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Developing English Writing Skills through Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)

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Abstract

The current study tried to explore how the teacher educators at Teachers’ Training College, Dhaka utilised the contexts in developing their undergraduate students’ English writing skills; how Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) helped improve students’ writing skills; and what challenges teachers and students faced in implementing CTL. This qualitative study employed semi-structured interview and observation methods to collect data from two teacher participants, and FGD (Focus Group Discussion) to collect data from five students selected by the two teacher participants. They selected five students based on their improved performances during the implementation of CTL. The interview and FGD data were transcribed and the observation data were developed after recurrent reading and edits. The data were then coded and categorised based on the similarity of themes. The major findings of the study were that the teachers were expert enough to utilise contexts; CTL was found beneficial in developing students’ English writing skills. However, the teachers as well as the students, faced challenges such as the college authority’s rigidity not allowing the teachers and the students to go beyond the syllabus and the classroom, a large class with around 100 students, and students’ shortage of stock of vocabulary.
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Developing English Writing Skills through Contextual
Teaching and Learning (CTL)
Ranjit Podder
Mohammad Mustafizur Rahman
Abstract
The current study tried to explore how the teacher educators at
Teachers’ Training College, Dhaka utilised the contexts in
developing their undergraduate students’ English writing skills;
how Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) helped improve
students’ writing skills; and what challenges teachers and
students faced in implementing CTL. This qualitative study
employed semi-structured interview and observation methods to
collect data from two teacher participants, and FGD (Focus
Group Discussion) to collect data from five students selected by
the two teacher participants. They selected five students based on
their improved performances during the implementation of CTL.
The interview and FGD data were transcribed and the
observation data were developed after recurrent reading and
edits. The data were then coded and categorised based on the
similarity of themes. The major findings of the study were that the
teachers were expert enough to utilise contexts; CTL was found
beneficial in developing students’ English writing skills. However,
the teachers as well as the students, faced challenges such as the
college authority’s rigidity not allowing the teachers and the
students to go beyond the syllabus and the classroom, a large
class with around 100 students, and students’ shortage of stock of
vocabulary.
Keywords: English writing skill, CTL (contextual teaching and
learning), Teachers Training College, undergraduate students
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1. Introduction
Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) is a system of teaching
based on the philosophy that students learn better when they see
the meaning in the academic materials (Johnson, 2002).
Moreover, they learn when they can connect their prior knowledge
and experiences with what they are taught in the classroom
(Johnson, 2002). This system of teaching believes that all the
objects in the universe are interrelated and none of them is
isolated. Therefore, whatever is taught and whatever is learnt,
must be connected to real-life and real-life experiences.
Like Bangladesh, English writing skill plays a vital role in
Indonesia and the writing skill level of the undergraduate students
was not satisfactory. Irawati (2014) claims that English writing is
important in Indonesia for academic and occupational purposes.
Also in Bangladesh, most of the students in higher education face
many problems with English writing (Afrin, 2016). The teachers
at the secondary level in Bangladesh use the product approach in
teaching English writing (Ebrahim, 2015). The first researcher’s
(Ranjit Podder) 24 years of experience as a teacher educator
shows that teachers employ the traditional product approach to
teaching English writing where there is little or no opportunity to
develop the writing skill of the students. In the product approach,
students are asked to write for grading or marking; that is, students
have to write for getting grades. Only a small number of teachers
use the process approach to teaching English writing and they
provide recurrent feedback on the drafts prepared by students;
students edit their write-ups based on the feedback and submit
them for further feedback by the teachers (Ebrahim, 2015).
Through this process, a write-up gradually becomes flawless and
the students become confident day by day. In CTL, students
collect pieces of information from surroundings or nature and put
them logically to write a paragraph. Like the process approach,
there is the opportunity to receive feedback from peers and
teachers in CTL. Through recurrent feedback and edits, the
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learners develop their English writing. CTL of English is a new
approach in Bangladesh education. Therefore, it is wise to
investigate what teachers and students understand about CTL and
what the benefits and barriers are to implementing CTL in
developing English writing skills in higher education in
Bangladesh.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The English language plays an important role in the Bangladesh
secondary and higher education curriculum. An English course
with 100 marks examination is taught as a compulsory subject to
all the students enrolled for undergraduate study (Hasan, 2004). A
study by Rahman and Sarker (2019) on primary schools in
Bangladesh reveals that the teachers' current teaching practice is
not supportive of the development of students’ English writing
skills. Even learners’ English writing skill is not assessed in higher
education (Abedin, Majlish, & Akter, 2010).
Developing oral and written communication skills in English is
the chief purpose of the secondary and tertiary compulsory
English in Bangladesh. However, the English language skills of
students studying at the undergraduate level are not higher than
the level set by the government for the students of class seven
(Imam, 2005). The English writing skill of undergraduate students
is also deplorable (Hossain, 2018). The teachers in schools teach
English writing skills following the product approach of teaching
writing where there is little scope for students’ writing skill
development. The teachers of Government Teachers’ Training
College, Dhaka (TTCD) started to apply CTL in 2017.
The way teachers teach English writing skills to the undergraduate
students seemed to be ineffective as students’ English writing
skills were not developing much. Therefore, it was felt that CTL
might be of some use in developing students’ writing skills. As
some teachers have been teaching English writing to the students,
it seemed important to investigate the effect of CTL in the college.
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1.2 The Rationale for the Study
The general standard of written English of students studying at the
undergraduate level in different universities and higher education
colleges is not satisfactory. Hossain (2018) reported from his
experiences as a course teacher for long 21 years that he was
noticing a degrading and regretful condition regarding students’
level of written English. Bangladeshi university students face
added difficulty in developing English writing skills (Khanam,
2016). What method or approach to teaching English writing can
help them get rid of the situation? Irawati (2014) and Nawas
(2018) claimed from two different studies in Indonesia that
learners learned English writing better than before when they were
taught following the CTL approach. Muchtar (2017) also alleged
that Indonesian university students learnt Arabic better when
taught using the CTL method. While browsing the Internet for
CTL-related literature from Bangladesh, no study regarding
teaching writing or any other knowledge-based subjects was
found. There is a gap in the field of using CTL in Bangladesh
education. As English writing skill learning is vital in Bangladesh
education and CTL is a new concept in light of this, it is important
to study how much the teachers know about this; how they utilise
contexts in teaching writing skills; and to identify the benefits of
CTL in teaching writing skill.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study intends to –
explore how the teachers at the tertiary level in
Bangladesh utilised contexts in developing English
writing skill
identify the benefits of CTL in Bangladesh classrooms
investigate the challenges to implementing CTL in higher
education in Bangladesh
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1.4 Research Questions
The study tried to find answers to the following questions:
How do the teachers at Bangladesh tertiary level use
contexts in teaching English writing skills?
How does CTL help students’ English writing skills?
What are the challenges to implementing CTL in higher
education in Bangladesh?
1.5 Significance of the Study
In Bangladesh, applying CTL in teaching English writing will
help encourage students’ critical thinking to develop their writing
skills and make them fluent in English writing as most of the
institutions have the opportunity to use contexts. This study
helped the researchers to understand how contexts could be used
to develop undergraduate students’ English writing skills, and to
learn about the benefits of using CTL in teaching writing skills.
This study will also enable the researchers to teach students and
trainee teachers. Additionally, the publication of the findings in an
international journal and the local newspapers would benefit the
practising English teachers of different levels as well as learners
willing to develop English writing skills. The curriculum
developer can also include CTL in teaching English writing skills
in the secondary and higher education curriculum.
2. Literature Review
CTL approach developed on the philosophy that students learn
better when they can relate the learning to their real-life
experiences; the leaders of the CTL approach believe that all the
objects of the world are interconnected, and nothing is isolated
(Johnson, 2002). Therefore, teaching and learning activities must
happen in contexts. Like other subjects, CTL can also be used to
develop the English writing skill of the students (Nawas, 2018;
Muchtar, 2017; Irawati, 2014).
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The process of becoming a writer is an important journey as it
leads us to many discoveries about ourselves, our ideas, the world
we live in, and our professional identities as academics, teachers,
researchers, and scholars (Murry & Moore, 2006). To be able to
write coherent sentences, and to place the ideas logically, one has
to keep on writing even though the writing does not make any
sense; and it is better to start writing in a group so that one can get
help from others but ultimately one has to write themselves
(Crème & Lea, 2008). Harmer (2004) suggests that teachers can
help students in developing English writing skills by
demonstrating, motivating, supporting, responding, and
evaluating. Moreover, Harmer (2004) alleged that the teachers
teaching writing needed to teach students to be able to plan, draft,
edit, and in making a final version after recurrent edits. The
process approach to teaching writing is proved to be more
effective (Ebrahim, 2015) rather than the product approach to
teaching English writing. In the process approach to teaching
writing, students write something, receive feedback from the
teachers or expert friends, and edit and re-write it (Barua, Karim,
Khaled, & Sultana, 2017). This back and forth process may
continue several times until the write-up becomes better. This
process approach to teaching writing is similar to the
characteristics of the CLT (Communicative Language Teaching)
method of writing skills.
Although CTL is a new concept in Bangladesh, the researchers’
experiences suggest that teachers have been using it in some cases
sub-consciously for a longer period. Writing is a cognitive process
and there should be some level of linguistic ability for someone to
be able to write. Shoeb (2018) stated that continuous practices and
receiving constructive feedback are important for developing
English writing skills. A study by Irawati (2014) with 30 second-
year undergraduate students and a teacher at SDN3 Barenglor,
Indonesia reported that the use of CTL improved students’
motivation and English writing skills. Another study by Nawas
(2018) with 40 third-grade students of Islamic Senior High
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School, Indonesia reported from the pre-test and post-test results
of the controlled and the experimental groups that the difference
between the post-test results of the two groups was highly
significant. In between the pre-test and the post-tests administered
with the 40 participants in two equal groups, the experimental
group had an intervention by applying REACT (Relating,
Applying, Cooperating, and Transferring) strategy.
Arnold (2017) asserted from a study with six students that writing
teaching based on students’ socio-cultural perspectives allowed
the learners to learn English writing through interactions,
observation, and their experiences which were representative of
real-world activities and the process of learning writing was
similar to that of mother language acquisition procedures. The
approach Arnold (2017) talked about matched the characteristics
of CTL.
The CTL usually follows some stages such as pre-writing or
observing; writing or drafting; re-reading and revising, and
editing. Nasir et al. (2013) reported from an action research in
Pakistan that providing intervention in the classrooms and taking
the students through the stages such as observing or reflecting,
drafting, revising, and editing developed the overall creative
writing skills of the students. However, a quasi-experimental
study by Qudsyi, Wijaya, and Widiasmara (2017) with 230
students enrolled in a college for studying Cognitive Psychology
course in Indonesia revealed that the post-test scores were much
higher than the pre-test results after teaching the course using
CTL.
Satriani, Emilia, and Gunawan (2012) conducted a qualitative
study with second graders of a junior high school in Bandung,
Indonesia and they reported from their classroom teaching
observation, interviews with students, and their assignment
analysis that students got engaged in writing if and when taught
using CTL; students were found motivated and received more
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feedback from the teachers and classmates, and they had the
opportunity for reflection on the lesson they learnt. Muchtar
(2017) conducted a research to investigate what impact CTL had
in improving the Arabic language of university students. He
reported that CTL had a positive impact on learning Arabic as it
emphasised learning through the full mental and physical
engagement of students. Students experience real learning from
contexts, repetition, and experiences (Muchtar, 2017).
Hasani (2016) conducted an experimental study with 52 second-
year university students in an Indonesian university divided
equally into two groups and reported that the group taught using
CTL developed a high level of thinking ability enabling the
students to write argumentative writing.
However, the English writing skill of undergraduate students in
EFL (English as a Foreign Language) countries is not satisfactory
(Khanam, 2016; Sajid & Siddiqui, 2015). Khanam (2016) from
her experiences stated that developing English writing skills were
difficult for the university students in Bangladesh. Sajid and
Siddiqui (2015) alleged that undergraduate students in Pakistan
lacked academic writing skills. The positive impact of CTL
inspired the researchers to investigate its effectiveness in the
Bangladeshi context. Literature related to teaching English
writing skills using CTL in Bangladesh was rare.
3. Research Methodology
This study chose qualitative research methodology as it makes it
possible to delve deep into the research problem (Bogdan &
Biklen, 2007). This study employed semi-structured interviews
with two English teachers teaching at the first year of
undergraduate level, as it is possible to explore every detail
through the use of probe questions during the semi-structured
interviews; observed two teaching sessions of each of the teachers
as observations provide with some clues that can be used in
interviews to go deep into the research problem; and organised
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FGD (Focus Group Discussion) with five third-year students
studying Education at Teachers’ Training College, Dhaka who
were purposively selected by the two teachers. FGD was
conducted to know the world view of the students regarding CTL
in developing English writing skills. The two participating course
teachers purposively selected five students whom they considered
appropriate to talk about the uses of CTL in developing English
writing skills. One of the five student participants was a female.
Observation notes were developed through recurrent reading and
edits. Then, the interviews and the FGD were transcribed, edited,
and thus developed into descriptive data, that is, into descriptive
text. During the data processing, the data which gave similar
meanings were highlighted in a particular colour. For example,
data from observations, interviews, and FGD which answered the
first research question were highlighted in red and the data which
answered the second research question were highlighted in
yellow. The two teacher participants were given pseudonyms as
Sumana and Susmita; and the five students were named Alam,
Russell, Sumaya, Mizan, and Touhid respectively to minimise any
kinds of threats to them.
4. Findings and Discussion
The study tried to find answers to the questions: How do the
teachers at Bangladesh tertiary level use contexts in teaching
English writing skills? How does CTL help students’ English
writing skills? And, what are the challenges to implementing CTL
in higher education in Bangladesh? The findings have been
presented in the following sections under the themes of the
research questions.
4.1 The Ways Teachers Utilised Contexts
It was revealed from the observations, interviews, and the FGD
that teachers and students had a clear understanding of CTL
although they did not know that they were using CTL. The
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observations revealed how the teachers utilised contexts in
teaching English writing skills. Sumana took the students to the
flower garden of the college and asked them to note down what
they could see in the garden. The students asked the gardener and
the teacher names of some flowers unknown to them. Then, after
10 minutes, she asked the students to go back to the classroom.
The observation notes of Sumana go as follows:
When the students were settled in the classroom, the
teacher said, “Did you enjoy the outing? What did you see
in the garden? Do you have a garden? What sort of garden
do you have at home? After the students answered the
questions, the teacher said, “I talked about the parts of a
paragraph in my last class. Now, you will write a
paragraph on the Flower Garden I have Visited. The
word limit is 80 and the time fixed for that was 10
minutes.
It was observed that students started writing and the teachers
monitored the students and helped them if they asked for it. While
writing, there was silence but the teacher was monitoring, helping,
and announcing the remaining time recurrently. After the writing
was completed, the teacher asked other students to make
comments on the strengths and weaknesses of the paragraphs.
Some students identified some spelling mistakes, grammatical
mistakes, etc. The first three writings presented by students are
given below. The paragraph written by Alam is as follows:
Flower is a beautiful thing and everyone loves flower.
Even I love flower very much. Today, we went to a flower
garden. This garden is very small but it’s really a very
beautiful garden. There was many kinds of flowers. We
saw there like grass flowers, roses, gold maries
(marigold), etc. In this garden, we saw a national flage
(flag) in this garden. Flower is a beauty of nature. In our
country, it’s used for decoration, congratulate someone
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and other beautiful things. I also love flowers. I have my
own garden. There I have 27 qualities of flowers. So, we
need to love flower. We need to plant flowers plant. It
refreshes our mind.
Although Alam committed some minor mistakes in his writing, it
is understandable what he wanted to mean when looked through
the lens of communicative language teaching (CLT). Russell
writes his paragraph in the following way:
Today is Tuesday and it’s a sun shine day in a winter.
Now I am standing in my college garden. And I am
looking at the many kinds of flowers. There has cincila,
golap, gadha, and many flowers. And specifically there
has a national flag of Bangladesh. When I was going into
the garden, then I feel a sweet smell of flowers. There has
a broad road for entering into the garden. It is very
beautiful to see that there has many flowers left and right
side of the road.
Again, in the writing of Russell, some minor mistakes are seen but
the text makes sense. The paragraph written by Sumaya is as
follows:
I go to observe a garden of my college. When I observe
the garden, I see many kinds of flowers. There are many
roses. I see red roses, white roses, and yellow roses.
Moreover, I see many marigold. These are looking so
beautiful. In the middle of the garden, I see our national
flag. In the corner of the garden, I see a dust bin where we
can keep dust at the garden. In this way we can keep our
garden neat and clean. The garden bounded with the
boundary. Every corner of the garden, I see many coconut
tree. The garden decorated with marigold flowers.
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The students and the teacher made comments related to subject-
verb agreement, tenses, use of ‘be’ verbs, passive voices, and so
on.
Then Sumana put the 28 students in 5 groups and asked them to
write a single paragraph in each group taking into cognizance the
comments made by the peers as well as the teacher. They finished
the paragraphs in 10 minutes and three groups were allowed to
read out one after another. This time, the paragraphs were
grammatically more correct and the sentences were coherent.
One of the two teachers, Susmita, described slowly what activities
she had done in the morning using the simple past tense. She asked
the students to notice the tenses of the verbs in her description.
Then she said, “What tense did I use to describe my morning
activities?” The students answered by saying, “Simple Past
Tense”. Then she asked the students to write individually what
they had done before they came to the college. When they
finished, the teacher asked the students to check in pairs. Then
Susmita asked the students to read out their write-ups one by one.
Four students read out one by one and the teacher wrote some
sentences on the whiteboard. Some of the sentences she identified
as incorrect included the following:
I have took my breakfast in the morning.
I have cleaned by bed.
I brushed my tooth.
I have weared a hijab.
I write my Home Work.
I had take a shower.
Susmita wrote the sentences on the whiteboard and asked the
students to find the mistakes in the sentences and to reveal the
solutions. Students made comments on any kinds of the mistakes
including singular and plural, tenses, and other kinds of errors.
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Then Susmita explained to the students why those sentences were
incorrect and she orally provided the correct answers.
During the teaching observations and interviews with the two
teachers, it was revealed that teachers exploited some contexts to
develop the English writing skill of the students. Sumana claimed
in the interview that she used contexts, which included
classrooms; college campus; different activities of the college
including sports, cultural activities, and teaching-learning
activities; video clips, acting, role-play; and dramatisation.
Susmita also asserted in her interview that she exploited contexts
such as writing about the family and their college; writing about
the traffic jam they experienced on the way to the college or way
back home; describing the classrooms; describing the classmates
or teachers using some specific adjectives;
describing/summarising a film, etc.
During the four teaching session observation, it was noticed that
Sumana used contexts such as describing the last Winter Vacation
they enjoyed based on the description provided by the teacher in
How Rana Spent His Summer Vacation; and Describing the
College Garden after visiting it personally. Susmita utilised
contexts such as Uses and Abuses of a Mobile Phone and wrote a
description using present perfect tense about what students have
done.
The students in the FGD also mentioned some contexts teachers
used in teaching English writing skills. The FGD transcript reads
as follows:
Teachers use current issues and happenings in teaching
English writing skills. They choose topics like Pitha
Utsob (Cake Festival), Teaching Aids Exhibition,
Cultural programmes, Annual Sports, and so on. They
exploit these contexts to write paragraphs, essays, and
letters written to friends and relatives. They also tell us to
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write about our daily activities. Sometimes our teachers
tell us to keep a diary in which we can write our daily
activities every day.
The data stated above indicate that teachers are aware of utilising
contexts in developing the English writing skill of the
undergraduate students. Students are also seen on the track and if
they receive positive and recurrent feedback from teachers and
others, their writing skills will improve.
4.2 Benefits of CTL
The benefits are immense as claimed by the two participating
teachers Sumana and Susmita. In her interview, Sumana asserted:
If I teach using the CTL approach, students’ learning
becomes long-lasting because the students go through the
learning process in a disciplined way; they can relate
writing to their real-life; and this connection of learning to
real-life makes learning enjoyable. Students like CTL so
much that, they requested me to conduct the writing
sessions in the way I have been teaching in the last few
weeks.
Similar benefits were also mentioned by Susmita in her interview.
Susmita claimed:
In CTL, it is easier for the students to learn because they
can use words and phrases related to what they have seen
and felt; and learning becomes permanent. Students can
be engaged easily as they are engrossed in the learning. If
I use real-life situations, students start to know the kinds
of English they need for everyday use. Moreover, as
students are interested in the activities, their attention can
also be retained for a longer time.
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It was noticed from the observations of the teaching sessions of
Sumana and Susmita that the students wrote descriptions of the
garden, checked each other’s descriptions in pairs, provided
feedback to their friends, and asked questions to the teacher. The
teachers, too, identified some mistakes from the reading out of
randomly selected writing and provided feedback to the whole
class. In this way, the common mistakes of the students were
corrected which was beneficial to developing English writing
skills. As the feedback was general, aiming at all the students and
not targeting the students who made the mistakes, no student felt
embarrassed because of the feedback and corrections.
The FGD transcript also showed that CTL benefited the students
in developing their English writing skills. A section of the FGD
transcript observes:
In CTL approach, we can work together, share ideas, find
each other’s weaknesses and strengths; correct our
writings with the help of our classmates and teachers.
CTL is better than the traditional method because
traditional approach was all ‘bookish’ and all of them did
not have any relationship to our life. Everyone has to take
part in the learning process and the vocabulary and the
sentences we have to use have immediate connection with
our life.
It is revealed from the data collected through interviews and FGD
that CTL is beneficial for students. The way the teachers and
students worked was similar to the process approach to teaching.
Continuous use of CTL followed by recurrent feedback is
expected to improve students’ English writing skills. Qudsyi et al.
(2017), Satriani et al. (2012), Hasani (2016), and Muchtar (2017)
found positive results through utilising contexts in teaching
English writing skills.
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4.3 Barriers to and Prospects of CTL in Bangladesh
It was cited earlier that four teaching sessions of the two teacher
participants were observed. Although the number of students in
each of the four sessions present was between 28 and 55, the
number of total enrolled students in the first semester was 92 and
in the second semester was 120. Both the teachers alleged that the
huge number of students in a single class was a great challenge to
implement the CTL approach. Such a big number of students
cannot be taken care of in 60 minutes. Additionally, the college
authority’s rigid mindset not to allow teachers to go beyond the
fixed syllabus and the classroom, and the shortage of vocabulary
of the learners were some of the major barriers to the effective
implementation of the CTL. Sumana claimed, The assessment
system does not encourage us to apply CTL in developing English
writing skill. Students who write from memorisation are usually
awarded higher marks or grades. For that reason, some students
are not interested to write on their own.”
The observation data of Susmita also was a shred of evidence that
large class size was a barrier to implementing CTL. The
observation notes read like this:
She put the students in groups of 5 and there were 11
groups. Then she numbered the groups from 1 to 11 and
asked the groups from 1 to 6 to point out the uses of the
mobile phones, and the groups 7 to 11 to write the abuses
of mobile phones. She started eliciting one point from
each group when the students finished writing.
Susmita noted the uses and the abuses of mobile phones on a
whiteboard. The uses included communication (audio, video calls,
SMS, etc.) with others; calculation; Internet; education;
photos/videos; playing games; entertainment; and watching TV.
And the abuses included cheating in examinations; wasting time
(games, Facebook, etc.); anti-social activities (giving threats,
taking photos/videos of personal affairs); cyber-crimes (sexual
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harassment, pornography, etc.); suicidal games like BlueWhale;
and leaking personal information.
The researchers observed that it was difficult to collect points
from 11 groups as all the groups were interested to speak first.
Besides, students were seen as a little bit restless while they had
to wait for their turns. Similar difficulties were also reported by
Arianto (2011) that some unmotivated students making noises was
a challenge for the teacher.
The students in the FGD claimed that, although they liked CTL,
some students disliked it as it sometimes goes beyond the fixed
syllabus set by the university and the university syllabus did not
have a good number of contextual topics. The students in the FGD
alleged that their examination system did not value any writing
written in their own words because when students write in their
own words, there might be some kinds of weaknesses in their
English.
During observation of one of the Sumana’s classes in which there
were only 28 students (in the other class there were 48 students),
it was found to be a well-managed class. “If the number of
students becomes smaller, CTL would work better in the
Bangladesh context,” claimed Susmita.
The students in the FGD remarked, “In large classes, teachers
cannot reach every student and sometimes, it becomes
unmanageable for the teachers; they cannot take care of all the
students. However, if they use technology (multi-media
projectors, online feedback services, etc.), the situation may
improve.” Finally, the students in the FGD claimed that learning
English writing skills should be focused, not the marks or grades;
questions that are aligned to CTL should be set in the
examinations.
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The challenges indicated by the teachers and students included
rigidity of the college administration, large class size, and the poor
stock of words of the learners. Through continuous efforts and
negotiations with the administration, the identified challenges
could be minimised.
5. Conclusion
This qualitative study, conducted using interviews with two
teacher educators and observations of two teaching sessions of
each of them and an FGD with five students, has revealed that
CTL is useful in teaching English writing to the undergraduate
students at Govt. Teachers’ Training College, Dhaka. CTL is a
new approach to teaching English writing in Bangladesh. Real
learning happens when teaching-learning occurs in context
(Johnson, 2002). Although some university professionals
consciously employ CTL in teaching different knowledge-based
subjects, it can be used in teaching English writing skills too.
However, CTL has not started to be widely used throughout the
world although some countries such as Indonesia (Nawas, 2018;
Muchtar, 2017; Irawati, 2014) and Pakistan (Nasir, Naqbi, &
Bhamani, 2013) have started to use CTL in teaching English
writing. Bangladeshi teachers who are aware of CTL can exploit
the benefits of this new approach to teaching English writing.
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