
ignored. is article takes small drifting objects such as block
and bicycle wheels as the main analysis objects and assumes
that the drifting objects will not deform when impacted.
Suppose the elastic stiffness of the baffle is C
F
(N/m).
According to the principle of conservation of energy, the
kinetic energy of the drifting object is transformed into the
strain energy of the assembly, which is obtained by the
energy conservation formula:
1
2m(vsin α)21
2CFη2,(4)
2Mathematical Problems in Engineering
where, mis the mass of the drifting object, vis the speed of
the drifting object (approximately equal to the water speed),
αis the attack angle of the drifting object and the flood wall,
and ηis the structural deformation. e impact load can be
expressed as (5), and the schematic diagram of the impact
load is shown in Figure 4.
FηCFvsin α����
mCF
􏽰.(5)
3.2. Stability Analysis. e design of an expandable mobile
underground flood control wall in this paper focuses on safe
flood prevention at the entrances and exits of underground
spaces in cities and towns, and the inclination angle of the
baffle is 45°θ105°under working conditions. e
analysis of assembly stability [20, 21] mainly focuses on the
Rotating handle
Before expansion Aer expansion
Connecting column---
Retractable baffle
tenon and tenon structure
Fuse Plug-in support rod
Figure 1: Design and assembly drawing of the expandable mobile underground flood control wall.
q1
L
h
Level
Figure 2: Diagram of the hydrostatic load.
q2
L
h
a
Level
Figure 3: Diagram of the hydrodynamic load.
F
a
h
v
Level
Figure 4: Diagram of the impact load.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3
calculation of anti-sliding stability, anti-tilting stability and
base stress calculation of the baffle and support rod along the
bottom of the foundation, as well as the calculation of the
internal force of the connecting column. e formula for
calculating the anti-sliding stability of the support rod of the
flood control wall along the bottom of the foundation is as
follows:
Kcf􏽐Grod
􏽐Lrod
,(6)
where, K
c
represents the safety factor of anti-sliding stability
along the base surface of the support rod, which must be less
than 1.25 under the basic load combination; frepresents the
coefficient of friction between the base surface and the
foundation, and the flood control wall is mostly in a cement
layer. Take f0.45, 􏽐G
rod
represents all the vertical loads
acting on the support rod; 􏽐L
rod
represents all the lateral
loads acting on the support rod. e formula for calculating
the anti-tilting stability of the baffle of the flood control wall
is as follows:
K0􏽐Mbeffle
􏽐Hbeffle
,(7)
where K
0
represents the anti-tilting stability safety factor,
and the basic load combination needs to be less than 1.50;
ΣM
beffle
represents the vertical anti-tilting moment of the
baffle; ΣH
beffle
represents the lateral anti-tilting moment of
the baffle. e base stress calculation formula is as follows:
Pm􏽐Grod
Srod ±􏽐Mbeffle +Hbeffle
􏼁
Wbeffle
,(8)
where P
m
represents the maximum or minimum base stress
of the support rod; 􏽐G
rod
represents all the loads acting on
the support rods of the flood control wall perpendicular to
the horizontal plane; 􏽐(M
beffle
+H
beffle
) represents the load
acting on the flood control wall baffle. e sum of all
moments above; S
rod
represents the area of the base surface
of the support rod; W
beffle
represents the cross-sectional
distance of the baffle mandrel. e schematic diagram of the
force is shown in Figure 5.
In order to increase the working area of the flood control
wall, two ways of modular splicing and rotating expansion
are designed in this paper. When the connecting column and
baffle are subjected to horizontal force, they are prone to
bend and fracture to different degrees. erefore, the gapless
atomic steel material is selected for the key components such
as the baffle and the connecting column, and the tenon-and-
mortise structural connecting column is designed to effec-
tively increase the stability and impact resistance of the flood
control wall. When analyzing the internal force of the as-
sembly during the flood control process, first determine the
position of the dangerous section of the connecting column,
as shown in Figure 6. en calculate the maximum bending
moment M
max
and shear force F
max
on the dangerous
section according to the possible load combination.
Approximately calculated from the relevant formulas of
material mechanics, the maximum normal stress of the
dangerous section is
ϕmax Mmaxy
Iz
,(9)
where, I
z
is the moment of inertia of the dangerous section,
and yis the ordinate of the normal stress point. e max-
imum shear stress of the dangerous section is
φmax FmaxQz
Izb,(10)
where Q
z
is the area moment of the area on the either side of
the dangerous section from the neutral plane to the neutral
plane, and bis the width of the horizontal slope. After
obtaining the maximum normal stress and maximum shear
stress on the dangerous section, you can refer to the fol-
lowing (11) for internal check.
ϕmaxk
[ϕ]<1,
φmaxk
[φ]<1,
(11)
where krepresents the safety factor, which is generally 0.58.
[ϕ] represents the allowable normal stress, and [φ] repre-
sents the allowable shear stress.
4. Experimental Verification and Discussion
During the modeling process, the selected materials and
property parameters are shown in Table 1. e main baffle is
made of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy, and the connecting
column, support rod, and rotating handle are made of IF
alloy steel [22, 23].
e finite element analysis software Abaqus and
HyperMesh & Hyperview are used for solution calculation
and pre- and postprocessing. First consider the simulation
experiment of the assembly in the hydrostatic state, and the
experimental results are shown in Figure 7 below. When the
Level
Flood
Baffe
Support rood
G
G
Grod
Grod
Hbeffle
Hbeffle
Mbeffle
Mbeffle
Lrod
Lrod
105°
45°
Figure 5: Schematic diagram of the force analysis-baffle and the
support rod.
4Mathematical Problems in Engineering
flood still contacts the entire baffle plane, the main force-
bearing components are transmitted to the support rod. At
this time, the maximum stress on the support rod is
45.682Mpa, and the displacement of the assembly in still
water is 0.532 mm, which can effectively block the effect.
e assembly is vulnerable to the impact of objects of
different shapes on the surface of the baffle in the dynamic
state. At this time, it is necessary to focus on the impact of
the impact load on the assembly. Assuming that the dynamic
water speed is 3 m/s when the flood season comes, the arc-
shaped block (8 Kg) driving the roadside impacts the flood
control wall at the same speed.
When the block shown in Figure 8 impacts the flood
control wall, the main force-bearing parts of the assembly
are baffles, connecting columns, and support rods. e
simulation experiment was carried out to analyze the
maximum stress of each component of the flood control wall
and the dangerous section under the combined load of
dynamic water and impact. e experimental results are
shown in Figure 9 below. e maximum stress at the fixed
bracket of the support rod is 220.762 Mpa, the maximum
stress at the mortise and the tenon joint of the connecting
column is 56.919 Mpa, the maximum stress at the fully
expanded state of the baffle is less than 23.970 Mpa, and the
maximum offset distance of the assembly is 32.334 mm.
Dangerous section
Tenon and tenon
structure
Figure 6: Schematic diagram of dangerous section-baffle and connecting.
Table 1: Material parameters.
Name Elastic modulus (KN/mm
2
) Yield strength (Mpa) Tensile strength (Mpa) Poisson’s ratio
6005A-T6 69 239 266 0.28
IF 225 443 390 0.33
No Result
5.080E+00
1.016E+01
1.523E+01
2.031E+01
2.538E+01
3.046E+01
3.553E+01
4.061E+01
4.568E+01
Contour Plot
S-Stress components IP (Mises)
Simple Average
4.845E-03
Z
X
Y
(a)
Contour Plot
Displacement (Mag)
Analysis system
No Result
5.910E-02
1.182E-01
1.773E-01
2.364E-01
2.955E-01
3.546E-01
4.137E-01
4.728E-01
5.319E-01
0.000E+00
Z
X
Y
(b)
Figure 7: Analysis of hydrostatic load. (a) Maximum stress. (b) Assembly offset.
Figure 8: Simulation schematic.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 5
e simulation results show that the maximum bearing
capacity of the extensible mobile flood control wall designed
in this paper meets the allowable stress of the material under
the combined loads of static water, dynamic water, and
impact, and the safety is guaranteed, and it can be put into
use when the flood season comes. e specific simulation
data are shown in Table 2.
5. Conclusion
e expandable mobile underground flood control wall
adopts mortise and tenon structure splicing and modular
extension design. It is mainly used to protect the entrances
and exits of important underground spaces in cities and
towns during flood season. e finite element simulation
experiment proves that it can be used under combined loads
such as static water, dynamic water, and impact. Meet the
safety performance requirements. Compared with tradi-
tional flood walls, it has the following advantages: (1)
Modular and extended design, the size of the equipment can
be set independently according to the working environment.
(2) Mechanized design to ensure that there is no risk of
electric leakage and electric shock during flood prevention
work, and maintenance is convenient. (3) e telescopic
design of the mortise-and-tenon structure provides quick
installation and operation, convenient disassembly and
storage and greatly reduces labor intensity. (4) e selected
material has good corrosion resistance and impact resistance
and can be disassembled for the passage of people and
vehicles in an emergency.
Data Availability
e data that support the findings of this study are available
from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that they have no known conflicts of
interest.
Figure 9: Analysis of the combined load.
Table 2: Simulation experiment data.
Support bar (MPa) Connection column (Mpa) Baffle (Mpa) Offset distance (mm)
Maximum 220.762 56.919 23.970 32.334
Security index 266.00 266.00 196.00 100.00
6Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Acknowledgments
e author was supported by the Hubei Provincial Key
Project of Philosophy and Social Sciences (No. 21D036) and
the Key Project of Humanities and Social Sciences in Hubei
Province (No. ZXKY2021155).
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With the rapid development of urban underground space, flood control measures based on sandbags can no longer meet its flood control requirements. This paper studies a new mobile flood control wall based on the entrance and exit of urban underground space. The mobile flood control wall is composed of baffles, bottom plates, and struts of aluminum alloy. The working principle is as follows: increasing the friction between the bottom plate and the ground by using the vertical component of the upstream water pressure. This paper first carries out the size design, then carries on the typical analysis based on the hydrological data of a certain subway station, then uses the material mechanics method to verify the material strength, and finally verifies the model’s safety and anti-leakage ability through model tests. Through the material mechanics method, the safety factor k = 1.14 > 1, the strength meets the requirements; the impermeability is verified by the model test through the model test, and the anti-sliding stability safety factor k = 2.36 > 1.10 is calculated from the data to ensure the stability and safety of the flood control wall. By verifying the feasibility of the new mobile flood control wall, it has a positive reference significance for urban underground space flood control.
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In this study, new undrained stability solutions of cantilever flood walls in clay were proposed and solved by finite element analysis with a two dimensional plane strain condition. The analysis considered flood walls in homogeneous and non-homogeneous clay layers, where the latter corresponded to a linear increase of shear strength with depth. Two parametric studies were performed for embedded length ratios and dimensionless strength gradients. Results were summarized in the form of design charts for stability number, normalized maximum shear force and normalized maximum bending moment as a function of those two parameters. Closed-form solutions were proposed for a convenient and accurate evaluation of undrained stability of flood walls in practice, and their applications were demonstrated through a back analysis of a case study.
Article
During hurricane events, moored barges are at risk of being propelled by high winds and impacting flood protection walls in the vicinity. Cities like New Orleans, Louisiana are at particular risk for such hazards, due to the preponderance of canals and moored barges throughout the city combined with high hurricane risk. Unfortunately, limited information is available to estimate the magnitude of barge impact loads for the design of floodwalls. In this paper, forces associated with hurricane-wind-propelled barge impacts on floodwalls are quantified using high-resolution dynamic finite element simulations. Such simulations account for highly nonlinear material deformation in the impacting barge, nonlinear soil response, and dynamic interaction between the barge, wall, and soil. The paper presents force histories for a variety of representative impact scenarios which can be used directly in dynamic analysis of floodwalls. Additional guidance is provided for employing the force results in static design scenarios.
Nonlinear Analysis of a Flood protection Device
  • K Hincz
K. Hincz, "Nonlinear Analysis of a Flood protection Device," in Proceedings of the IASS Annual Symposia, pp. 1-8, Xian, China, 2018.
Seepage point Repair Plan of Flood wall in Local Bank Section of Shanxi Road and Bridges
  • Y E Wei
Y. E. Wei, "Seepage point Repair Plan of Flood wall in Local Bank Section of Shanxi Road and Bridges, Etc. Along Suzhou River," Water Conservancy Construction and Management, vol. 5, pp. 70-74, 2018.
Research on Water Retaining Test of Movable Flood Control wall
  • J. J. Wu
Application Prospects of New-type Prefabricated Flood Control walls in Wuhan City Flood Control
  • P Lei
P. Lei, "Application Prospects of New-type Prefabricated Flood Control walls in Wuhan City Flood Control," China Municipal Engineering, vol. 168, pp. 54-55, 2013.