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Kiukainen Culture Site Locations—Reflections from the Coastal Lifestyle at the End of the Stone Age

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The Kiukainen culture constitutes a poorly known phase at the end of the Stone Age in Finland, approximately 2500–1800 cal. BC. It is best known for its pottery, and most of the finds are from the coastal area of the Baltic Sea between Helsinki and Ostrobothnia. Previous research on the culture was done several decades ago, so this study aims to define the geographical distribution of the sites known thus far and discuss the landscape around the settlement sites. Creating an overall view of the culture and lifestyle of the people is also an important part of the study. First, it focuses on different collections of Kiukainen pottery and then maps the location of all the sites where pottery has been found. For the landscape visualizations, three different areas were chosen for closer evaluation. Elevation models were, then, used to visualize the Stone Age coastal landscape. Altogether, we identified 99 settlement sites with a confirmed connection to Kiukainen culture. One common feature of the locations is a connection to the sea. The sites are located in various types of environments, but they all have easy access to seafaring and good landing possibilities from the sea.
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Citation: Soisalo, J.; Roiha, J.
Kiukainen Culture Site
Locations—Reflections from the
Coastal Lifestyle at the End of the
Stone Age. Land 2022,11, 1606.
https://doi.org/10.3390/
land11091606
Academic Editors: Paolo Biagi and
Elisabetta Starnini
Received: 27 August 2022
Accepted: 13 September 2022
Published: 19 September 2022
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land
Article
Kiukainen Culture Site Locations—Reflections from the Coastal
Lifestyle at the End of the Stone Age
Janne Soisalo 1, * and Johanna Roiha 2
1Department of Cultures, Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
*Correspondence: janne.soisalo@helsinki.fi
Abstract:
The Kiukainen culture constitutes a poorly known phase at the end of the Stone Age in
Finland, approximately 2500–1800 cal. BC. It is best known for its pottery, and most of the finds are
from the coastal area of the Baltic Sea between Helsinki and Ostrobothnia. Previous research on the
culture was done several decades ago, so this study aims to define the geographical distribution of
the sites known thus far and discuss the landscape around the settlement sites. Creating an overall
view of the culture and lifestyle of the people is also an important part of the study. First, it focuses on
different collections of Kiukainen pottery and then maps the location of all the sites where pottery has
been found. For the landscape visualizations, three different areas were chosen for closer evaluation.
Elevation models were, then, used to visualize the Stone Age coastal landscape. Altogether, we
identified 99 settlement sites with a confirmed connection to Kiukainen culture. One common feature
of the locations is a connection to the sea. The sites are located in various types of environments, but
they all have easy access to seafaring and good landing possibilities from the sea.
Keywords:
Stone Age; Kiukainen culture; pottery; settlement site; Baltic Sea; shoreline modelling;
landscape archaeology; coastal changes
1. Introduction
The Kiukainen culture was a coastal Neolithic culture that existed on the southern
and western coasts of Finland during approximately 2500–1800 cal. BC, starting at the
beginning of the Final Neolithic and continuing until the Bronze Age. Its central distribution
area extends from southern Ostrobothnia to the Gulf of Finland near the Helsinki region
(Figure 1), but only a few inland settlements have been discovered to date. Outside the
actual core area, Kiukainen ceramics have been found in some known Neolithic settlement
sites. The Kiukainen culture was a uniform cultural group in terms of pottery and stone
artefacts, as well as in terms of living in a maritime environment, along the coastline of
the Baltic Sea. It was first identified as a unique cultural form by the Finnish archaeologist
Julius Ailio in 1909 [
1
], and since then, the Kiukainen culture has, periodically, been the
subject of more focused research. The last in-depth study dealing with the culture is Carl
Fredrik Meinander’s 1954 book Die Kiukaiskultur [2].
The Kiukainen culture was preceded by the pan-European Corded Ware Culture,
2900–2200 cal. BC, which spread to Finland from the southern Baltic region by two local
cultural groups. They included the Pyheensilta group [
3
], which lived on the southern and
western coasts of Finland during approximately 3200–2400 cal. BC, and the Pöljä group,
which mainly inhabited the inland and the coast of Ostrobothnia during 3200–2500 cal.
BC [
4
]. Scholars believe that the Kiukainen culture arose as a result of the diffusion of
these different populations and cultural forms, but the populations also had significant
connections with contemporary Scandinavia at the time [
2
,
5
]. The diffusion can be seen in
material culture. It has recently been suggested that the Kiukainen culture ended with a
period of desolation and cultural interruption before the Bronze Age began on the coasts
Land 2022,11, 1606. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091606 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/land
Land 2022,11, 1606 2 of 21
of Finland [
6
]. However, the continued presence of people in the Bronze Age in many
settlement sites and distribution areas used by the Kiukainen culture speaks against this
theory. The beginning of the Bronze Age eventually occurred gradually due to strong
Scandinavian connections and cultural influence, but from an archaeological standpoint,
the change of eras is a time of few discoveries.
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 22
Figure 1. Southwestern Finland, highlighted in yellow. The central distribution area of Kiukainen
culture extends from southern Ostrobothnia to the Gulf of Finland near the Helsinki region.
The Kiukainen culture was preceded by the pan-European Corded Ware Culture,
2900–2200 cal. BC, which spread to Finland from the southern Baltic region by two local
cultural groups. They included the Pyheensilta group [3], which lived on the southern
and western coasts of Finland during approximately 3200–2400 cal. BC, and the Pöljä
group, which mainly inhabited the inland and the coast of Ostrobothnia during 3200
2500 cal. BC [4]. Scholars believe that the Kiukainen culture arose as a result of the diffu-
sion of these different populations and cultural forms, but the populations also had sig-
nificant connections with contemporary Scandinavia at the time [2,5]. The diffusion can
be seen in material culture. It has recently been suggested that the Kiukainen culture
Figure 1.
Southwestern Finland, highlighted in yellow. The central distribution area of Kiukainen
culture extends from southern Ostrobothnia to the Gulf of Finland near the Helsinki region.
Kiukainen culture settlements have typically been discovered on sandy beaches by
the sea, with the largest concentrations being in the inner archipelago and in the estuaries
of rivers that flow into the sea, such as in today’s Turku city region, at the mouth of the
Kokemäenjoki River in Harjavalta and Lappfjärd in Kristiinankaupunki. In many places,
the settlements have been several hectares in size, and inhabitation continued in such places
for hundreds of years. However, it is difficult to determine, without available datings,
Land 2022,11, 1606 3 of 21
whether the use of the site was continuous or whether nearby settlement sites were used at
different times. In addition, the use of the sites continued in many places into the Bronze
Age, which has often made it difficult to date discoveries. Inhabitation along the coasts
only became permanent, at latest, during the time of the Kiukainen culture, and scholars
have suggested that the late settlements were no longer located on the sandy beaches next
to the sea but on the other side of meadows, suitable, perhaps, for grazing, located between
such former sites and the sea [
7
,
8
]. Settlement sites have also been discovered far out in the
archipelago. These were possibly seasonal sites focused on marine fishing and hunting [
9
].
The connection between archaeological site locations and shoreline displacement has
been a point of research interest in many studies in Finnish archaeology, e.g., [
10
13
].
Some more recent studies with more precise GIS materials and methods have been done
in the last 15 years, as more open-access materials have become available [
14
]. Recent
studies in geology have also begun to focus on land uplift and shoreline displacement
since more precise GIS data is now available [
15
,
16
]. In 2001, researchers conducted an
interesting study that modelled dwelling sites and sources of livelihood in the Espoo area
near Helsinki [
17
]. The study concluded that Kiukainen sites in the Espoo area had a
strong connection to marine resources, with sites being located on the seashore and islands.
According to the study findings, change in the location of the settlements reflected major
cultural changes during the formation of Kiukainen culture. However, it only included
five Kiukainen sites, and the area of the study was quite limited, so statistical methods
could not be used in the study. In Finland, more modern GIS analyses or methods have
not yet been fully adapted to archaeology, but some basic studies have been done using,
for example, interpolation methods [
18
] and cost surface analysis [
19
]. In Norway, a very
interesting and relevant study was conducted in 2021 [
20
]. The research established that
the peopling of the coastline in prehistory involved a series of active choices, and the main
factors informing these decisions were good landing conditions and monitoring locations,
followed by sufficient shelter from prevailing winds.
The first aim of this study is to define the geographical distribution of Kiukainen
pottery and Kiukainen culture. Though some basic studies on Kiukainen culture were
done decades ago, the results of those studies are outdated. The overall view of Kiukainen
culture is indistinct, and more information is needed about the essence of Kiukainen culture.
The geographical distribution of the culture has not been fully studied before, since the
research focus, to date, has been more on individual sites or certain areas, as one study
from the year 2001 points out [
17
]. The second aim of the study is to determine the types of
landscapes or environments in which the settlement sites of Kiukainen sites were located.
The choice of residence and local environment around the sites can give hints about the
subsistence strategy of the culture. The third aim is to discuss the lifestyle of Kiukainen
culture settlements based on research knowledge collected thus far. By lifestyle, we mean
more than just subsistence strategy or nutrition. The term also includes, for instance,
cultural contacts, traveling, social networks, and artefacts, which together constitute the
mode of living of an individual or group. A broad perspective is important, and thus, this
article highlights and especially discusses such an aspect.
The existing studies of individual archaeological sites and interpretations, based on
only one site, are comparable to a study of finds without any context. Without a broader
overall cultural picture in the background, the interpretations of individual sites remain
weak and thin. From the fieldwork perspective, an overall picture is needed to provide
more of a specific research focus during field studies. Knowledge about the geographical
distribution of Kiukainen culture can also support future field studies because, most likely,
many sites are still unidentified or undiscovered. Similar to artefacts, archaeological sites
or monuments also have their own context, which is an idea that has inspired us in this
research project.
Land 2022,11, 1606 4 of 21
2. Materials and Methods
Kiukainen ware forms its own uniform group that differs from preceding or contem-
porary pottery styles in the Northern Baltic Sea region. The vessels are thick-edged and
rough-made, always flat-bottomed, and are usually straight-edged designs. Mild profiling
also occurs sometimes. The vessels vary in size from small beakers to large storage vessels,
but most are a few litres in size. Clay material was often mixed with crushed stone or sand,
but organic temper or limestone was often used as well, causing the ceramics to be porous.
Only the upper part of the surviving vessels is decorated. However, the lower undecorated
parts often contain a textile imprint. The decoration consists of horizontal rows of pits,
dots, lines, comb or ring stamps, and sometimes, spiral cord prints (Figure 2). Horizontal
or vertical zig-zag lines are also typical. Though other decorations have also been found on
vessels, the vessel is usually decorated only with pits and one other decorative element; for
more, see [1,2,5].
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 22
perspective is important, and thus, this article highlights and especially discusses such
an aspect.
The existing studies of individual archaeological sites and interpretations, based on
only one site, are comparable to a study of finds without any context. Without a broader
overall cultural picture in the background, the interpretations of individual sites remain
weak and thin. From the fieldwork perspective, an overall picture is needed to provide
more of a specific research focus during field studies. Knowledge about the geographical
distribution of Kiukainen culture can also support future field studies because, most
likely, many sites are still unidentified or undiscovered. Similar to artefacts, archaeologi-
cal sites or monuments also have their own context, which is an idea that has inspired us
in this research project.
2. Materials and Methods
Kiukainen ware forms its own uniform group that differs from preceding or con-
temporary pottery styles in the Northern Baltic Sea region. The vessels are thick-edged
and rough-made, always flat-bottomed, and are usually straight-edged designs. Mild
profiling also occurs sometimes. The vessels vary in size from small beakers to large
storage vessels, but most are a few litres in size. Clay material was often mixed with
crushed stone or sand, but organic temper or limestone was often used as well, causing
the ceramics to be porous. Only the upper part of the surviving vessels is decorated.
However, the lower undecorated parts often contain a textile imprint. The decoration
consists of horizontal rows of pits, dots, lines, comb or ring stamps, and sometimes, spi-
ral cord prints (Figure 2). Horizontal or vertical zig-zag lines are also typical. Though
other decorations have also been found on vessels, the vessel is usually decorated only
with pits and one other decorative element; for more, see [1,2,5].
Figure 2. Kiukainen pottery, photo by Marjo Karppanen. Upper right bottom of a vessel with tex-
tile imprints; the rest are rim sherds.
The preliminary search for settlement sites representative of Kiukainen culture has
been based on information provided in the Register of Ancient Monuments, previously
published studies, and excavation reports. Based on this information, we have viewed
all the finds from settlement sites that seem promising and have confirmed that they be-
Figure 2.
Kiukainen pottery, photo by Marjo Karppanen. Upper right bottom of a vessel with textile
imprints; the rest are rim sherds.
The preliminary search for settlement sites representative of Kiukainen culture has
been based on information provided in the Register of Ancient Monuments, previously
published studies, and excavation reports. Based on this information, we have viewed all
the finds from settlement sites that seem promising and have confirmed that they belong
to the Kiukainen culture as a result of Kiukainen-type ware found at the sites. Most of
the work has been done in the collections of the Finnish Heritage Agency, the Museum of
Åland, and the Museum of Satakunta.
One challenge in defining the settlement sites is that little research has been done on
them, and none of them have been fully excavated. Many of them have been found as part
of archaeological surveys, meaning that, typically, only a small amount of material has been
found, and it can be difficult to identify ceramics with certainty. The easily corroding and
largely undecorated ceramics have also presented difficulties of their own because only
decorated or otherwise clearly diagnostic pieces of pottery can be identified as Kiukainen
with any degree of certainty.
After analysing and recognizing Kiukainen pottery, the coordinates of site locations
confirming a connection to the culture were collected from the Register of Ancient Mon-
Land 2022,11, 1606 5 of 21
uments. The Finnish Heritage Agency maintains and updates the register. The register
includes information about site type, location, possible dating, descriptions, and possible
links to research reports. Sites also have a name and individual number code, which are
used to list the sites. Every archaeological site in the register has coordinates in point format,
and most of the sites have protected area definitions in polygon format. All information
about archaeological sites in Finland is open-access form. The register can be found at
the Finnish Heritage Agency’s website, at its Cultural Environment service window (Kult-
tuuriympäristön palveluikkuna), but only in Finnish [
21
]. It is also possible to download
the register for GIS use or else use it in GIS programs via open geographic information
interfaces (VMS and VFS forms). After downloading the site register, it was possible to
identify and list all sites where Kiukainen pottery has been found with the QGIS program.
However, some sites excavated decades ago are not in the register, so some of those site
locations are uncertain. Additionally, a few sites located outside the present borders of
Finland (the Karelia area of Russia) were left out because the locations of those sites are un-
certain. Sites located in the Åland Islands were identified using the Kulturarv website [
22
],
updated by the Åland provincial government.
The mapping of the sites where Kiukainen ware has been found revealed some in-
teresting site clusters. After examining the distribution results, three areas were chosen
for closer evaluation and comparison. One factor in the choice was previous research
history and knowledge of the sites in the area. For instance, some excavations of possible
importance were done decades ago with poor documentation levels, while at other sites,
the available research is quite limited and was only done at a small scale. Not all sites have
confirmed dating since radiocarbon dating was never done on the finds. Those sites where
the amount of Kiukainen pottery that was found was very small and other pottery types
were dominant were considered too uncertain to compare. Comparison areas were chosen
far from each other, where the landscape and topography are different. Many interesting
sites are located near the city of Turku. The Turku city area was not studied as part of this
research project, though, due to heavy land use and buildings.
Three areas that were chosen are the municipalities of Kemiönsaari, Harjavalta, and
Kristiinankaupunki. Two nearby sites from the municipality of Nakkila were included in
the Harjavalta study area because of the close geographical connection between them. To
visualize the Stone Age shoreline, digital elevation models (elevation model 2 m) were
downloaded from the open-data file service of the National Land Survey of Finland [
23
].
The elevation models are raster datasets that are based on laser scanning data, the point
density of which is at least 0.5 points per square meter [
24
]. With the QGIS program,
basic data visualization tools (unique values) were used to colourize the water blue to
illustrate the shoreline. Information about changing sea levels during the Stone Age was
collected from many different available sources, such as excavation reports and shoreline
displacement chronologies. The Geological Survey of Finland provides open access to GIS
data about the different soil types [
25
] in Finland. Unfortunately, the Geological Survey
of Finland’s most accurate soil type datasets do not cover the full Kemiönsaari area or
Kristiinankaupunki area. As a replacement, the datasets from the Finnish Forest Centre
were used to identify rocky areas. The Finnish Forest Centre datasets can be downloaded
from its website [
26
] or used via open geographic information interfaces (VMS and VFS
forms). The datasets include information about soil type in the forestry areas of Finland
and the datatype area polygons. For background information and knowledge about the site
(found on the Finnish Heritage Agency’s webpages, specifically its cultural environment
research reports), previous fieldwork history, such as excavation reports or survey reports,
were also used.
3. Results
Altogether, we identified 99 sites with confirmed connections to the Kiukainen culture
(Figure 3). The list of the sites can be found in Appendix A(Table A1). Uncertain cases,
where the pottery could not be clearly identified, and those sites that have an inaccurate
Land 2022,11, 1606 6 of 21
location were left out of the results. The distribution of Kiukainen culture sites is strongly
connected to the Stone Age shoreline of the Baltic Sea. The core area, where the number of
sites and pottery finds is highest, is the shoreline between Espoo and Kristiinankaupunki.
The results include only six inland sites where Kiukainen pottery could be identified. Three
of those sites could be reached from the sea via the Kokemäenjoki River. The distribution
map also revealed an approximately 80 km gap in shoreline colonialization between Pori
and Kristiinankaupunki. The reason for the gap remains unclear, but it can also reflect a
gap in field research history. The distribution map of Kiukainen culture can be considered,
to some extent at least, to also reflect the general state of research on the Stone Age in
Finland, as archaeological surveys have primarily focused on areas of changing land use
around modern growth centres. Almost all archaeological surveys in Finland are done
by commercial archaeology companies for different types of zoning and construction
projects. Surveys are rarely done in areas that do not have active land use. It should also
be strongly highlighted that the Kiukainen pottery findings are from sites that have been
excavated. Those sites that have not been excavated but that are listed in the register after
an archaeological survey are difficult to identify because only a very limited number of
finds are collected during the survey. The total number of Kiukainen sites is most likely
much higher, and the distribution map only reflects the current research situation.
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 22
Finnish Forest Centre were used to identify rocky areas. The Finnish Forest Centre da-
tasets can be downloaded from its website [26] or used via open geographic information
interfaces (VMS and VFS forms). The datasets include information about soil type in the
forestry areas of Finland and the datatype area polygons. For background information
and knowledge about the site (found on the Finnish Heritage Agency’s webpages, spe-
cifically its cultural environment research reports), previous fieldwork history, such as
excavation reports or survey reports, were also used.
3. Results
Altogether, we identified 99 sites with confirmed connections to the Kiukainen cul-
ture (Figure 3). The list of the sites can be found in Appendix A (Table A1). Uncertain
cases, where the pottery could not be clearly identified, and those sites that have an in-
accurate location were left out of the results. The distribution of Kiukainen culture sites
is strongly connected to the Stone Age shoreline of the Baltic Sea. The core area, where
the number of sites and pottery finds is highest, is the shoreline between Espoo and
Kristiinankaupunki. The results include only six inland sites where Kiukainen pottery
could be identified. Three of those sites could be reached from the sea via the
Kokemäenjoki River. The distribution map also revealed an approximately 80 km gap in
shoreline colonialization between Pori and Kristiinankaupunki. The reason for the gap
remains unclear, but it can also reflect a gap in field research history. The distribution
map of Kiukainen culture can be considered, to some extent at least, to also reflect the
general state of research on the Stone Age in Finland, as archaeological surveys have
primarily focused on areas of changing land use around modern growth centres. Almost
all archaeological surveys in Finland are done by commercial archaeology companies for
different types of zoning and construction projects. Surveys are rarely done in areas that
do not have active land use. It should also be strongly highlighted that the Kiukainen
pottery findings are from sites that have been excavated. Those sites that have not been
excavated but that are listed in the register after an archaeological survey are difficult to
identify because only a very limited number of finds are collected during the survey.
The total number of Kiukainen sites is most likely much higher, and the distribution
map only reflects the current research situation.
Figure 3.
The distribution map of Kiukainen culture (
right
) where individual sites are marked with
red dots. The heatmap of the Kiukainen culture (
left
). The heatmap was constructed by evaluating
site density and also the number of pottery finds.
The three areas chosen for closer review, Kemiönsaari, Harjavalta, and Kristiinankaupunki,
are located about 100 km apart from each other (Figure 4). Kemiönsaari, in the South-
west Finland region, is the southernmost of the sites, and it is also currently part of the
archipelago. The Harjavalta area is in the middle of the Satakunta region, formerly part of
the Western Finland Province. The northernmost review area is Kristiinankaupunki, in the
Ostrobothnia region.
Land 2022,11, 1606 7 of 21
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 22
Figure 3. The distribution map of Kiukainen culture (right) where individual sites are marked
with red dots. The heatmap of the Kiukainen culture (left). The heatmap was constructed by eval-
uating site density and also the number of pottery finds.
The three areas chosen for closer review, Kemiönsaari, Harjavalta, and Kristiinan-
kaupunki, are located about 100 km apart from each other (Figure 4). Kemiönsaari, in
the Southwest Finland region, is the southernmost of the sites, and it is also currently
part of the archipelago. The Harjavalta area is in the middle of the Satakunta region,
formerly part of the Western Finland Province. The northernmost review area is Kristi-
inankaupunki, in the Ostrobothnia region.
Figure 4. The Kiukainen culture areas that were selected for closer review.
The Kiukainen sites in Kemiönsaari are located on large rocky islands in the archi-
pelago area (Figure 5). Only the northernmost site of set was located on the shore of a
smaller island. The sites are oriented towards the east because it afforded the best shelter
from the western winds and better landing possibilities while navigating at sea (Figure
Figure 4. The Kiukainen culture areas that were selected for closer review.
The Kiukainen sites in Kemiönsaari are located on large rocky islands in the archipelago
area (Figure 5). Only the northernmost site of Näset was located on the shore of a smaller
island. The sites are oriented towards the east because it afforded the best shelter from the
western winds and better landing possibilities while navigating at sea (Figure 6). Since
the sites are on islands, it is obvious that seafaring was quite familiar to the people of the
Kiukainen culture. Landing on sandy beaches must have been easier than landing on a
rocky shoreline, which could be one explanatory factor for site locations in the area.
Land 2022,11, 1606 8 of 21
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 8 of 22
6). Since the sites are on islands, it is obvious that seafaring was quite familiar to the
people of the Kiukainen culture. Landing on sandy beaches must have been easier than
landing on a rocky shoreline, which could be one explanatory factor for site locations in
the area.
Figure 5. The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kemiönsaari area. Grey areas in the background
of the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields, and the light green or
empty white areas in between are forests.
Figure 5.
The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kemiönsaari area. Grey areas in the background of
the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields, and the light green or empty
white areas in between are forests.
Archaeological excavations have been carried out at four of the settlement sites in the
area. Jordbro and Knipängsbacken were partially excavated by C. F. Meinander in 1947,
while small excavation was done in Hammarsboda by the University of Turku in 1991, and
excavations were done at the Ölmosviken site in 2017–2021 [
2
,
27
,
28
]. Based on the research
and C14 dating, the settlement sites may have been used at different points in time, but
Ölmosviken shows signs of habitation for hundreds of years between 2300 and 1800 cal.
BC. Jordbro is possibly younger than the other settlements, as five Bronze Age burial cairns
have been discovered there, demonstrating a continuity of settlement to the Bronze Age.
Land 2022,11, 1606 9 of 21
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 9 of 22
Figure 6. The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kemiönsaari area and sea are visualized at 19
MASL. Areas with the soil type solid rock or boulder soil are visualized as grey.
Archaeological excavations have been carried out at four of the settlement sites in
the area. Jordbro and Knipängsbacken were partially excavated by C. F. Meinander in
1947, while small excavation was done in Hammarsboda by the University of Turku in
1991, and excavations were done at the Ölmosviken site in 2017–2021 [2,27,28]. Based on
the research and C14 dating, the settlement sites may have been used at different points
in time, but Ölmosviken shows signs of habitation for hundreds of years between 2300
Figure 6.
The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kemiönsaari area and sea are visualized at 19 MASL.
Areas with the soil type solid rock or boulder soil are visualized as grey.
The soil near the sites is mainly sand and gravel and, therefore, not particularly
fertile, but on the other hand, larger barren-rock areas are located a little further away.
Pollen analysis has been done at the nearby Söderbyträsket Lake, revealing that Pinus,
Betula, and Alnus were the dominant types of trees during the period of Kiukainen culture.
Additionally, Quercus, Populus, Tilia, Fraxinus, Ulmus, and Corylus grew nearby, which,
together, accounted for about 20% of the vegetation [
29
]. Thus, except for the most barren
areas, the area consisted mainly of deciduous forest, and the vegetation was lusher than
Land 2022,11, 1606 10 of 21
today. The first signs of cultivation are from the Bronze Age, 1210–1010 cal BC. [
29
], but
the surroundings close to the residences would have been suitable, at least, for keeping
goats and sheep already at the end of the Stone Age. So far, however, research has revealed
no signs of such livestock practices, but the burned bone material is dominated by seal
bones, at least at Ölmosviken [30]. A considerable number of the bones come from young
individuals, which suggests that the catch took place in the spring and early summer.
The archipelago area was particularly favourable for seal hunting and fishing in the
Stone Age, which, together with seabird hunting, were the most likely reasons for people
moving to the area and for the establishment of settlements. The west and south sides of
the island group would have given way to a wide and open sea, but the surroundings of
the settlements consisted of sheltered archipelagos. This type of environment provided an
abundance of fish, birds, and seals and, thus, plenty of food for people throughout the year.
While information is unclear as to whether the sites were inhabited year-round, Ölmosviken
contains traces of the dwelling pits. The pits probably originated from buildings partially
dug into the ground, which would have been warm enough for people to live in during
the cold seasons. On the mainland, the nearest large settlements would have been in the
Turku region, about 45 km away and close to the sea, so the settlement of the area can also
be connected to the marine fishing practiced by the communities that lived there.
The landscape in Harjavalta is quite different than in the Kemiönsaari area. In Har-
javalta, the topography is a plane, and sites are located in small, forested areas near
cultivated fields (Figure 7). The Kiukainen culture was discovered and named after the
settlement site of Uotinmäki in the area at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition to
Uotinmäki, archaeological excavations were carried out at Kaunismäki and Saamanmäki,
the results of which have been presented in the book Die Kiukaiskultur [
2
]. Later, excavations
were also done at the Lyytikänharju site, which nonetheless dates mainly to the time of
the Pyheensilta group [
31
,
32
]. In recent years, residences named Kraakanmäki 1–3 have
been investigated, with newer research results and C14 dates available from two of the
excavations [33,34].
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 22
Figure 7. The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Harjavalta area. Grey areas in the background of
the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields, and the light green or empty
white areas in between are forests.
The settlements are located on the shores of a large and sheltered sea bay. The
Kokemäenjoki River flowed into the bay, forming an estuary there (Figure 8). Due to the
large flow of the river and the shallowness of the bay, the water in the bay has been
brackish with very little salt. Many of the shorelines were probably lined with thick
reeds. The area has been attractive, especially, in terms of fishing, as Kokemäenjoki Riv-
er was well known for its salmon during historical times. The shallow reed banks have
also attracted other fish and waterfowl to the area.
Figure 7.
The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Harjavalta area. Grey areas in the background of the
map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields, and the light green or empty white
areas in between are forests.
Land 2022,11, 1606 11 of 21
The settlements are located on the shores of a large and sheltered sea bay. The
Kokemäenjoki River flowed into the bay, forming an estuary there (Figure 8). Due to the
large flow of the river and the shallowness of the bay, the water in the bay has been brackish
with very little salt. Many of the shorelines were probably lined with thick reeds. The area
has been attractive, especially, in terms of fishing, as Kokemäenjoki River was well known
for its salmon during historical times. The shallow reed banks have also attracted other
fish and waterfowl to the area.
Figure 8.
The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Harjavalta area with different landscape visualiza-
tions. The Sea is visualized at 34 MASL (
upper left
), 32 MASL (
upper right
), 30 MASL (
lower left
),
and 28 MASL (lower right). Soil types are visualized with different colours.
The maps clearly show how the environment changes quickly as the land rises from
the sea (Figure 8). It seems likely that, due to such changes, many residences would have
soon been located far from the beach and, thus, probably subject only to short-term use. On
the other hand, due to the steeper topography, Uotinmäki, Kaunismäki, and Saamanmäki
remained constantly close to the seashore, making them habitable from one century to the
next. Kuusisto’s site remained underwater throughout the Stone Age and only emerged
from the water during the Bronze Age. However, Kiukainen pottery has been found at the
site, so either the information about the height of the place is inaccurate or Kiukainen-type
pottery was, perhaps, used relatively late in the Bronze Age.
The settlements were located in the areas protected from the wind because the ancient
sea bay was wide and open. Based on their location, the immediate proximity to the sea
was important, and settlement continued for a long time only in places that have remained
close to the shoreline. Inhabitation also continued in such places during the Bronze Age,
but Lyytikänharju and Kraakanmäki 1–3, were only used while they remained close to the
sea. The surroundings of the residences inhabited for a much longer time at Uotinmäki,
Land 2022,11, 1606 12 of 21
Kaunismäki, and Saamanmäki were suitable for early farming already at the time of the
Kiukainen culture, for they were situated on lush slopes.
The settlements in the Kristiinankaupunki area have only been excavated at Langängen
in 1950 and in Rävåsen in 1994–1999 [
2
,
35
]. The area is known for containing a large number
of residences belonging to the Kiukainen culture, but due to the research situation, ceramics
have only been found in a few (Figure 9). Most of the settlements seem to have been located
by the sea, with the water level having been about 40 m higher than today (Figure 10).
The same also applies to places where ceramics have not been found. At that time, they
were located on the shores of a sheltered bay formed by the mainland and an island on its
western side. The Gulf of Bothnia opened to the western side of the area, and the rivers
Kärjenjoki and Lapväärtinjoki ran down to the southwestern end of the area. The waters
near the residences would have been sheltered and well suited for fishing and catching
waterfowl.
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 13 of 22
mainland and an island on its western side. The Gulf of Bothnia opened to the western
side of the area, and the rivers Kärjenjoki and Lapväärtinjoki ran down to the south-
western end of the area. The waters near the residences would have been sheltered and
well suited for fishing and catching waterfowl.
Figure 9. The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kristiinankaupunki area. Grey areas in the back-
ground of the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields, and the light green
or empty white areas in between are forests.
Figure 9.
The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kristiinankaupunki area. Grey areas in the back-
ground of the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields, and the light green or
empty white areas in between are forests.
Land uplift in the area occurred quickly at the end of the Stone Age, having been more
than a meter per century at the time. The landscape was, therefore, constantly changing,
and the sheltered sea area narrowed into two lakes, which were later drained. Their height
Land 2022,11, 1606 13 of 21
would have been about 35 m, but many settlements would have already been far from the
shore at this point. In terms of time, the separation of the lakes from the sea dates back to
the Bronze Age, approximately 1500 cal. BC. The finds at the settlement called Langäng,
which was located on the shore of a smaller lake called Lillsjön, continued to a height
of about 35.5 m, and C. F. Meinander, who excavated the site, considers it possible that
the settlement continued to be inhabited during the lake phase as well [
2
]. At other sites,
settlement may have continued into the Bronze Age, as several Bronze Age cairns have
been found in the area and at the settlement sites. However, the sea connection had already
been lost by then, and the settlement’s subsistence was probably based on something other
than just marine resources.
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 22
Figure 10. The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kristiinankaupunki area with different landscape
visualizations. The Sea is visualized at 50 MASL (upper left), 45 MASL (upper right), 40 MASL
(lower left), and 35 MASL (lower right).
Land uplift in the area occurred quickly at the end of the Stone Age, having been
more than a meter per century at the time. The landscape was, therefore, constantly
changing, and the sheltered sea area narrowed into two lakes, which were later drained.
Their height would have been about 35 m, but many settlements would have already
been far from the shore at this point. In terms of time, the separation of the lakes from
the sea dates back to the Bronze Age, approximately 1500 cal. BC. The finds at the set-
tlement called Langäng, which was located on the shore of a smaller lake called Lillsjön,
Figure 10.
The locations of Kiukainen sites in the Kristiinankaupunki area with different landscape
visualizations. The Sea is visualized at 50 MASL (
upper left
), 45 MASL (
upper right
), 40 MASL
(lower left), and 35 MASL (lower right).
Land 2022,11, 1606 14 of 21
Rävåsen is a clear exception to the other settlement sites along the shorelines of the
sea, having been inhabited for a long time before the Kiukainen culture. However, some
Kiukainen ceramics have been found there at a height of approximately 50 m above the
sea level today [
36
]. At the end of the Stone Age, the settlement was located at least four
hundred meters from the sea and the mouth of the river Lapväärtinjoki. The area between it
and the sea consisted of low reeds and possibly meadows. The site may, therefore, have been
used during the time of the Kiukainen culture more for the purposes of tending livestock
and engaging in small-scale farming than for taking advantage of marine resources. The
surroundings of other sites in the area could also have been suitable for small-scale farming
in addition to fishing, as low, seaside meadows and fertile soil would have existed in the
vicinity, especially at the very end of the Kiukainen culture.
It must be noted that many more sites in the area around Kristiinankaupunki have been
defined as Stone Age settlement sites in the register (Figure 11). More Kiukainen culture
sites may exist in the area, but the lack of field studies, and especially excavations, make it
difficult to interpret just which of the sites may have been inhabited simultaneously or by
the same culture. As seen from the previous map (Figure 8), the seven known Kiukainen
sites are located at different heights, and some are multi-period sites. Landscaping and
building activities have also damaged some of the sites, so the original site location and
zone may have been different than how it appears in the register today.
Land 2022, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 16 of 22
Figure 11. The locations of sites that have been defined as Stone Age in the Kristiinankaupunki ar-
ea. Grey areas in the background of the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated
fields, and the light green or empty white areas in between are forests.
As seen from the comparison, the Kiukainen culture sites have been located in vari-
able landscapes and topographies. Easy connection to the sea and landing possibilities
have been one key demand for such sites. In the area around the rocky island of
Kemiönsaari, the best places have been located on the eastern shores of the island, which
would have given the best shelter from the open sea to the west or southwest. In the
Harjavalta area, changes in the landscape and location of the seashore occurred rapidly,
so some of the sites have been used only for a short period. In the Kristiinankaupunki
area, sites are also oriented towards the east or, then, located in a sheltered bay, as the
sea opens to the west. With respect to future research and, especially, GIS analysing
methods, such great variation in landscapes makes it difficult to use f.x. predictive mod-
elling. The results from the site environment confirm previous knowledge about
Kiukainen culture having been a marine culture with certain local adaptations, such as
possible small-scale cultivation at some sites.
Figure 11.
The locations of sites that have been defined as Stone Age in the Kristiinankaupunki area.
Grey areas in the background of the map are rocky areas, while the yellow areas are cultivated fields,
and the light green or empty white areas in between are forests.
Land 2022,11, 1606 15 of 21
As seen from the comparison, the Kiukainen culture sites have been located in variable
landscapes and topographies. Easy connection to the sea and landing possibilities have
been one key demand for such sites. In the area around the rocky island of Kemiönsaari,
the best places have been located on the eastern shores of the island, which would have
given the best shelter from the open sea to the west or southwest. In the Harjavalta area,
changes in the landscape and location of the seashore occurred rapidly, so some of the
sites have been used only for a short period. In the Kristiinankaupunki area, sites are also
oriented towards the east or, then, located in a sheltered bay, as the sea opens to the west.
With respect to future research and, especially, GIS analysing methods, such great variation
in landscapes makes it difficult to use f.x. predictive modelling. The results from the site
environment confirm previous knowledge about Kiukainen culture having been a marine
culture with certain local adaptations, such as possible small-scale cultivation at some sites.
4. Discussion
The adoption of farming and pastoralism in Finnish Neolithic cultures has been a topic
of discussion for a long time. According to the latest research, communities in southern
Finland engaged in farming and pastoralism even before the Kiukainen culture. Based on
pollen studies and the location of the settlements, it has been suggested that small-scale
farming may have been important, already, at the time of typical Comb Ceramic culture
(4100–3550 cal. BC) [
37
]. At the latest, these subsistence strategies arrived from elsewhere
in the Baltic region together with the Corded Ware culture, from 2900 BC onwards. So far,
archaeologists have only found evidence of nomadism practiced in Finland at the time, but
traces of dairy fats have been found in pottery [
38
]. In addition, goat hair has also been
found in a grave dated to the time of the Corded Ware culture [
39
]. However, no evidence
of cultivation has been discovered, though it would have been entirely possible based on
the location of the settlement sites in fertile environments. The Pyheensilta group has been
poorly studied, but based on the location of the settlement sites, marine fishing and hunting
were of great importance to such communities. The Pyheensilta group, however, had active
connections with groups belonging to the East Swedish Pitted Ware culture in the Åland
Islands, where carbonized grains have been found [40].
The subsistence patterns of Kiukainen culture were based, mainly, on marine resources,
but evidence of small-scale farming has also been found in recent years. In the excava-
tions done at the Riihivainio settlement site in Turku, archaeologists found evidence of
contemporaneous field cultivation in connection with the Kiukainen culture [
41
]. Most of
the excavated settlements have been interpreted as places mainly related to hunting, but
archaeologists have discovered grinding stones, especially in the settlements located at
the mouth of Kokemäenjoki River, with the stones probably having been used to grind
grains [
42
]. However, all the grinding stones have been found in settlements that continued
to be used in the Bronze Age. Farming possibly also included the use of arrow-bladed
stone axes, most likely used as hoes [
42
]. In the distribution area of the Kiukainen culture,
signs of cultivation have also been found in the sediments of lakes and moors dating to the
end of the Stone Age [29,43,44].
The Kiukainen culture exhibited inhabitation practices in the Åland Islands after the
disappearance of the Pitted Ware culture from the same settlement sites. The radiocarbon
dates suggests that domesticated animals, such as cattle, sheep, and pig, were kept in the
Åland islands during the Late Neolithic by the Pitted Ware culture [
45
]. However, the
cultural and populational continuity between the Pitted Ware culture and the Kiukainen
culture is still unclear, but the Kiukainen population may well have also maintained small-
scale cultivation and husbandry in the Åland Islands. In addition, the oldest sheep bone
found in Finland (2200–1950 cal. BC) comes from one of the northernmost Kiukainen
culture sites in Kvarnabba Pedersöre [
46
]. On the other hand, it has been suggested that
Kiukainen culture returned to the hunter-gather-fisher lifestyle [
38
,
47
], but based on this
evidence, the small-scale husbandry was likely one part of the subsistence on the coastal life.
Land 2022,11, 1606 16 of 21
The settlements belonging to the Kiukainen culture are all concentrated on the shores
of the Baltic Sea. Pottery spread inland to only a few places, and they are all in the area of
the Kokemäenjoki River watershed. The strong connection of the entire cultural phase to
the coasts and archipelagos tells not only of the importance of the sea as a source of food but
also about its importance in connecting people between different regions. Without the sea
and the archipelago, the Kiukainen culture, with its maritime lifestyle, would never have
flourished. The contacts between the settlement sites occurred via water, and such contact
must have occurred frequently because the material culture of the various settlements has
been quite similar throughout the Kiukainen culture area. Ceramics produced by other
contemporaneous cultures have not been found in the sites belonging to the Kiukainen
culture area except in the Åland islands, and in this sense, the contact between the inland
areas and places along the long coastline seems to have been limited. On the other hand,
the material culture shows clear Scandinavian influences, so connections existed across the
sea. In the future, it would be important to study those cross-sea contacts in the direction
of Scandinavia and the Baltics. The length of the coastline where Kiukainen sites have been
found is approximately 720 km, and the length of the core area is approximately 400 km.
The distance from the Åland Islands to the nearest coastal sites in Turku or Kemiönsaari is
approximately 120 km. In the future, different GIS methods, such as least-cost past analysis,
could give interesting results about routes, travel times, and so forth.
However, from the perspective of current research and GIS analysis, the Register of
Ancient Monuments has many problems. The level of information and site descriptions
vary. In some cases, it may mention pottery type or, for example, dating, but some sites only
receive brief descriptions without any important accompanying details. Information about
the sites has been collected for decades, and some descriptions or locations can be based on
very old surveys or small-scale excavations. The user must evaluate data reliability for each
individual site, and thus, forming a reliable overall picture is difficult. A lack of proper
classifications or keywords makes the register difficult to use with GIS programs. The
points or polygons have age classes, such as dating = “stone age” and type = “settlement
site,” but they fail to provide any additional search options or keywords; hence, the few
existing options do not yield a good result when trying to find more specific information on
a site other than just dating or type. Additionally, sites can have similar names, so the only
reliable identifier is the individual site number. However, if a user wants to list multiple
sites, as in this study, searching each site on a case-by-case basis, using only the site number,
is a slow process.
Today, archaeological fieldwork in Finland includes detailed archaeological fieldwork
guidelines and instruction [
48
], updated by the Finnish Heritage Agency. However, the
information collected fifty or a hundred years ago is a different story. Conducting GIS
analyses with unreliable GIS data is problematic. In the future, better tools to evaluate
the data quality will be needed. Adding more tools and search options or keywords
could support researchers and authorities, too. Updating the register and collecting new
information by doing fieldwork is an ongoing and slow process, and at the same time,
storing the data requires new solutions [49].
5. Conclusions
The lifestyle of the Kiukainen culture settlements seemingly included a combination
of marine resources, seafaring, and small-scale farming, if possible, while being integrated
with the local environment and landscape. The use of multiple resources afforded the
coastal communities more stable lifestyles in that period of changing climate and environ-
ment. However, much more research is still needed, and we would like to open a discussion
about how the Kiukainen culture fit into the Stone Age lifestyle and landscape archaeology
more generally.
Land 2022,11, 1606 17 of 21
Author Contributions:
Conceptualization, J.S. and J.R.; methodology, J.S. and J.R.; validation, J.S.
and J.R.; formal analysis, J.S.; investigation, J.R.; resources, J.S. and J.R.; writing—original draft
preparation, J.S. and J.R.; writing—review and editing, J.S. and J.R.; visualization, J.R.; supervision,
J.S. and J.R.; project administration, J.S. and J.R.; funding acquisition, J.S. and J.R. All authors have
read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Funding:
This research was funded by KONE FOUNDATION, grant number 202006680, and
NORDENSKIÖLD-SAMFUNDET. Open access funding provided by University of Helsinki.
Data Availability Statement:
Data available in a publicly accessible repository that does not issue
DOIs Publicly available datasets were analyzed in this study. This data can be found at: https://www.
museovirasto.fi/fi/palvelut-ja-ohjeet/tietojarjestelmat/kulttuuriympariston-tietojarjestelmat/kultt
uuriympaeristoen-paikkatietoaineistot (accessed on 20 August 2022) and https://aland.maps.a
rcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=9d7cc07ab4004f0ca620038c4fd416ca (accessed on
20 August 2022).
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Appendix A
Table A1.
The list of archaeological sites where Kiukainen pottery has been found and discussed in
this study.
Municipality Site Number Site Name
Espoo 49010002 Finns
Espoo 49010040 Mynt
Espoo 49010004 Backisåker 1
Espoo 49010001 Grankulla
Espoo 49010021 Lillgus storåker
Eurajoki 51010029 Irjanteen hautausmaa
Eurajoki 51010009 Etukämppä
Hamina 917010013 Hietojanvuori
Harjavalta 79010009 Kuusisto E
Harjavalta 79010001 Kaunismäki A ja B
Harjavalta 79010006 Saamanmäki
Harjavalta 79010025 Lyytikänharju
Harjavalta 79010023 Sievarintie E
Harjavalta 1000038606 Kraakanmäki 3
Harjavalta 1000038607 Kortteenrapakko
Harjavalta 1000006682 Hakala
Harjavalta 1000022768 Kraakanmäki 2
Harjavalta 1000022767 Kraakanmäki 1
Humppila 103010001 Järvensuo 1
Inkoo 1000000046 Malmskyan
Inkoo 149010060 Vahrs
Inkoo 149010056 Malmgård
Inkoo 149010068 Staffans
Inkoo 149010069 Nysvenskas
Inkoo 1000006090 Kasabergen
Kaarina 202010026 Ravattula Ristimäki
Land 2022,11, 1606 18 of 21
Table A1. Cont.
Municipality Site Number Site Name
Kaarina 202010020 Muikunvuori
Kangasala 211010006 Sepänjärvi 1
Kemiönsaari 243010042 Nedergård
Kemiönsaari 243010045 Eländet
Kemiönsaari 1000019364 Ölmosviken
Kemiönsaari 40010014 Knipnäsbacken
Kemiönsaari 40010036 Hammarsboda 4
Kemiönsaari 40010015 Jordbro
Kemiönsaari 1000031089 Näset (Skinnarviksvägen)
Kirkkonummi 257010027 Pappila
Kirkkonummi 257010053 Framhoparn
Kirkkonummi 257010081 Kolsarby
Kotka 285010017 Niskasuo
Kristiinankaupunki 409010030 Lappfjärd-Bergåsen 1
Kristiinankaupunki 409010049 Lappfjärd-Träskända
Kristiinankaupunki 409010047 Lappfjärd-Lillsjö
Kristiinankaupunki 409010028 Lappfjärd-Langäng
Kristiinankaupunki 409010040 Lappfjärd-Kyttåkersbacken
Kristiinankaupunki 409010041 Lappfjärd-Byåsen
Kristiinankaupunki 409010044 Rävåsen
Laitila 1000000142 Ahtkorvenmäki
Laitila 1000000092 Hangassuo
Laitila 1000004424 Miilunpohjansuo
Lohja 444010047 Kittiskoski E
Loppi 433010014 Kuitikas
Loviisa 701010023 Koirankallio
Loviisa 585010015 Strömbo
Mynämäki 503010040 Pyheensilta, Laajoen luoteispuoli
Nakkila 1000001335 Uotinmäki ja Uotinmäki W
Nakkila 531010005 Kuusisto
Nousiainen 538010037 Kylävuori
Närpiö 605010001 Pörtom-Raineåsen
Närpiö 605010020 Pörtom-Langbacken
Paimio 577010030 Kehioja
Paimio 577010038 Halkilahti
Pedersöre 990010035 Esse-Jättegobacken/Smedasforsen
A+B
Pedersöre 990010004 Esse-Kvarnnabba
Pori 609010084 Kirkkokangas IV
Porvoo 613010040 Böle
Land 2022,11, 1606 19 of 21
Table A1. Cont.
Municipality Site Number Site Name
Pyhtää 624010017 Brunamossen 2
Pyhtää 624010029 Trollberget
Pyhtää 624010037 Eetinniitty 1
Pyhtää 624010036 Kaarlinsaari 1
Pyhtää 624010038 Eetinniitty 2
Pyhtää 1000007139 Nygård 2
Pyhtää 1000007141 Längkärrsskogen 2
Pyhtää 1000007159 Nygård 1
Pyhtää 1000007149 Eetinniitty 4
Pyhtää 1000016854 Eetinniitty 5
Raasepori 220010082 Grågälan-Träskhusåkern
Raasepori 220010036 Dragongatan
Raasepori 1000039580 Sannäsmalmen
Raasepori 1000032776 Gloviken
Salo 734010002 Alhonpelto
Sastamala 912010046 Liekolankatu
Sastamala 912010022 Haapakallio
Sastamala 912010017 Hiukkasaari
Seinäjoki 975010014 Viinapränninlaakso
Turku 853010022 Kotirinne
Turku 202010037 Pähkinämäki 2
Turku 853010008 Riihivainio
Turku 853010048 Niuskala
Turku 853010019 Maaria Kärsämäki
Turku 853010029 Kanttorinmäki
Ulvila 293010007 Eskola
Ulvila 293010006 Hämäläinen I
Virolahti 935010004 Kattelus 1
Vöyri 559010022 Torplindorna S
Vöyri 559010018 Fårmossen 1–2
Vöyri 559010025 Torplindorna N
Åland-Saltvik Sa 20.8 Myrsbacka I
Åland-Saltvik Sa 21.1 Krokars
Åland-Saltvik Sa 20.8 Svinvallen
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