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Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor is required for spindle assembly in Xenopus oocytes

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Abstract

The extent to which calcium signaling participates in specific events of animal cell meiosis or mitosis is a subject of enduring controversy. We have previously demonstrated that buffering intracellular calcium with 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, a fast calcium chelator), but not Ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a slow calcium chelator), rapidly depolymerizes spindle microtubules in Xenopus oocytes, suggesting that spindle assembly and/or stability requires calcium nanodomains – calcium transients at extremely restricted spatial-temporal scales. In this study, we have investigated the function of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP 3 R), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium channel, in spindle assembly using Trim21-mediated depletion of IP 3 R. Oocytes depleted of IP 3 R underwent germinal vesicle breakdown but failed to emit the first polar body and failed to assemble proper meiotic spindles. Further, we developed a cell-free spindle assembly assay in which cytoplasm was aspirated from single oocytes. Spindles assembled in this cell-free system were encased in ER membranes, with IP 3 R enriched at the poles, while disruption of either ER organization or calcium signaling resulted in rapid spindle disassembly. As in intact oocytes, formation of spindles in cell-free oocyte extracts also required IP 3 R. We conclude that intracellular calcium signaling involving IP 3 R-mediated calcium release is required for meiotic spindle assembly in Xenopus oocytes.

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A cell-free preparation of the cytoplasm from activated eggs of Rana pipiens induces, in demembranated sperm nuclei of Xenopus laevis, formation of a nuclear envelope, chromatin decondensation, initiation of DNA synthesis, and chromosome condensation. Both soluble and particulate cytoplasmic constituents are required to initiate these processes in vitro. The observed changes resemble processes occurring during fertilization and the mitotic cycle in early amphibian embryos. Therefore, this cell-free system may be useful in biochemical analysis of the interactions of nucleus and cytoplasm that control nuclear behavior.
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To study the role of the IP3 receptor (IP3R) upon egg activation, cDNA clones encoding IP3R expressed in the Xenopus oocytes were isolated. By analyses of the primary structure and functional expression of the cDNA, Xenopus IP3R (XIP3R) was shown to have an IP3-binding domain and a putative Ca2+ channel region. Immunocytochemical studies revealed polarized distribution of XIP3R in the cytoplasm of the animal hemisphere in a well-organized endoplasmic reticulum-like structure and intensive localization in the perinuclear region of stage VI immature oocytes. In ovulated unfertilized eggs, XIP3R was densely enriched in the cortical region of both hemispheres in addition to its polarized localization. After fertilization, XIP3R showed a drastic change in its distribution in the cortical region. These results imply the predominant role of the XIP3R in both the formation and propagation of Ca2+ waves at fertilization.
Article
A transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i occurs throughout the cell as sea urchin embryos enter anaphase of the first cell cycle. The transient just precedes chromatid disjunction and spindle elongation. Microinjection of calcium chelators or heparin, an InsP3 receptor antagonist, blocks chromosome separation. Photorelease of calcium or InsP3 can reverse the block. Nuclear reformation is merely delayed by calcium antagonists at concentrations that block chromatid separation. Thus, the calcium signal triggers the separation of chromatids, while calcium-independent pathways can bring about the alterations in microtubule dynamics and nuclear events associated with anaphase progression. That calcium triggers chromosome disjunction alone is unexpected. It helps explain previous conflicting results and allows the prediction that calcium plays a similar role at anaphase in other cell types.
Article
Elevation of intracellular Ca2+ at fertilization is essential for the initiation of development in the Xenopus egg, but the pathway between sperm-egg interaction and Ca2+ release from the egg's endoplasmic reticulum is not well understood. Here we show that injection of an inhibitory antibody against the type I IP(3) receptor reduces Ca2+ release at fertilization, indicating that the Ca2+ release requires IP(3). We then examine how IP(3) production is initiated. Xenopus eggs were injected with specific inhibitors of the activation of two phospholipase C isoforms, PLCgamma and PLCbeta. The Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of PLCgamma were used to inhibit SH2-mediated activation of PLCgamma, and an antibody against G(q) family G-proteins was used to inhibit G(q)-mediated activation of PLCbeta. Though the PLCgamma SH2 domains inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced Ca2+ release in eggs with exogenously expressed PDGF receptors, they did not inhibit the Ca2+ rise at fertilization. Similarly, the G(q) family antibody blocked serotonin-induced Ca2+ release in eggs with exogenously expressed serotonin 2C receptors, but not the Ca2+ rise at fertilization. A mixture of PLCgamma SH2 domains and the G(q) antibody also did not inhibit the Ca2+ rise at fertilization. These results indicate that Ca2+ release at fertilization of Xenopus eggs requires type I IP(3)-gated Ca2+ channels, but not SH2 domain-mediated activation of PLCgamma or G(q)-mediated activation of PLCbeta.
Article
The organization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the cortex of Xenopus oocytes was investigated during maturation and activation using a green fluorescent protein chimera, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. Dense clusters of ER developed on the vegetal side (the side opposite the meiotic spindle) during maturation. Small clusters appeared transiently at the time of nuclear envelope breakdown, disappeared at the time of first polar body formation, and then reappeared as larger clusters in mature eggs. The appearance of the large ER clusters was correlated with an increase in releasability of Ca(2+) by IP(3). The clusters dispersed during the Ca(2+) wave at activation. Possible relationships of ER structure and Ca(2+) regulation are discussed.
Article
Xenopus laevis oocytes are popular cells in experimental biology. Fully grown oocytes are large (approximately 1.3-mm diameter) with an enormous nucleus (approximately 300-microm diameter). Oocytes are generally isolated by either manual dissection (manual defolliculation) or enzymatic (mainly with collagenase preparations) digestion of the extracellular connective tissues. In this chapter, we describe both procedures, which are routinely used in our laboratory. However, manual defolliculation does not actually remove the innermost layer of follicle cells, which are anchored to the vitelline membrane. To remove these follicle cells, further mechanical or enzymatic treatment is required. On the other hand, many have experienced nonspecific effects with collagenase-treated oocytes, including spontaneous oocyte maturation and reduced oocyte health. We discuss possible explanations and solutions to these problems. Finally, we also describe procedures we employ routinely to isolate oocyte nuclei and enucleated oocytes.
Article
Oocyte maturation in mouse is associated with a dramatic reorganisation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from a network of cytoplasmic accumulations in the germinal vesicle-stage oocyte (GV) to a network of distinctive cortical clusters in the metaphase II egg (MII). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that this redistribution of the ER is important to prepare the oocyte for the generation of repetitive Ca2+ transients which trigger egg activation at fertilisation. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the timecourse and mechanism of ER reorganisation during oocyte maturation. The ER is first restructured at the time of GV-breakdown (GVBD) into a dense network of membranes which envelop and invade the developing meiotic spindle. GVBD is essential for the initiation of ER reorganisation, since ER structure does not change in GV-arrested oocytes. ER reorganisation is also prevented by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole and by the inhibition of cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule-associated motor protein. ER redistribution at GVBD is therefore dynein-driven and cell cycle-dependent. Following GVBD the dense network of ER surrounds the spindle during its migration to the oocyte cortex. Cortical clusters of ER are formed close to the time of, but independently of the metaphase I-metaphase II transition. Formation of the characteristic ER clusters is prevented by the depolymerisation of microfilaments, but not of microtubules. These experiments reveal that ER reorganisation during oocyte maturation is a complex multi-step process involving distinct microtubule- and microfilament-dependent phases and indicate a role for dynein in the cytoplasmic changes which prepare the oocyte for fertilisation.
Presynaptic nanodomains: a tale of two synapses
  • L Y Wang
Wang, L.Y., and Augustine, G.J. (2014). Presynaptic nanodomains: a tale of two synapses. Front Cell Neurosci 8, 455. 10.3389/fncel.2014.00455 [doi].