Article

Taking Alcohol from One’s Parents’ Home Without Permission as a Risk Factor for Greater Alcohol and Marijuana Use During the Transition into College

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Abstract

While adolescents and underage emerging adults typically obtain alcohol from social sources (e.g., parents, friends, parties), taking alcohol from the home without permission is not well understood. The current study investigated plausible individual characteristics associated with taking alcohol from one’s parents’ home without permission and associations between taking alcohol and drinking, alcohol consequences, and marijuana use. Two cohorts of alcohol-experienced underage emerging adults (N=562) completed a web-based survey pre-college matriculation. Participants reported sources of alcohol (friend, mother, father, party, took it from home); drinking; consequences; marijuana use (ever and past 30 days); age of alcohol initiation; symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress; parental modeling of drinking; and demographic information. Results revealed that taking alcohol was significantly associated with several of the measures examined here (e.g., having obtained alcohol from friends, parents, and parties; earlier age of alcohol initiation; parental modeling of alcohol). Having taken alcohol from the home without permission and obtained it from friends were uniquely associated with increased odds of typical weekly drinking, consequences, and marijuana use in the past 30 days when controlling for all other variables assessed in this study (including drinking, in the consequences and marijuana models). Parent-based interventions targeting adolescents and emerging adults should inform parents of the risks associated with taking alcohol from the home and obtaining it from friends. Further, parents should also be informed that supplying their adolescent with alcohol or modeling drinking may increase the likelihood that they take alcohol from their home.

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Background: The effects of parent-based interventions on adolescent alcohol use are unclear, including what factors moderate intervention effects. This study examines the effects of parent-based interventions on adolescent alcohol use and whether the treatment effects vary by participants' characteristics and intervention characteristics. Methods: Eleven electronic databases and relevant studies' references were searched for eligible studies published before March 2017. Randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of any parent-based intervention for alcohol use outcomes among adolescents up to 18 years old were eligible for review. Two reviewers independently conducted screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Robust variance estimation in meta-regression was used to analyze treatment effect size estimates and to conduct moderator analysis. Results: Twenty studies were included in the meta-analysis. The average treatment effect size across all drinking outcomes, with 44 effect sizes from 20 studies, was g = -0.23 with a 95% confidence interval [-0.35, -0.10] which is statistically significant. Parent-based interventions appreared to have larger mean effect sizes on adolescent drinking intention than binge drinking. Interventions targeting both general and alcohol-specific parenting strategies had larger average effect sizes than interventions targeting alcohol-specific parenting only. Conclusions: This meta-analysis found evidence of parent-based interventions' efficacy in preventing or reducing adolescent alcohol use.
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Objective: The transition to college is an important developmental period for the development of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug (cocaine, opiates, inhalants, stimulants, hallucinogens, Ecstasy, club drugs) use. The current study explored specific changes in substance use patterns during and after the transition to college through the use of trajectory analyses. Method: Participants were 526 students who reported retrospectively and prospectively on their substance use from age 13 through the junior year of college. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectory groups for alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use during this period. Results: Results supported a five-group model of alcohol use, a four-group model of marijuana use, and a four-group model of hard drug use. Although three of the five alcohol trajectories indicated high escalation throughout adolescence, one of these groups decreased in alcohol use dramatically during the freshman and sophomore years, a trend also found for hard drug use. Trajectories demonstrated significant differences in terms of gender, race, and impulsive personality characteristics. Conclusions: These results indicate that the start of college is an important developmental transition in terms of polysubstance use, and that despite the homogeneity of this undergraduate sample, there is considerable divergence in trajectories during college.
Article
A randomized controlled trial tested an interactive normative feedback-based intervention—codenamed“FITSTART”—delivered to groups of 50–100 parents of matriculating college students. The 60-minsession motivated parents to alter their alcohol-related communication by correcting normative misperceptions (e.g., about how approving other parents are of student drinking) with live-generated data. Then,tips were provided on discussing drinking effectively. Incoming students (N � 331; 62.2% female)completed baseline measures prior to new-student orientation. Next, at parent orientation in June, thesestudents’ parents were assigned to either FITSTART or a control session. Finally, 4 months later, students completed a follow-up survey. Results revealed that students whose parents received FITSTART duringthe summer consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED) during the first month of college. These effects were mediated by FITSTART students’ lower perceptionsof their parents’ approval of alcohol consumption. Further, FITSTART students who were not drinkersin high school were less likely to initiate drinking and to start experiencing negative consequences duringthe first month of college, where FITSTART students who had been drinkers in high school experiencedfewer consequences overall and were significantly more likely to report that they did not experience anyconsequences whatsoever during the first month of college. Importantly, FITSTART is the first parentbasedintervention to impact HED, one of the most well-studied indicators of risky drinking. Thus, interactive group normative feedback with parents is a promising approach for reducing college alcohol risk. Keywords: parent-based intervention, alcohol, college, normative feedback
Article
Objective: Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. Method: The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Results: Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. Conclusions: The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.
Article
Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in preventing, curbing or reducing substance use (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) among 10 to 18-year-olds. The databases PubMed, PsychInfo, Eric and Google Scholar were used to identify randomized trials published within the past 12 years evaluating effects on adolescent substance use. Of the 653 identified in the first screening, 39 publications dealing with 13 programs were included. Results reveal desirable effects of parenting measures such as rule-setting, monitoring and parent-child communication. There was also some evidence in terms of preventing, curbing or reducing adolescent substance use. However, this appears to depend particularly on the age group of the adolescents in question, the kind of parents included and the intensity of the program. To conclude, the results of this systematic review underline the importance of including parents in programs aiming to impede initiation of substance use or curb or reduce already existing substance use in adolescence.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Objective: Alcohol use established during the first-year of college can result in adverse consequences during the college years and beyond. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the efficacy of interventions to prevent alcohol misuse by first-year college students. Method: Studies were included if the study reported an individual- or group-level intervention using a randomized controlled trial, targeted 1st-year college students, and assessed alcohol use. Forty-one studies with 62 separate interventions (N = 24,294; 57% women; 77% White) were included. Independent raters coded sample, design, methodological features, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes, using fixed- and random-effects models, were calculated. Potential moderators, determined a priori, were examined to explain variability in effect sizes. Results: Relative to controls, students receiving an intervention reported lower quantity and frequency of drinking and fewer problems (d(+)s = 0.07-0.14). These results were more pronounced when the interventions were compared with an assessment-only control group (d(+)s = 0.11-0.19). Intervention content (e.g., personalized feedback) moderated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions: Behavioral interventions for 1st-year college students reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Interventions that include personalized feedback, moderation strategies, expectancy challenge, identification of risky situations, and goal-setting optimize efficacy. Strategies to prevent alcohol misuse among first-year students are recommended.
Article
Background: Among adolescents, substance abuse often occurs in conjunction with risk-taking behaviors. Aims: This review explores the nature and etiology of concomitant risk-taking behaviors, addressing behavioral, genetic, temperamental, and family factors that accompany adolescent substance use. Method: A literature review was conducted to determine the breadth of factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse and correlated risk-taking behaviors, and to identify relevant evidence-based treatments. Results: The literature review revealed that among adolescents, substance abuse occurs as part of a cluster of problems and risk-taking behaviors. Predisposing factors include temperament, genetics, neurobehavioral disinhibition, social competencies, parenting, abuse/neglect, and peer behaviors. Various interventions, including individual therapies, parent training, and family therapies comprise the empirically-supported treatments for these co-occurring behaviors. Conclusions: The literature indicates that adolescents being seen for substance-related problems should be evaluated for engagement in other risk-taking behaviors, and school, peer, and social functioning. In addition, the data support that family, versus individual, interventions should be the norm for substance-abusing adolescents. Declaration of interest: The authors neither received financial support, nor are involved in financial relationships that pose a conflict of interest for this work.
Article
White matter development is important for efficient communication between brain regions, higher order cognitive functioning, and complex behaviors. Adolescents have a higher propensity for engaging in risky behaviors, yet few studies have explored associations between white matter integrity and risk taking directly. Altered white matter integrity in mid-adolescence was hypothesized to predict subsequent risk taking behaviors 1.5 years later. Adolescent substance users (predominantly alcohol and marijuana, n = 47) and demographically similar nonusers (n = 49) received diffusion tensor imaging at baseline (ages 16-19), and risk taking measures at both baseline and an 18-month follow-up (i.e., at ages 17-20). Brain regions of interest were the fornix, superior corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In substance-using youth (n = 47), lower white matter integrity at baseline in the fornix and superior corona radiata predicted follow-up substance use (ΔR2 = 10-12%, ps < .01), and baseline fornix integrity predicted follow-up delinquent behaviors (ΔR2 = 10%, p < .01) 1.5 years later. Poorer fronto-limbic white matter integrity was linked to a greater propensity for future risk taking behaviors among youth who initiated heavy substance use by mid-adolescence. Most notable were relationships between projection and limbic-system fibers and future substance-use frequency. Subcortical white matter coherence, along with an imbalance between the maturation levels in cognitive control and reward systems, may disadvantage the resistance to engage in risk taking behaviors during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This study explored secondary effects of a multisite randomized alcohol prevention trial on tobacco, marijuana, and other illicit drug use among a sample of incoming college students who participated in high school athletics. Students (n = 1,275) completed a series of Web-administered measures at baseline during the summer before starting college and 10 months later. Students were randomized to one of four conditions: a parent-delivered intervention, a brief motivation enhancement intervention (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students [BASICS]), a condition combining the parent intervention and BASICS, and assessment-only control. A series of analyses of variance evaluating drug use outcomes at the 10-month follow-up assessment revealed significant reductions in marijuana use among students who received the combined intervention compared to the BASICS-only and control groups. No other significant differences between treatment conditions were found for tobacco or other illicit drug use. Our findings suggest the potential utility of targeting both alcohol and marijuana use when developing peer- and parent-based interventions for students transitioning to college. Clinical implications and future research directions are considered.
Article
To investigate how community alcohol outlet density may be associated with alcohol access among adolescents. Data were collected through a three-wave panel study with youth aged 14-16 at baseline using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Study participants were recruited from 50 zip codes with varying alcohol outlet density and median household income in California. Data analyses were conducted using multilevel, linear growth models and data from 1028 youth (52% male, 51% white). After taking into account individual-level factors and zip code median household income, zip code alcohol outlet density was significantly and positively related to the initial levels of the likelihood and frequency of getting alcohol through various sources including commercial outlets, shoulder tapping, home or family members, and underage acquaintances. High levels of alcohol outlets in the community enable youth access to alcohol through commercial outlets, family, and social networks.
Article
This study examined the impact of parental modeled behavior and permissibility of alcohol use in late high school on the alcohol use and experienced negative drinking consequences of college students. Two-hundred ninety college freshmen at a large university were assessed for perceptions of their parents' permissibility of alcohol use, parents' alcohol-related behavior, and own experienced negative consequences associated with alcohol use. Results indicate that parental permissibility of alcohol use is a consistent predictor of teen drinking behaviors, which was strongly associated with experienced negative consequences. Parental modeled use of alcohol was also found to be a risk factor, with significant differences being seen across the gender of the parents and teens. Discussion focuses on risk factors and avenues for prevention research.
Article
Existing studies of the association between age at first drink (AFD) and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) suffer from inconsistent levels of control and designs that may inflate associations by failure to control for duration of exposure to risk. This study examined associations between AFD (ages <15 and 15-17 vs. 18+ years) and first incidence of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, abuse, and specific AUD criteria over a 3-year follow-up in a longitudinal study of U.S. drinkers 18 years of age and older at baseline (n = 22,316), controlling for duration of exposure, family history, and a wide range of baseline and childhood risk factors. After adjusting for all risk factors, the incidence of dependence was increased for AFD <15 years (OR = 1.38) and for women only with AFD at ages 15 to 17 (OR = 1.54). The incidence of abuse was increased at AFD <15 and 15 to 17 years (OR = 1.52 and 1.30, respectively). Most dependence criteria showed significant associations with AFD, but hazardous drinking and continued drinking despite interpersonal problems were the only abuse criteria to do so. All associations were nonsignificant after controlling for volume of consumption, except that AFD at all ages <18 combined was associated with a reduced likelihood of impaired control, and AFD at ages 15 to 17 was associated with lower odds of drinking more/longer than intended among heavy-volume drinkers. In a population of low-risk drinkers that excluded those with positive family histories, personality disorders, and childhood risk factors, there were strong associations between early AFD (<18) and the incidence of dependence (OR = 3.79) and continued drinking despite physical/psychological problems (OR = 2.71), but no association with incidence of abuse. There is a robust association between AFD and the risk of AUD that appears to reflect willful rather than uncontrolled heavy drinking, consistent with misuse governed by poor decision-making and/or reward-processing skills associated with impaired executive cognitive function (ECF). Additional research is needed to determine causality in the role of impaired ECF, including longitudinal studies with samples of low-risk adolescents.
Article
Alcohol abuse among college students is prevalent, yet few instruments with sound reliability and validity are available to assess these problems in this population. As part of a large, baseline assessment battery for a prospective study of offspring of alcoholics, the 27-item Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST) was given to 490 freshmen at a large midwestern university; approximately 9 months later, 482 subjects completed the scale again. In addition to asking about such traditional problems as experiencing blackouts and driving while intoxicated, the YAAPST included specific items relating to college experiences (eg, getting into sexual situations that were later regretted, missing classes, and receiving lower grades than usual). The YAAPST was designed to assess these drinking consequences over two different time frames, lifetime and past year, and also to indicate the frequency of occurrence during the past year. Results indicated that the YAAPST is a unidimensional scale with good psychometric properties (good internal consistency and test-retest reliability). Three different approaches were used to demonstrate the validity of the YAAPST. Findings supported criterion validity (with interview-based alcohol abuse/dependence diagnoses as the criterion), concurrent validity (comparing the YAAPST with other drinking measures), and construct validity (correlating the YAAPST with etiologically relevant personality, motivational, and peer influence variables). The YAAPST is a promising screening instrument for alcohol problems in college students. It has excellent psychometric properties and the potential to provide a range of useful information to the clinician or researcher.
Article
A sample of 865 10-16-year-olds from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds completed a questionnaire battery concerning 3 aspects of autonomy: emotional autonomy in relationship with parents, resistance to peer pressure, and the subjective sense of self-reliance. The observed patterns of relations among the measures cast doubt on the notion that autonomy is a unidimensional trait manifested similarly across a variety of situations. For most boys and girls, the transition from childhood into adolescence is marked more by a trading of dependency on parents for dependency on peers, rather than straightforward and unidimensional growth in autonomy. Moreover, contrary to long-standing notions about the greater salience of autonomy to adolescent males than to females, girls score higher than boys on all 3 measures of autonomy at all age levels.
Article
The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.
Article
The research evaluated the efficacy of an intervention to reduce the onset and extent of binge drinking during the 1st year of college. The approach was on influencing the students before they start college, through their parents, during the critical time between high school graduation and the beginning of college. Specifically, parents were educated about binge drinking and how to convey information to their teens, and then encouraged to talk with their teens just before their teens embarked on their college education. Teens whose parents implemented the intervention materials were compared with a control sample during their 1st semester on drinking outcomes, perceptions about drinking activities, perceived parental and peer approval of drinking, and drinking-related consequences. As anticipated, teens in the treatment condition were significantly different (p < .05) on nearly all outcomes in the predicted directions (e.g., lower drinking tendencies, drinking consequences). The benefits of a parent-based intervention to prevent college drinking are discussed.
Article
To compare two different parenting practices (parental monitoring and negotiated unsupervised time) and perceived parental trust in the reporting of health risk behaviors among adolescents. Data were derived from 692 adolescents in 9th and 10th grades (x = 15.7 years) enrolled in health education classes in six urban high schools. Students completed a self-administered paper-based survey that assessed adolescents' perceptions of the degree to which their parents monitor their whereabouts, are permitted to negotiate unsupervised time with their friends and trust them to make decisions. Using gender-specific multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined the relative importance of parental monitoring, negotiated unsupervised time with peers, and parental trust in predicting reported sexual activity, sex-related protective actions (e.g., condom use, carrying protection) and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana). For males and females, increased negotiated unsupervised time was strongly associated with increased risk behavior (e.g., sexual activity, alcohol and marijuana use) but also sex-related protective actions. In males, high parental monitoring was associated with less alcohol use and consistent condom use. Parental monitoring had no affect on female behavior. Perceived parental trust served as a protective factor against sexual activity, tobacco, and marijuana use in females, and alcohol use in males. Although monitoring is an important practice for parents of older adolescents, managing their behavior through negotiation of unsupervised time may have mixed results leading to increased experimentation with sexuality and substances, but perhaps in a more responsible way. Trust established between an adolescent female and her parents continues to be a strong deterrent for risky behaviors but appears to have little effect on behaviors of adolescent males.
Article
Despite a minimum legal drinking age, many young people use alcohol. Environmental strategies to control youth drinking focus on restricting access and the enforcement of possession laws. This study examines the relationship between use of these strategies and the frequency of youth alcohol use and related problems. Participants were 16,694 students, ages 16-17 in 92 communities in Oregon. A multi-level analysis of a repeated cross-sectional statewide student survey was conducted. The outcome measures examined include 30-day frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, use of alcohol at school, and drinking and driving. The rate of illegal merchant sales in the communities directly related to all four alcohol-use outcomes. There was also evidence that communities with higher minor in possession law enforcement had lower rates of alcohol use and binge drinking. The use of various sources in a community expanded and contracted somewhat depending on levels of access and enforcement. This evidence provides empirical support for the potential utility of local efforts to maintain or increase alcohol access control and possession enforcement.
Article
To compare adults' approval of adolescents' alcohol use among white, black, and Latino youth and to evaluate the effects of approval on most recent alcohol consumption, past 30-day use and binge drinking. A cross-sectional telephone survey of N = 6245 adolescents from 242 communities was conducted as part of the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program. The survey assessed perceived availability of alcohol, underage alcohol use, and problems related to underage drinking. Ordinary least squares regression modeling was used to test the relationships between adults' approval and most recent consumption. Logistic regression modeling was used to measure the association among approval, past 30-day use and binge drinking. Perceived consequences, parent and adult relative provision of alcohol, and drinking with a parent were protective of underage drinking. Providing alcohol at a party, however, was associated with a two-fold increase in past 30-day use and binge drinking. There were minimal differences on adults' approval across the three racial/ethnic groups. Adults' approval of alcohol use is highly correlated with youth drinking behavior and has differential effects on adolescents' alcohol use depending on the social context in which the alcohol is provided.
Article
Although a number of measures of alcohol problems in college students have been studied, the psychometric development and validation of these scales have been limited, for the most part, to methods based on classical test theory. In this study, we conducted analyses based on item response theory to select a set of items for measuring the alcohol problem severity continuum in college students that balances comprehensiveness and efficiency and is free from significant gender bias. We conducted Rasch model analyses of responses to the 48-item Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire by 164 male and 176 female college students who drank on at least a weekly basis. An iterative process using item fit statistics, item severities, item discrimination parameters, model residuals, and analysis of differential item functioning by gender was used to pare the items down to those that best fit a Rasch model and that were most efficient in discriminating among levels of alcohol problems in the sample. The process of iterative Rasch model analyses resulted in a final 24-item scale with the data fitting the unidimensional Rasch model very well. The scale showed excellent distributional properties, had items adequately matched to the severity of alcohol problems in the sample, covered a full range of problem severity, and appeared highly efficient in retaining all of the meaningful variance captured by the original set of 48 items. The use of Rasch model analyses to inform item selection produced a final scale that, in both its comprehensiveness and its efficiency, should be a useful tool for researchers studying alcohol problems in college students. To aid interpretation of raw scores, examples of the types of alcohol problems that are likely to be experienced across a range of selected scores are provided.