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Abstract

Social-ecological systems underpinning nature-based solutions (NbS) must be resilient to changing conditions if they are to contribute to long-term climate change adaptation. We develop a two-part conceptual framework linking social-ecological resilience to adaptation outcomes in NbS. Part one determines the potential of NbS to support resilience based on assessing whether NbS affect key mechanisms known to enable resilience. Examples include social-ecological diversity, connectivity, and inclusive decision-making. Part two includes adaptation outcomes that building social-ecological resilience can sustain, known as nature's contributions to adaptation (NCAs). We apply the framework to a global dataset of NbS in forests. We find evidence that NbS may be supporting resilience by influencing many enabling mechanisms. NbS also deliver many NCAs such as flood and drought mitigation. However, there is less evidence for some mechanisms and NCAs critical for resilience to long-term uncertainty. We present future research questions to ensure NbS can continue to support people and nature in a changing world. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 47 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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... A simple observation on all current efforts to increase SOC stocks as part of mitigation measures is that such efforts will not be reflected in national data unless the national accounting system is concurrently refined to include data on the spatial extent of a finer categorization of land use that reflects different phases of a SOC transition curve. Contrary to expectations, a recent review of forest nature-based solutions found no cases that reported positive effects on SOC storage (31). As a quick scan of the literature after www.annualreviews.org ...
... Soil carbon stocks combine SOC and bulk density (weight per volume) information. Estimates of the C stock of the world's soils, restricted to the top 30-cm soil layer, are estimated to be between 574 and 967 Pg C with a median of 732 Pg C; C stock of upper m of soil ranged between 933 and 2,649 Pg C with a median of 1,408 Pg C, or 1.92 times the median for the upper 30 cm (31,34). There is still much uncertainty about the size of SOC hotspots, including permafrost areas, and landscapes that have not yet been mapped accurately such as peatlands, mangroves, and high-carbon mineral soils: ■ The northern permafrost region covers approximately 12% of Earth's land surface and has a SOC density at 320-700 Mg C ha −1 with SOC stock estimated at 472 Pg C for 0-1-m depth and 1,035 Pg C for 0-3-m depth (35). ...
... The loss of SOC in agricultural production is significant. Each year in the tropical region, approximately 11 million hectares fall below the 1.1% SOC critical limit (31), which may have an impact on crop production. Annual SOC loss in the world's cropping topsoil was estimated at a rate of 2.4‰ year −1 (31), while in European croplands the rate was 5‰ year −1 (183 would be required to compensate for such historical loss rates, after a soil C transition curve has bottomed out. ...
Article
The few percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) among mineral components form the interface of climate, plant growth, soil biological processes, physical transport infrastructure, and chemical transformations. We explore maps, models, myths, motivation, means of implementation, and modalities for transformation. Theories of place relate geographic variation in SOC to climate, soil types, land cover, and profile depth. Process-level theories of biophysical change and socioeconomic theories of induced change explain SOC transitions that follow from land use change when a declining curve is bent and recovery toward SOC saturation starts. While the desirability of recovering from SOC deficits has been mainstreamed into climate policy, the effectiveness of proposed measures taken remains contested. Process-level requirements for transitions at plot and landscape scales remain uncertain. Expectations of policy-induced SOC transitions have to align with national cross-sectoral C accounting and be managed realistically with land users (farmers) and commodity supply chains (private sector, consumers). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 48 is October 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... NbS have been increasingly recommended for urban adaptation and as an alternative to traditional urban infrastructure [6][7][8][9]. The term "Nature-based Solutions" was first mentioned in a World Bank report from 2008 [10,11] listing projects addressing the biodiversity It is important to distinguish NbS from general greening projects. ...
... (8) Adopting a top-down model of governance, as NbS requires community participation. (9) Having a static management approach, meaning that NbS should have adaptive management with innovation throughout its lifespan, being based on the theory of change. Transparency in decision-making is key, including public participation. ...
... There are examples of maladaptation associated with choosing the wrong species, for example, sheltering homes from windstorms using species that are not resilient to windstorms [9]. This knowledge exists today, but there are cases in which it does not. ...
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The concept of nature-based solutions (NbS) has been endorsed by multiple international organizations as one of the priority approaches to address climate-related challenges. These solutions are versatile, and can simultaneously address challenges such as climate impacts, public health, inequality, and the biodiversity crisis, being uniquely suited for urban adaptation. NbS are particularly relevant in the developing world, where strategies should be as self-reliant as possible, reducing the need for technological processes that require expensive and complex maintenance. NbS can also promote political, societal, cultural, and ultimately, systems change. The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review on the use of NbS for urban adaptation, identifying the main opportunities, challenges, and, most specifically, knowledge gaps, which can be addressed in subsequent research. The present paper identifies four types of knowledge gaps that are particularly relevant for the use of NbS for urban adaptation: future climate uncertainty, lack of site-specific technical design criteria, governance strategies, and effectiveness assessment evaluation. To overcome local governments’ limitations, specific implementation strategies and structures should be considered, centered on knowledge transfer within a transdisciplinary and participatory framework. These should be developed in partnership with urban planning entities, seeking to consolidate these approaches in policies that support social resilience and institutional capacity. Therefore, urban adaptation should be initiated with pilot projects to simultaneously address the urgency for implementation, while allowing urban planning practices the time to adjust, building capacity at the local level, and filling knowledge gaps through the assessment of effectiveness. The climate-resilience of urban tree species adequate to the future climate was identified as a relevant knowledge gap for the implementation of NbS.
... Nature-based solutions (NbS)-actions that involve working with nature to address societal challenges, with benefits for both people and biodiversity-are widely recognised as having the potential to provide a win-win for jointly addressing the climate and biodiversity crises (IUCN, 2020;Austin et al., 2021;Mori et al., 2021;Seddon et al., 2021;Seddon, 2022). Through restoring, connecting and protecting a wide range of ecosystems and sustainably managing working lands and seas, NbS can help reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases while also reducing the vulnerability of social-ecological systems to the impacts of climate change (Seddon et al., 2020a;Roe et al., 2021;Turner et al., 2022). Such actions also sustain biodiversity both directly, by protecting and enhancing the health, extent and connectivity of ecosystems and the species they support, and indirectly by reducing climate change and its impacts on species and habitats. ...
... NbS are fundamentally a social-ecological system, where local human communities are inseparable from the ecological elements (Seddon et al., 2020a;Woroniecki et al., 2021;Turner et al., 2022). Here we focus on the links between NbS and their ecological outcomes. ...
... No genetic metrics were used, and landscape scale metrics rarely were used, including metrics of function (e.g., nutrient cycling), structure (e.g., connectivity) and composition (e.g., proportions of different habitats). Direct measures of resistance to and recovery time from stress were also rarely considered (although we note that many of the other metrics listed here could be important indirect measures or proxies of resilience, see Turner et al. 2022). We encourage practitioners and scientists to consider including such underrepresented metrics in their assessments, in line with their relevance to the intervention, habitat and aims. ...
Article
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Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. Both these outcomes rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to continue to function despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of NbS for climate change mitigation has developed in recent years, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood. To address this, we systematically reviewed the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g., diversity, biomass, ecosystem composition). We showed that 88% of interventions with reported positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits for both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a “triple win.” However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two key limitations in our understanding of the outcomes of NbS for ecosystem health. First, a limited selection of metrics are used and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is limited: 50% of interventions only had evidence for effects on plants, and 57% of outcomes did not distinguish between native and non-native species. We make suggestions of how to improve assessments of the ecosystem health outcomes of NbS, as well as policy recommendations to enable the upscaling of NbS that support flourishing and resilient ecosystems, and are effective in addressing both climate and biodiversity goals.
... Together and through their interactions, the social and ecological components of vulnerability determine the vulnerability of people who live in an SES. An NbS has potential to influence both social and ecological aspects of vulnerability through changes to an SES (Seddon et al., 2020a;Turner et al., 2022), because each NbS intervention is embedded within a specific SES andat least, when successfulforms a place-based partnership between people and nature (Palomo et al., 2021;Seddon et al., 2020;Turner et al., 2022;Tzoulas et al., 2021). ...
... Together and through their interactions, the social and ecological components of vulnerability determine the vulnerability of people who live in an SES. An NbS has potential to influence both social and ecological aspects of vulnerability through changes to an SES (Seddon et al., 2020a;Turner et al., 2022), because each NbS intervention is embedded within a specific SES andat least, when successfulforms a place-based partnership between people and nature (Palomo et al., 2021;Seddon et al., 2020;Turner et al., 2022;Tzoulas et al., 2021). ...
... No previous study has attempted to determine the state of the evidence of the pathways through which people's vulnerability to climate change can be addressed through naturebased adaptation actions. A recent study by Turner et al. (2022) provided an in-depth analysis of the specific mechanisms by which NbS can help SES be resilient and respond to change, helping to illuminate the sensitivity and adaptive capacity dimensions of the vulnerability framework. Yet here we provide the first analysis of all the social and ecological pathways through which NbS shape people's vulnerability, focusing on rural areas of lower income countries. ...
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Nature-based solutions (NbS) - working with and enhancing nature to address societal challenges - are increasingly being featured in climate change adaptation policy and plans. While there is growing evidence that NbS can reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in general, there is a lack of understanding on the mechanisms through which this can be achieved, particularly in the Global South. To address this, we analyse 85 nature-based interventions in rural areas across the Global South, and factors mediating their effectiveness, based on a systematic map of peer-reviewed studies encompassing a wide diversity of ecosystems, climate impacts, and intervention types. We develop and apply an analytical framework of people’s social-ecological vulnerability to climate change, in terms of six pathways of vulnerability reduction: social and ecological exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Most cases (95%) report a reduction in vulnerability, primarily by lowering ecosystem sensitivity to climate impacts (73% of interventions), followed by reducing social sensitivity (52%), reducing ecological exposure (36%), increasing social adaptive capacity (31%), increasing ecological adaptive capacity (19%) and/or reducing social exposure (14%). An analysis of mediating factors shows that social dimensions are equally important as technical factors in NbS to achieving equitable and effective outcomes. Attention to the distinct social and ecological pathways through which vulnerability is reduced helps to harness the multiple benefits of working with nature in a warming world.
... The the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 while developing the Clean Development Mechanism, such as afforestation, excluded ecosystems-solutions like natural forests due to a lack of solid science to measure forest-related emissions [87][88][89] . Yet, afforestation was laden with criticisms of potential attempts to convert natural forests to forest plantations, thus threatening the livelihoods of local communities and indigenous peoples and environmental integrity, including the conservation of biodiversity and natural landscape [88,90,91] . ...
... The the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 while developing the Clean Development Mechanism, such as afforestation, excluded ecosystems-solutions like natural forests due to a lack of solid science to measure forest-related emissions [87][88][89] . Yet, afforestation was laden with criticisms of potential attempts to convert natural forests to forest plantations, thus threatening the livelihoods of local communities and indigenous peoples and environmental integrity, including the conservation of biodiversity and natural landscape [88,90,91] . The Kyoto Protocol ended in 2012 but found its way into the Paris Agreement having not elaborated on safeguards for tackling historical global constellations of socio-ecological concerns [92][93][94] . ...
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Global warming is unequivocal. The Paris Agreement requires that countries undertake a global stocktake beginning in 2023 at the 28th Conference of Parties to be held in Doha and every five years thereafter. Countries will demonstrate aggregate progression towards balancing greenhouse gases by sources and removals, adapting to the threats from climate change, the flow of climate finances, and contribution of achievement of sustainable development goals. This paper designs an Enhanced Climate Mitigation Actions and Safeguard (ECMAS) Indicator Framework and applies it to 188 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). It assesses the implications of the quality of the information provided to improve clarity, transparency, and understanding of the NDCs. Findings show inconsistencies in terms used to describe emission reduction (ER) targets, unmet mitigation ambitions, and poorly elaborated safeguards. The study concludes that the information in the NDCs may jeopardize the sustainability and inclusiveness of net-zero ER targets and Paris Agreement goals, and the ECMAS Indicator Framework can help countries design and pursue appropriate pathways. Our findings recommend the need for policy guidelines to harmonize terminologies in NDCs, promotion of tools for enhancing net-zero ER targets and strengthening of institutional arrangements for elaborating and ensuring safeguards against socio-ecological inequalities are promoted and respected.
... Appreciation of a wider portfolio of ecosystem services and nature's benefits may lead to management aimed at mixed coniferous and deciduous forests, longer harvesting rotations and voluntary set-asides. The increased focus on adaptation to climate change has indeed increased the application of such adaptations [374,375]. Employing alternatives to even-aged rotation forestry that rely on natural regeneration reduce forest owner's costs, which in turn yield increased net monetary income because expenses decrease. ...
... Efforts to cope with climate and forest landscape change must include and integrate both ecological and social systems at multiple spatial scales, i.e., what geographers call landscapes. A development from "Business-As-Usual" forestry focusing on wood production, to proactively plan use and conservation and coping with climate change and climate adaptation, is complex, e.g., [234,374,375,409]. This requires collaboration between different stakeholders and learning based on evidence and systems analysis [9]. ...
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Swedish policies aim at conserving biological production, biodiversity, cultural heritage and recreational assets. This requires compositionally and structurally functional networks of representative habitats, the processes that maintain them, and resilient ecosystems. The term green infrastructure (GI) captures this. We review (1) policy concerning forest biodiversity conservation from the 1990s; (2) the implementation outputs, including the formulation of short-term and evidence-based long-term goals for protected areas, education, and the development of hierarchical spatial planning; (3) the consequences in terms of formally protected and voluntarily set-aside forest stands, as well as conservation management and habitat restoration. We assess the successes and failures regarding policy, outputs and consequences, discuss challenges to be addressed, and suggest solutions. Policies capture evidence-based knowledge about biodiversity, and evidence-based conservation planning as an output. However, the desired consequences are not met on the ground. Thus, the amount of formally protected and voluntary set-aside forests are presently too low, and have limited quality and poor functional connectivity. GI functionality is even declining because of forestry intensification, and insufficient conservation. Challenges include limited collaborative learning among forest and conservation planners, poor funding to conserve forest habitats with sufficient size, quality and connectivity, and national politics that ignores evidence-based knowledge. As solutions, we highlight the need for diversification of forest management systems with a landscape perspective that matches forest owner objectives and regional social-ecological contexts. This requires integrative approaches to knowledge production, learning and spatial planning.
... However, little is known about human adaptation to climate change in the context of forests (Moreau et al., 2022;Zhang et al., 2022). While the nature-based solutions literature is rapidly expanding (Chausson et al., 2020;Key et al., 2022;Turner et al., 2022;Woroniecki et al., 2022), and scholars have addressed forestry-based adaptation in conceptual and review articles , the empirical research literature on human adaptation efforts in the context of forests has not been systematically assessed. Building on a recent inventory of the empirical research literature on human adaptation to climate change published between (Berrang-Ford et al., 2021b, we systematically review the literature regarding how people adapt to climate change in the context of forests, including the diversity of actor types, climatic stressors, and responses. ...
Article
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We assessed how people adapt to climate change in the context of forests through a systematic review of the international empirical research literature. We found that drought, precipitation variability, extreme precipitation and flooding, and extreme heat were the climatic stressors to which responses were most frequently documented. Individuals and households received the most research attention, followed by national government, civil society, and local government. Europe and North America were the geographic foci of more research than other regions. Behavioral responses were more reported than technical and infrastructural responses and institutional responses. Within these types of responses, actors used a wide variety of practices such as replanting, altering species composition, and adopting or changing technology. Adaptation efforts in early planning and advanced implementation received some attention, but early implementation and expanding implementation were most reported. While connections between responses and risk reduction were discussed, there is limited evidence of risk reduction. Our review contributes to the scholarly and practical understanding of how people adapt to climate change in the context of forests. The review also identifies opportunities for future research on adaptation to other climatic stressors, such as wildfires and tree pests and pathogens, adaptation in other geographic areas, especially Oceania, and adaptation by actors beyond the individual and household level and through institutional adaptation efforts.
... The potential of NbS for supporting fisheries sustainability and climate change adaptation is increasingly recognized [17,43,66,68], yet further efforts are needed to better guide its operationalization [60,66]. ...
... Further, there has been a growing recognition of the need for integrated approaches across multiple social, ecological, economic, and technological domains of resilience (Ahlborg, Ruiz-Mercado, Molander & Masera, 2019;Cabezas, Pawlowski, Mayer & Hoagland, 2004;Chang et al., 2021;Holling, 2001;Wang, Wang, Chen & Liu, 2022). In particular, considering the complex interlinkages between humans and natural ecosystems, much work has been done on social-ecological resilience (Anderies, Janssen & Ostrom, 2004;Holling, 2001;Ostrom, 2009;Ramaswami et al., 2012;Turner et al., 2022;Xiang, 2019). This entails a systemic approach acknowledging that social and ecological systems co-evolve, and socio-ecological resilience is more than the sum of social and ecological resilience (Cucuzza, Stoll & Leslie, 2020;de Vos, Biggs & Preiser, 2019). ...
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Resilience is a widely debated concept that encompasses various interpretations and definitions. Recently, in science and policy circles, there has been a growing interest in the concept of Social-Ecological-Technological Systems (SETS) resilience which offers a new interpretation. While this concept is now used frequently, it is not properly understood and there is still a lack of clarity on what it means and its underpinning principles. This lack of clarity and understanding may confuse and even disorient researchers and policy makers. To address this issue, we review the literature published in the context of urban systems. The reviewed literature is mainly focused on nature-based solutions, indicating more contributions from the ecological field. Also, flooding, extreme heat, and drought are major stressors discussed in the literature. We elaborate on the definition of SETS resilience and discuss that its dominant principles are adaptability, transformability, flexibility, redundancy, equity, diversity, foresight capacity, connectivity, robustness, multi-functionality, learning, and non-linearity. We also expound upon the key components of SETS, how they are intertwined, and potential trade-offs that may emerge between them. Our study demonstrates that the implementation of the SETS approach leads to numerous ancillary benefits. These include benefits for climate change adaptation and mitigation, pandemic prevention and response, human health and well-being, and justice. If multi-level and polycentric governance strategies are adopted, it can also help avoid trade-offs that may emerge between social, ecological, and technological dimensions. We conclude by emphasizing that the literature is dominated by epistemological approaches and more empirical research is needed to understand better the complex dynamics of SETS resilience.
... Ecosystembased adaptation is one of the emerging concepts that promise to promote a holistic approach to addressing the climate challenge. With its roots in the older ecosystem management concept [63,64] and constituting part of the broader category of nature-based solutions [57,65,66], ecosystem-based adaptation adopts a multi-sectoral approach to maintaining healthy ecosystems as a means of building resilience and reducing the vulnerability of social and ecological systems to climate change impacts [7,57,60]. Ecosystem-based adaptation seeks to harness various ecosystem services to achieve a range of objectives, including poverty reduction, livelihood enhancement, biodiversity conservation, as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation [67][68][69]. ...
Article
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The growing realization of the inadequacies of the conventional approach to climate change adaptation has generated interest in sustainable forms of adaptation that could promote long-term ecosystem health and social equity. In this regard, the concept of ecosystem-based adaptation has been receiving attention as an integrative framework for maintaining healthy ecosystems, with the aim of building the resilience and reducing the vulnerability of social–ecological systems to climate change impacts. However, there is currently an inadequate understanding of the institutional requirements for the transition towards ecosystem-based adaptation. A promising institutional mechanism for addressing these governance challenges is adaptive governance, a governance mechanism that relies on flexible, multi-level institutions to connect actors across multiple scales in managing conflicting values and uncertainties in ecosystem-based management processes. This paper discusses four roles of adaptive governance in the transition of water resource systems towards ecosystem-based adaptation: (1) creating awareness about climate change through social learning and the integration of diverse sources of knowledge; (2) generating interest for policy change through the provision of economic and non-economic incentives; (3) creating opportunities for change through the promotion of vertical and horizontal interactions among actors; and (4) building capacities for change through enhanced access to relevant institutions and resources.
... In response to the climate problem, strengthening the resilience of the shing community is essential to mitigating the risk brought by climate change impacts (Fan et al., 2022). Resilience is measured by the ability of a system to retain the same control on function and structure, the degree to which the system is capable of self-organization, and build to increase the capacity for learning to cope and adapt (Turner et al., 2022). Resilience refers to human actions that sustain development on current pathways. ...
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Fishing communities depend on natural resources to fulfill their livelihood needs, making them more vulnerable during climatic events. However, despite the impacts brought by climate hazards, fishing communities have adaptation strategies and the capacity to be resilient. The study assessed fishing communities' exposure and capacity to adapt to various climatic events by determining their resilience to natural hazards. A focus group discussion (N = 80) and stakeholder meetings (N = 100) were conducted to assess the resilience of fishers in selected fishing villages in Surigao del Sur. A total of six fishing villages with 10–15 fisher participants attended the focus groups. Twelve behavioral indicators were used for the three components of resilience: preparedness, coping, and adaptive capacity. The finding shows that Habag and Nurcia were most exposed to climate hazards among fishing villages in Surigao del Sur, with an average of 3.14. However, Nurcia village had the highest average of 3.33 in preparedness capacity, such as conducting training and seminars on climate hazard awareness. In addition, Nurcia also had the highest average of 4.00 in coping capacity, such as having communication connectedness through an active organization. Overall, Nurcia was the most resilient to climate hazards. Despite their exposure to natural hazards and stressors, fishers in the communities have common connectedness that helps them recover easily and take necessary actions to mitigate the impacts of natural hazards. The local government units should be more active in providing relevant policies, regulations, and assistance to help affected areas during natural hazards.
... Various models of NbS, namely green and blue infrastructure initiatives for restoring wetlands and forests, agroforestry, and urban forestry, provide an opportunity to combine the "gray" (existing) solutions with "green" in a hybrid approach (Seddon et al. 2020;Young et al. 2019). NbS are gaining traction in socio-ecological resilience; however, it is crucial that they are formulated and implemented to ensure their long-term functioning together with climate change (Turner et al. 2022). Collaborative and multidisciplinary research is needed to ensure sustainable solutions in the resilience domain. ...
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Due to the linear nature of our economies, mass production and consumption inherently lead to large quantities of waste generation, which has a negative effect on ecological resilience. It is important to study the economy as a subsystem of ecology. Alternative economic models need to be developed so that there is a balance between economic and socio-ecological interests. Circular economy (CE) enables reimagining and redesigning the ecosystems in order to create a space that is both ecologically safe and socially equitable in the context of ecolonomics. CE with intentionally designed, restorative and regenerative economic model minimizes the impacts on the environment while inducing socio-ecological resilience. Reducing dependency on virgin/fossil-based resources, optimizing the material usage by recirculation, and minimization of waste are key elements that drive the circularity of a system. CE concept is considered a silver bullet in the contexts of resource depletion, climate change, waste minimization and valorization, decarbonization, resilience, and many more global concerns in the emerging Industry 4.0 scenario. Applying resilience thinking to the efforts being made in the transition to a CE could ensure tangible benefits to society and the environment. This communication will explore the function of resilience intertwined with circular strategies in a socio-ecological context.
... But few of these approaches have embraced NbS to improve positive social-ecological interdependencies between biodiversity, ecosystem services and sustainable development.. Rising concerns recognize that NbS have been framed as an external and separate ecological part from people 29 . The fact is, biotic and abiotic components in NbS are also vulnerable towards climate change-induced extreme events that they are intended to address 30,31 . However, the resilience of the biological foundation of NbS are mostly ignored in researches and practices, when compared to their "optimal provisioning" of ecosystem services 32 . ...
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People-nature interdependencies in the social-ecological system (SES) are fundamental to coping with urban flood risks. Nature-based solutions (NbS), a holistic tool considering the people-nature interdependencies, have been advocated widely for urban flood risk management (FRM). However, how NbS has been used from SES perspectives in urban FRM is still not well elaborated, which refers to how NbS contribute to SES factors, processes, and effects? and what SES approaches may support NbS design, implementation, and governance? Therefore, this study first conducted a systematic review of ecological measures in urban FRM during 2000–2022, which showed an imbalance distribution of global knowledge, divergent linkages with social and ecological benefits, and growing insights from SES perspectives. According to the proposed conceptual framework, NbS’ contributions to urban FRM are explained by three dimensions: integrating socioeconomic and ecological factors, coupling social and biophysical processes, and identifying potential tradeoffs/synergies. However, inadequate understandings of NbS’ resilience, effectiveness, and synergy are still key challenges in existing studies that might hamper their contributions to both people and nature. Hence, SES approaches that leverage NbS in future FRM are suggested based on the conceptual framework, including multiple-scale flood resilience assessment, process-based effectiveness modeling, “win-win” effects prediction, and monitoring. We hope that urban FRM can leverage NbS through SES approaches to jointly achieve flood risk mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity protection, and human well-being in the sustainable and resilient pathway.
... Addressing this potential disconnect is key to ensure NbS deliver plural benefits, particularly for the people inhabiting the landscapes where NbS are implemented. Growing evidence shows that the many benefits of NbS are co-produced by people and nature, through the protection, management, and restoration of ecosystems and working landscapes in a way that accounts for the values, needs, and priorities of local stakeholders and rights-holders [104][105][106][107][108]. Accommodating a greater diversity of values in decision-making, therefore, is crucial to deliver healthy, resilient landscapes [84,109]. ...
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Failure to address the climate and biodiversity crises is undermining human well-being and increasing global inequality. Given their potential for addressing these societal challenges, there is growing attention on scaling-up nature-based solutions (NbS). However, there are concerns that in its use, the NbS concept is dissociated with the social and economic drivers of these societal challenges, including the pervasive focus on market-based mechanisms and the economic growth imperative, promoting the risk of greenwashing. In this perspective, we draw on recent research on the effectiveness, governance, and practice of NbS to highlight key limitations and pitfalls of a narrow focus on natural capital markets to finance their scaling up. We discuss the need for a simultaneous push for complementary funding mechanisms and examine how financial instruments and market-based mechanisms, while important to bridge the biodiversity funding gap and reduce reliance on public funding, are not a panacea for scaling NbS. Moreover, market-based mechanisms present significant governance challenges, and risk further entrenching power asymmetries. We propose four key recommendations to ensure finance mechanisms for biodiversity and NbS foster more just, equitable, and environmentally sustainable pathways in support of the CBD’s (Convention on Biological Diversity) 2050 vision of “living in harmony with nature”. We stress that NbS must not be used to distract attention away from reducing emissions associated with fossil fuel use or to promote an agenda for perpetual economic growth and call on government policy makers to decenter GDP growth as a core economic and political target, refocusing instead on human and ecological well-being.
... Pb gets collected in the renal cortex's proximal involuted tubules, which exhibit morphological and biochemical signs of Pb toxicity (130). Occult Pb nephropathy may not be detected as such because acute Pb-induced kidney damage can happen without acute overdose (131). Renal function impairment occurs as a result of persistent lead buildup in the body. ...
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Toxicity with heavy metals has proven to be a significant hazard with several health problems linked to it. Heavy metals bioaccumulate in living organisms, pollute the food chain, and possibly threaten the health of animals. Many industries, fertilizers, traffic, automobile, paint, groundwater, and animal feed are sources of contamination of heavy metals. Few metals, such as aluminum (Al), may be eliminated by the elimination processes, but other metals like lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Ca) accumulate in the body and food chain, leading to chronic toxicity in animals. Even if these metals have no biological purpose, their toxic effects are still present in some form that is damaging to the animal body and its appropriate functioning. Cadmium (Cd) and Pb have negative impacts on a number of physiological and biochemical processes when exposed to sub-lethal doses. The nephrotoxic effects of Pb, As, and Cd are well known, and high amounts of naturally occurring environmental metals as well as occupational populations with high exposures have an adverse relationship between kidney damage and toxic metal exposure. Metal toxicity is determined by the absorbed dosage, the route of exposure, and the duration of exposure, whether acute or chronic. This can lead to numerous disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress generated by free radical production. Heavy metals concentration can be decreased through various procedures including bioremediation, pyrolysis, phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, biochar, and thermal process. This review discusses few heavy metals, their toxicity mechanisms, and their health impacts on cattle with special emphasis on the kidneys.
... The potential of NbS for supporting fisheries sustainability and climate change adaptation is increasingly recognized (Key et al., 2021;Cooley et al., 2022;Seddon, 2022;Turner et al., 2022), yet further efforts are needed to better guide its operationalization (Riisager-Simonsen et al., 2022;Seddon, 2022). ...
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The western Mediterranean basin is a high marine biodiversity area under severe pressure by changing climate and intense human activities. Beyond national jurisdictions, international institutions such as the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) work towards canalizing a regional consensus that fishing practices should evolve to better support the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this context, Fisheries Restricted Areas (FRA) are proposed as effective management measures to contribute towards increasing fisheries sustainability in the region that can be considered, under some conditions, as Nature-based Solutions (NbS); however, how to operationalize their framework remains unclear. In this study, based on combined ecological and fisheries criteria, we identify and prioritize six potential priority areas for management (PAMs) in the western Mediterranean Sea. They are specifically aimed at the protection and recovery of Essential Fish Habitats and the conservation of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, whilst requiring limited adaptation of fisheries practices due to their relative low fishing pressure. We compare the identified areas to those that are currently under protection, and to areas that have been proposed for protection at the GFCM. Our results show that the FRAs and other spatial management measures introduced in the last years marginally contribute to the protection PAMs in the western Mediterranean region. However, the adoption of FRAs that are currently under discussion at the GFCM could contribute significantly to improve the situation. FRAs could also contribute to operationalize NbS in the western Mediterranean Sea when properly designed and implemented. Highlights Based on combined ecological and fisheries criteria, six priority areas for management (PAMs) in the western Mediterranean Sea have being identified, with multiple ecological values and relative low trawling. Current spatial management measures implemented have little contribution on PAMs protection. Fisheries Restricted Areas currently under discussion at the GFCM can significantly increase the protection level of high priority PAMs.
... First, climate change is capable of influencing biodiversity through increasing in the intensity and frequency of fires, storms, droughts, and floods. This alters the ecological system, which in turn affects human health (Turner et al., 2022). Second, climate change, such as changes in rainfall and temperature, may also influence the spread of diseases by aiding the distribution of vectors (Semenza and Paz, 2021). ...
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Nature-based solutions (NbS) - working with and enhancing nature to address societal challenges - are increasingly being featured in climate change adaptation policy and plans. While there is growing evidence that NbS can reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts in general, there is a lack of understanding on the mechanisms through which this can be achieved, particularly in the Global South. To address this, we analyse 85 nature-based interventions in rural areas across the Global South, and factors mediating their effectiveness, based on a systematic map of peer-reviewed studies encompassing a wide diversity of ecosystems, climate impacts, and intervention types. We develop and apply an analytical framework of people’s social-ecological vulnerability to climate change, in terms of six pathways of vulnerability reduction: social and ecological exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Most cases (95%) report a reduction in vulnerability, primarily by lowering ecosystem sensitivity to climate impacts (73% of interventions), followed by reducing social sensitivity (52%), reducing ecological exposure (36%), increasing social adaptive capacity (31%), increasing ecological adaptive capacity (19%) and/or reducing social exposure (14%). An analysis of mediating factors shows that social dimensions are equally important as technical factors in NbS to achieving equitable and effective outcomes. Attention to the distinct social and ecological pathways through which vulnerability is reduced helps to harness the multiple benefits of working with nature in a warming world.
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Ecosystems play a potentially important role in sustainably reducing the risk of disaster events worldwide. Yet, to date, there are few comprehensive studies that summarize the state of knowledge of ecosystem services and functions for disaster risk reduction. This paper builds scientific evidence through a review of 529 English-language articles published between 2000 and 2019. It catalogues the extent of knowledge on, and confidence in, ecosystems in reducing disaster risk. The data demonstrate robust links and cost-effectiveness between certain ecosystems in reducing specific hazards, something that was revealed to be particularly true for the role of vegetation in the stabilization of steep slopes. However, the published research was limited in geographic distribution and scope, with a concentration on urban areas of the Global North, with insufficient relevant research on coastal, dryland and watershed areas, especially in the Global South. Many types of ecosystem can provide sustainable and multifunctional approaches to disaster risk reduction. Yet, if they are to play a greater role, more attention is needed to fill research gaps and develop performance standards. Disaster risks are a critical area for research, but while the focus has been on man-made adaptation, this analysis of 529 studies compiles evidence for how ecosystems can mitigate hazard vulnerabilities.
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The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods for Social-Ecological Systems provides a synthetic guide to the range of methods that can be employed in social-ecological systems (SES) research. The book is primarily targeted at graduate students, lecturers and researchers working on SES, and has been written in a style that is accessible to readers entering the field from a variety of different disciplinary backgrounds. Each chapter discusses the types of SES questions to which the particular methods are suited and the potential resources and skills required for their implementation, and provides practical examples of the application of the methods. In addition, the book contains a conceptual and practical introduction to SES research, a discussion of key gaps and frontiers in SES research methods, and a glossary of key terms in SES research. Contributions from 97 different authors, situated at SES research hubs in 16 countries around the world, including South Africa, Sweden, Germany and Australia, bring a wealth of expertise and experience to this book. The first book to provide a guide and introduction specifically focused on methods for studying SES, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of sustainability science, environmental management, global environmental change studies and environmental governance. The book will also be of interest to upper-level undergraduates and professionals working at the science–policy interface in the environmental arena.
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Transformation of social-ecological systems due to climate change requires, transformative adaptation responses. We propose the concept of nature's contribution to adaptation (NCA; previously called adaptation services), to reveal properties of ecosystems that provide options for future livelihoods and adaptation to transformative change. Knowledge about the capacity of ecosystems to supply NCA can inform decisions by revealing options for adaptation. We analysed eight historical and contemporary case studies of transformative adaptation and found that the five cases with medium-high degree of adaptation and use of NCA showed evidence of participative learning and co-production of adaptation options, low values contestation, low power imbalances and well-developed governance arrangements. These variables indicated that communities engaged in adaptation had ownership and agency to change how they thought and acted to implement transformative adaptation. We found the use of NCAs enabled transformative adaptation by helping people overcome current decision constraints imposed by societal values, institutional rules, or knowledge deficits to create novel options and re-frame decision contexts. The NCA concept can be applied to (1) help resolve uncertainties about nature's contributions to people under environmental change; (2) reveal ecosystem properties of value for adaptation, but which are marginalised in current, dominant knowledge frameworks and decision-making; (3) act as a 'boundary object' for participative learning and co-production of adaptation options. Thus, the NCA concept represents a pragmatic, optimistic approach for societal adaptation to ecosystem transformation , countering feelings of despair that accompany the acceptance of irreversible, unavoidable loss of current ecosystem states and associated nature's contributions to people.
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Ecosystem functions provided by forests are threatened by direct and indirect effects of global change drivers such as climate warming land use change, biological invasions, and shifting natural disturbance regimes. To develop resilience-based forest management, new tools and methods are needed to quantitatively estimate forest resilience to management and future natural disturbances. We propose a multi-dimensional evaluation of ecological resilience based on species functional response traits (e.g. functional response diversity and functional redundancy) and network properties of forested patches (e.g. connectivity, modularity, and centrality). Using a fragmented rural landscape in temperate south-eastern Canada as a reference landscape, we apply our multi-dimensional approach to evaluate two alternative management strategies at three levels of intensity: (1) functional enrichment of current forest patches and (2) multi-species plantations in previously non-forested patches. Within each management strategy, planted species are selected to maximize functional diversity, drought tolerance, or pest resistance. We further compare how ecological resilience under these alternative management strategies respond to three simulated disturbances: drought, pest outbreak, and timber harvesting. We found that both management strategies enhance resilience at the landscape scale by increasing functional response diversity and connectivity. Specifically, when the less functionally diverse patches are prioritized for management, functional enrichment is more effective than the establishment of new multi-species plantations in increasing resilience. In addition, randomly allocated multi-species plantations increased connectivity more than those allocated in riparian areas. Our results show that across various management strategies, planting species to enhance biodiversity led to the highest increase in functional response diversity while planting pest-resistant species led to the highest increase in landscape connectivity. Planting biodiversity-enhancing species (i.e. species that maximize functional diversity) mitigated drought effects equally well as planting with drought-tolerant species. Our multi-dimensional approach facilitates the characterisation at the landscape scale of forest resilience to disturbances using both functional diversity and network properties while accounting for the importance of response traits to future disturbances. The simulation approach we used can be applied to forest landscapes across different biomes for the evaluation and comparison of forest management initiatives to enhance resilience.
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There is growing awareness that ‘nature-based solutions' (NbS) can help to protect us from climate change impacts while slowing further warming, supporting biodiversity and securing ecosystem services. However, the potential of NbS to provide the intended benefits has not been rigorously assessed. There are concerns over their reliability and cost-effectiveness compared to engineered alternatives, and their resilience to climate change. Trade-offs can arise if climate mitigation policy encourages NbS with low biodiversity value, such as afforestation with non-native monocultures. This can result in maladaptation, especially in a rapidly changing world where biodiversity-based resilience and multi-functional landscapes are key. Here, we highlight the rise of NbS in climate policy—focusing on their potential for climate change adaptation as well as mitigation—and discuss barriers to their evidence-based implementation. We outline the major financial and governance challenges to implementing NbS at scale, highlighting avenues for further research. As climate policy turns increasingly towards greenhouse gas removal approaches such as afforestation, we stress the urgent need for natural and social scientists to engage with policy makers. They must ensure that NbS can achieve their potential to tackle both the climate and biodiversity crisis while also contributing to sustainable development. This will require systemic change in the way we conduct research and run our institutions. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Climate change and ecosystems: threats, opportunities and solutions’.
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Ecosystems can sustain social adaptation to environmental change by protecting people from climate change effects and providing options for sustaining material and non-material benefits as ecological structure and functions transform. Along adaptation pathways, people navigate the trade-offs between different ecosystem contributions to adaptation, or adaptation services (AS), and can enhance their synergies and co-benefits as environmental change unfolds. Understanding trade-offs and co-benefits of AS is therefore essential to support social adaptation and requires analysing how people co-produce AS. We analysed co-production along the three steps of the ecosystem cascade: (i) ecosystem management; (ii) mobilization; and (iii) appropriation, social access and appreciation. Using five exemplary case studies across socio-ecosystems and continents, we show how five broad mechanisms already active for current ecosystem services can enhance co-benefits and minimize trade-offs between AS: (1) traditional and multi-functional land/sea management targeting ecological resilience; (2) pro-active management for ecosystem transformation; (3) co-production of novel services in landscapes without compromising other services; (4) collective governance of all co-production steps; and (5) feedbacks from appropriation, appreciation of and social access to main AS. We conclude that knowledge and recognition of co-production mechanisms will enable pro-active management and governance for collective adaptation to ecosystem transformation. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Climate change and ecosystems: threats, opportunities and solutions’.
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Ensuring ecosystem resilience is an intuitive approach to safeguard the functioning of ecosystems and hence the future provisioning of ecosystem services (ES). However, resilience is a multi‐faceted concept that is difficult to operationalize. Focusing on resilience mechanisms, such as diversity, network architectures or adaptive capacity, has recently been suggested as means to operationalize resilience. Still, the focus on mechanisms is not specific enough. We suggest a conceptual framework, resilience trinity, to facilitate management based on resilience mechanisms in three distinctive decision contexts and time‐horizons: 1) reactive, when there is an imminent threat to ES resilience and a high pressure to act, 2) adjustive, when the threat is known in general but there is still time to adapt management, and 3) provident, when time horizons are very long and the nature of the threats is uncertain, leading to a low willingness to act. Resilience has different interpretations and implications at these different time horizons, which also prevail in different disciplines. Social ecology, ecology, and engineering are often implicitly focussing on provident, adjustive, or reactive resilience, respectively, but these different notions of resilience and their corresponding social, ecological, and economic tradeoffs need to be reconciled. Otherwise, we keep risking unintended consequences of reactive actions, or shying away from provident action because of uncertainties that cannot be reduced. The suggested trinity of time horizons and their decision contexts could help ensuring that longer‐term management actions are not missed while urgent threats to ES are given priority.
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A growing number of cities are incorporating resilience into their plans and policies to respond to shocks, stresses, and uncertainties. While some scholars advocate for the potential of resilience research and practice, others argue that it promotes an inherently conservative and neoliberal agenda, prevents systemic transformations, and pays insufficient attention to power, politics, and justice. Notably, critics of the urban resilience agenda argue that policies fail to adequately address social equity issues. This study seeks to inform these debates by providing a cross-sectional analysis of how issues of equity are incorporated into urban resilience planning. We develop a tripartite framework of equity that includes distributional, recognitional, and procedural dimensions and use it to analyse the goals, priorities, and strategies of formal resilience plans created by member cities of the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Cities programme. Our analysis reveals considerable variation in the extent to which cities focus on equity, implying that resilience may be more nuanced than some critics suggest. There are, however, clear areas for improvement. Dominant conceptions of equity are generally tied to a distributional orientation, with less focus on the recognitional and procedural dimensions. We hope our conceptual framework and lessons learned from this study can inform more just resilience planning and provide a foundation for future research on the equity implications of resilience.
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Despite substantial increases in the scope and magnitude of biodiversity conservation and ecological restoration, there remains ongoing degradation of natural resources that adversely affects both biodiversity and human well-being. Nature-based Solutions (NbS) can be an effective framework for reversing this trend, by increasing the alignment between conservation and sustainable development objectives. However, unless there is clarity on its evolution, definition and principles, and relationship with related approaches, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based standards and guidelines, or to implement, assess, improve and upscale NbS interventions globally. In order to address this gap, we present the definition and principles underpinning the NbS framework, recently adopted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and compare it to (1) the Ecosystem Approach that was the foundation for developing the NbS definitional framework, and (2) four specific ecosystem based approaches (Forest Landscape Restoration, Ecosystem-based Adaptation, Ecological Restoration and Protected Areas) that can be considered as falling under the NbS framework. Although we found substantial alignment between NbS principles and the principles of the other frameworks, three of the eight NbS principles stand out from other approaches: NbS can be implemented alone or in an integrated manner with other solutions ; NbS should be applied at a landscape scale; and, NbS are integral to the overall design of policies, measures and actions, to address societal challenges. Reversely, concepts such as adaptive management/governance, effectiveness , uncertainty, multi-stakeholder participation, and temporal scale are present in other frameworks but not captured at all or detailed enough in the NbS principles. This critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the NbS principles can inform the review and revision of principles supporting specific types of NbS (such as the approaches reviewed here), as well as serve as the foundation for the development of standards for the successful implementation of NbS.
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Abstract Human impacts on Earth’s ecosystems have greatly intensified in the last decades. This is reflected in unexpected disturbance events, as well as new and increasing socio-economic demands, all of which are affecting the resilience of forest ecosystems worldwide and the provision of important ecosystem services. This Anthropocene era is forcing us to reconsider past and current forest management and silvicultural practices, and search for new ones that are more flexible and better at dealing with the increasing uncertainty brought about by these accelerating and cumulative global changes. Here, we briefly review the focus and limitations of past and current forest management and silvicultural practices mainly as developed in Europe and North America. We then discuss some recent promising concepts, such as managing forests as complex adaptive systems, and approaches based on resilience, functional diversity, assisted migration and multi-species plantations, to propose a novel approach to integrate the functionality of species-traits into a functional complex network approach as a flexible and multi-scale way to manage forests for the Anthropocene. This approach takes into consideration the high level of uncertainty associated with future environmental and societal changes. It relies on the quantification and dynamic monitoring of functional diversity and complex network indices to manage forests as a functional complex network. Using this novel approach, the most efficient forest management and silvicultural practices can be determined, as well as where, at what scale, and at what intensity landscape-scale resistance, resilience and adaptive capacity of forests to global changes can be improved.
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The study of social-ecological systems (SES) has been significantly shaped by insights from research on complex adaptive systems (CAS). We offer a brief overview of the conceptual integration of CAS research and its implications for the advancement of SES studies and methods. We propose a conceptual typology of six organizing principles of CAS based on a comparison of leading scholars' classifications of CAS features and properties. This typology clusters together similar underlying organizing principles of the features and attributes of CAS, and serves as a heuristic framework for identifying methods and approaches that account for the key features of SES. These principles can help identify appropriate methods and approaches for studying SES. We discuss three main implications of studying and engaging with SES as CAS. First, there needs to be a shift in focus when studying the dynamics and interactions in SES, to better capture the nature of the organizing principles that characterize SES behavior. Second, realizing that the nature of the intertwined social-ecological relations is complex has real consequences for how we choose methods and practical approaches for observing and studying SES interactions. Third, engagement with SES as CAS poses normative challenges for problem-oriented researchers and practitioners taking on real-world challenges.
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Although many governments, financial institutions, and corporations are embracing nature-based solutions as part of their sustainability and net-zero carbon strategies, some nations, Indigenous peoples, local community groups, and grassroots organizations have rejected this term. This pushback is fueled by (i) critical uncertainties about when, where, how, and for whom nature-based solutions are effective and (ii) controversies surrounding their misuse in greenwashing, violations of human rights, and threats to biodiversity. To clarify how the scientific community can help address these issues, I provide an overview of recent research on the benefits and limits of nature-based solutions, including how they compare with technological approaches, and highlight critical areas for future research.
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The urgency of restoring ecosystems to improve human wellbeing and mitigate climate and biodiversity crises is attracting global attention. The UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021–2030) is a global call to action to support the restoration of degraded ecosystems. And yet, many forest restoration efforts, for instance, have failed to meet restoration goals; indeed, they worsened social precarities and ecological conditions. By merely focusing on symptoms of forest loss and degradation, these interventions have neglected the underlying issues of equity and justice driving forest decline. To address these root causes, thus creating socially just and sustainable solutions, we develop the Political Ecology Playbook for Ecosystem Restoration. We outline a set of ten principles for achieving long-lasting, resilient, and equitable ecosystem restoration. These principles are guided by political ecology, a framework that addresses environmental concerns from a broadly political economic perspective, attending to power, politics, and equity within specific geographic and historical contexts. Drawing on the chain of explanation, this multi-scale, cross-landscapes Playbook aims to produce healthy relationships between people and nature that are ecologically, socially, and economically just – and thus sustainable and resilient – while recognizing the political nature of such relationships. We argue that the Political Ecology Playbook should guide ecosystem restoration worldwide.
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Forests around the world are experiencing the cumulative effects of rapid social and environmental change. Building resilience in the forestry sector has thus become of major importance in many countries, including Canada. While British Columbia (BC) generates the highest revenue from the forestry sector in Canada, the planning and management of forests in this province face several limitations that hinder the application of resilience thinking in a fully integrated way that accounts not only for ecosystem processes but also the close interconnection between forests and people. Community forestry in BC provides experience gained over 20 years that can form the basis for a more holistic, long-term approach to enhance the resilience of forested landscapes. Based on interviews with managers of 5 case study community forests (CFs), and a survey of all CFs in BC over three consecutive years, we present pilot practices to manage forests for resilience at the stand- and landscape-levels. Findings show that these practices mainly focus on (1) age and species diversification, (2) introduction of more drought-tolerant species, (3) systematic long-term monitoring of productivity and forest health, (4) wildfire risk management, and (5) introduction of enhanced silviculture such as thinning, rehabilitation and fertilization. Between 2016 and 2018, 38 CFs in BC invested more than CAD 4.5 million in enhanced silvicultural practices using their own funds. The area-based tenure of CFs motivated not only long-term planning and investment, but also shifted the mindset among residents towards a more multi-functional and dynamic view of the forest. Building adaptive capacity and social license, CFs foster a future where forest health and community well-being are compatible. These lessons can be scaled to BC and other forested landscapes in Canada and around the world. Scaling mechanisms include: (1) facilitating knowledge exchange; (2) increasing multi-stakeholder collaboration; (3) replication and mainstreaming of effective practices; (4) rethinking the forest tenure system; and (5) systematic research and monitoring to learn from pilot studies that could inform strategic interventions with landscape-scale impact. Multi-functional forests which are increasingly affected by climate change and novel disturbances could particularly benefit from the insights shared in this paper to build social-ecological resilience.
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