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Evaluation of Detarium microcarpum pulp meal as feed ingredient in rabbits diets


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A 12-week study was conducted to investigate response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels, 0, 5, 10 and 15%, of dietary Detarium microcarpum fruit pulp meal (DFPM). Twenty-four, 4-week-old mixed breed weaner rabbits divided into 4 groups of 6 rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The results of the phytochemical assay shows that DFPM contained tannins (0.023%) whereas saponins, phytate, oxalates and hydrogen cyanides were not detected. Feed intake was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in 15% DFPM than in the control diet. Daily weight gain, nutrients intake, protein to gain ratio and feed conversion ratio were not (P > 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Similarly, nutrients digestibility was similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments. However, cost of feeding and feed cost per kg body weight gain (BWG) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of DFPM in the diets. Cost differential per kg BWG, savings of feed cost and relative cost benefit per kg BWG significantly (P < 0.05) varied among the diets; the rank order is: 15% > 10% > 5% DFPM. The impressive performance and comparative cost advantage suggests that DFPM is an economic viable alternative feedstuff and can be used up to 15% in the diets of weaner rabbits.
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C. O. Obun1, S. M. Yahaya2, A .A. Kibon3, O. A. Olafadehan4,*, and S. D. Alison2
1Department of Animal Production, Federal College of Wildlife Management,
P.M.B.268, New Bussa, Niger State Nigeria
2Federal University of Technology, P.M. B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
3Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State
4Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
A 12-week study was conducted to investigate response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded
levels, 0, 5, 10 and 15%, of dietary Detarium microcarpum fruit pulp meal (DFPM). Twenty-four,
4-week-old mixed breed weaner rabbits divided into 4 groups of 6 rabbits were randomly assigned
to the four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The results of the phytochemical
assay shows that DFPM contained tannins (0.023%) whereas saponins, phytate, oxalates and
hydrogen cyanides were not detected. Feed intake was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in 15% DFPM
than in the control diet. Daily weight gain, nutrients intake, protein to gain ratio and feed conversion
ratio were not (P > 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Similarly, nutrients digestibility was
similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments. However, cost of feeding and feed cost per kg body weight
gain (BWG) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of DFPM in the diets. Cost differential per
kg BWG, savings of feed cost and relative cost benefit per kg BWG significantly (P < 0.05) varied
among the diets; the rank order is: 15% > 10% > 5% DFPM. The impressive performance and
comparative cost advantage suggests that DFPM is an economic viable alternative feedstuff and can
be used up to 15% in the diets of weaner rabbits.
Detarium fruit pulp meal, digestibility, Economic analysis, performance, rabbits.
O. A. Olafadehan!et al. EJEAFChe, 9 (2), 2010. [308-314]!
One major limiting factor to livestock production is the high cost of conventional feedstuffs such as
groundnut cake (GNC), soybean cake, fish meal and maize. However, many feedstuffs, especially
agro-industrial by-products which are usually of no feeding value to humans can alternatively be fed
at cheaper cost to monogastric animals(1).
Maize is the main cereal involved in animal nutrition as the main energy source and constitutes
60 to 70% of monogastrics' diets, especially pigs and poultry. However, owing to its nutritional
value, there has always been keen competition between human and animals for maize. This pressure
on maize has resulted in its skyrocketing price with consequential increased cost of livestock
production, which has further exacerbated animal protein consumption problem in tropical countries
including Nigeria. This scenario has therefore led to an increasing interest in search for alternative
non conventional agricultural products that can substitute for maize in livestock feed. One of such
waste by-products is Detarium microcarpum fruit pulp.
Detarium microcarpum tree belongs to the family Caesalpinoideae and is found mostly in
savannah forest of dried type. It is a highly yielding tree with large quantities of its fruits being left
wasting every year in the field(2) and grows up to 9m in height. Currently, it is of less value as
human food rather large numbers are cut down for fuel wood and charcoal production. For
economic reasons, it is reasonable to cultivate and conserve this tree with desirable attributes to
meet livestock feed shortage. The fruits, which dropped naturally when matured (November – May),
are circular and disc-shaped, covered with dark brown fairly smooth skin and brittle when dry
enclosing a sweet greenish pulp mixed with a tangled network of fibres surrounding the hard disc-
shaped wrinkled stone containing one seed. The tree has been estimated to produce between 20 -
25kg of fruits/stand/annum and can withstand burning with high regeneration interval when cut
down(3). Most of the presumed nutritionally advantageous properties of these seeds wastes (pulp)
have been suggested to be associated with the carbohydrate fractions. Ogundun(4) stated that the
pulp of the fruit is used as a source of food for man and livestock as it contains high level of
carbohydrate. The fruit pulp has been reported to contain 85.90 - 90.00% dry matter, 4.00 - 8.31%
crude protein, 2.55 - 3.50% crude fat, 3.20 - 4.27% ash, 20 - 25% crude fibre and 35 - 40%
carbohydrate with 3.2 mg vitamin C and 64.5 g of sugar per 100 g (4,5). The main objectives of this
study were to investigate the phytochemical constituents and the effect of replacement of maize with
graded levels of DMPM on the performance, nutrient digestibility and cost implication of grower
Experimental site
This study was carried out at the rabbit unit of the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College
of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger state. It is located between latitude 70 80´ and 100 00´N
longitude 40 30´ and 40 33´E. The temperature and relative humidity averaged 340C and 60% during
the period of the study.
Processing of the experimental feedstuff
Dry Detarium microcarpum fruits were collected from New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. The fruits
were sun-dried consistently until they were properly dried after which, they were lightly pounded (to
avoid seed breakage) with a pestle and mortar to separate the seeds from the pulp (mesocarp). The
seeds and pulp were sieved with a 1mm size sieve to separate seeds from the pulp meal.
Experimental diets, design and animal management
Twenty-four, 4-week-old mixed breed weaned rabbits were used for this study which lasted for 12
weeks. The rabbits were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment had two
O. A. Olafadehan!et al. EJEAFChe, 9 (2), 2010. [308-314]!
replicates of three rabbits. The four experimental diets had the graded inclusion levels 0, 5, 10 and
15% Detarium fruit pulp meal (DFPM) which corresponded to 0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5% replacement
of dietary maize (Table 1) in a complete randomized design. The experimental rabbits, housed in
cages, were fed basal diet of
Table 1: Ingredient composition of the experimental feedstuff and diets (%)
Inclusion levels of DFPM
Detarium fruit pulp meal
Maize offal
Groundnut cake
Palm kernel cake
Oyster shell
Bone meal
Tridax procubens. They were dewormed prior to the commencement of the experiment. Feed
and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the study period. Feed intake was taken as the
difference between the feed served and the ort. Records of initial and weekly live weight, daily feed
intake were kept while the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein to gain ratio were calculated.
Digestibility trial
Digestibility trial was conducted during the last week of the experiment by collecting the faecal
samples. Collected faecal samples were pooled together and sub samples were taken, dried at 60oC
to a constant weight and stored until needed for proximate analysis.
Economic analysis
Cost effectiveness of DFPM supplementation was assessed using prevailing market prices at the
time of the experiment. The cost of the DFPM diet was estimated by computing the cost of labour
for collection and processing of the fruit pulp. Feed consumption was used to multiply cost per kg of
feed to obtain the cost of feeding. The feed cost per kg of body weight gain (BWG) was calculated
by dividing the cost of feeding by BWG. The cost differential and relative cost benefit of the diet in
relation to the control diet were calculated as follows: Cost differential (X) = Cost per kg BWG of
control diet less cost per kg BWG of test diets, whereas relative cost benefit describes the
percentage gain realized by feeding DFPM at the graded levels in relation to the control.
Chemical assay
The proximate composition of the experimental diets, DFPM, faecal samples and phytochemical
constituents of DFPM were conducted according to the procedures of AOAC(6).
Statistical analysis
All data were subjected to one way analysis of variance using the completely randomized design as
described by Steel and Torrie(7). Significant treatment means were separated using Duncan's
multiple range tests(8).
The chemical compositions of the experimental feedstuff and diets are presented in Table 2. DFPM
is low in crude protein and fibre but high in energy. The photochemical screening indicates the
presence of tannins while saponins, phytate, oxalate and hydrogen cyanide were not detected (Table
O. A. Olafadehan!et al. EJEAFChe, 9 (2), 2010. [308-314]!
Table 2: Chemical compositions of the test ingredient and the experimental diets
Inclusion levels of DFPM (%)
Parameter (%)
Dry matter
Crude proteína
Crude fibre
Nitrogen free extract
Organic matter
ME (Kcal/kg)
DFPM, Detarium fruit pulp meal
Table 3: Phytochemical screening of the Detarium fruit pulp meal
Anti-nutritional component
Concentration (%)
hydrogen cyanide
ND, Not detected
The performance of the rabbits fed the test diets is shown in Table 4. Final body weight, weight
gains, daily weight gains, intakes of crude protein, fibre, nitrogen free extract, organic matter,
protein intake to gain ratio and FCR were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by the treatments.
While daily feed intake of rabbits fed the control and those fed 5 and 10% DFPM diets was not
significantly (P > 0.05) different, feed intake of the control was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than
that of the 15% DFPM. However, feed intake was similar (P > 0.05) among the rabbits fed DFPM
The result of the apparent nutrient digestibility of the experimental rabbits is presented in Table
5. The apparent digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients were similar (P > 0.05) among the
The cost analysis of the experimental diets is presented in Table 6. Cost per kg of diets declined
with increasing levels of DFPM. Cost of feed consumed and cost per (BWG) showed the same trend
and were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the control diet than
O. A. Olafadehan!et al. EJEAFChe, 9 (2), 2010. [308-314]!
Table 4: Intake and growth of rabbits fed Detarium fruit pulp meal
Detarium fruit pulp meal (%)
Initial body weight (g)
Final body weight (g)
Weight gain (g)
Daily weight gain (g/day)
Daily feed intake (g/day)
Crude protein intake (g/day)
Crude fibre intake (g/day)
NFE intake (g/day)
Organic matter intake(g/day)
Protein intake: gain ratio
Means on the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)
the DFPM diets; even among the DFPM diets, it was outstandingly lower in 15% DFPM than in 5% DFPM. Cost
differential, savings of cost of feeding and relative cost benefit per kg BWG were significantly (P < 0.05) varied among
the DFPM diets; the rank order is: 15% DFPM > 10% DFPM > 5% DFPM.
Table 5: Apparent nutrient digestibility of rabbit fed experimental diets (%)
Detarium fruit pulp meal (%)
Dry matter
Crude proteína
Crude fibre
Ether extract
Nitrogen free extract
Means on the same row without superscripts are not significantly different (P > 0.05)
Table 6: Economics of feed conversion of rabbits fed the experimental diets
Detarium fruit pulp meal (%)
Feed cost (/kg)a
Total weight gain (kg)
Total fed consumed (kg)
Cost of feed consumed ()
Cost of feed/kg BWG (N)
Cost of feed/kg BWG differential (N)
Saving on feeding cost (%)
Relative cost benefit/kg BW gain (%)
Means on the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)
The low crude protein and high energy contents of the DFPM suggest its potentiality as energy
feedstuff. The presence of tannin in DFPM could be due to the fact DFPM is a by-product of a
leguminous browse plant; tannins have associated with browse plants and thus limit their utilization
in livestock feeding. According to Aganga and Mosase(9) tannins are widespread in small amounts
O. A. Olafadehan!et al. EJEAFChe, 9 (2), 2010. [308-314]!
with large accumulations found in various plant tissues which are utilised for food and feed such as
browse plants, legume seeds and forages. However, tannins, which have been reported to usually
give rise to a dry, pickery, astringent sensation in the mouth(10) and bind with diet protein and other
nutrients thus lowering diet intake and digestibility in animals(11), was low in the pulp meal.
To our knowledge there are no literature data on the performance of rabbits or other livestock fed
DFPM. Therefore, the discussion in this study relies on other alternative feed resources and previous
work on diets containing alternative feeds. The non significant differences in the final body weight,
body weight gain and daily weight gain are in consonance with the previous studies involving
other alternative feedstuffs such as processed cassava peel meal, different combinations of soybean-
cheese waste meal, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean forage, and
graded levels of blood-wild sunflower leaf meal mixture, Oluremi and Nwosu(12), Iyeghre-
Erakpotobor et al.(13) and Ajayi et al.(14), respectively, who also found no significant differences in
the daily weight gains of the experimental rabbits. Furthermore, these weight gain values agree with
what were reported previously in concentrate plus forage diets (15). Good weight gain response of
animals is also an indication of feed utilization and thus implies the DFPM contains save level of
toxic factors that could impede feed utilization. Therefore, the decreased daily feed intake of rabbit
on 15% DFPM compared to the control may probably be due to the higher dietary energy content of
this diet. It appears that feed intake is a logical consequence of the energy content of the diets. Lebas
et al.(16) asserted that rabbit adjusts its feed intake according to the energy concentration of the feeds
offered to it where the proteins and other dietary components are balanced. Parallel observations
were reported by Bamikole et al.(17) when graded levels of mulberry leaves were fed in combination
with a concentrate diet to grower rabbits. Although the presence of tannins in DFPM could, as well,
have been implicated because tannins in feed have been reported to act as toxin and/or digestion
inhibitions with resultant depression in feed intake(9), the concentration of tannins in the DFPM is,
however, very low and much lower than the range of 1 - 20% reported to have been commonly
found in cereals and legumes and implicated for depressed feed intake and growth rate resulting in a
poor feed efficiency and an increase in the amount of feed required per unit weight gain(18). Thus,
the performance of animals on high tanniniferous feeds is usually low(11). The insignificant
differences in the protein intake to gain ratio and FCR suggest that inclusion of DFPM up to 15%
did not affect protein utilization and efficiency of conversion feed to meat. The results corroborates
the findings of other workers(12,14,19).
The insignificant variations in apparent digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients explicitly
demonstrated that DFPM can adequately partially replace maize in the diets of grower rabbits
without adverse effect on nutrients digestibility. This again led credence to the non toxic level of
tannins in the DFPM because it is well known that tannins inhibit digestive enzymes and increase
endogenous and faecal nitrogen excretion that strongly depress protein digestibility as well as the
digestibility of other nutrients in ruminants and monogastrics(20).
Increasing the inclusion levels of DFPM led to reduction in feed cost obviously due to non
demand for the pulp unlike the highly priced and demanded maize. Generally, as the level of
inclusion of DFPM in the diet increases, the economic efficiency of the diets increases. The results
contradict the findings of Orunmuyi et al.(21) who observed increase in the cost per unit gain with
increase in level of palm kernel cake in rabbits diets. However, the findings in this study agree with
Ajayi et al.(14) who observed reduction in feed cost and production cost below the control diet. The
increasing cost per kg BWG differential, savings on the cost of feeding and relative cost benefit per
kg BWG with increasing levels of DFPM further confirms the economic efficiency of partial
replacement of maize with DFPM, which implies that in terms of benefits accruable to farmers, 15%
O. A. Olafadehan!et al. EJEAFChe, 9 (2), 2010. [308-314]!
DFPM gave the best result. The results agree with that of Agunbiade et al.(22) who reported that
savings in feed cost was achievable as a result of the use of dried cassava peel in rabbits diets. Since
there is abundant availability of Detarium microcarpum plant and their fruits, which are allowed to
rotten in the field, especially in the northern Nigeria, a farmer can harvest, processed and store at a
very minimal cost for use in livestock feeding.
The results of this study, which show that DFPM can be used up to 15% and therefore replaced
37.5% of dietary maize in practical rabbit ration without any adverse effect on feed intake, growth
rate, nutrient digestibility but even reduced the cost of rabbit production, suggest DFPM as a good
energy feedstuff for rabbit. However, further research on higher inclusion levels is needed.
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4.N. J. Ogundun. Appraisal of major minerals in the blood serum of goats fed Detarium mcrocarpum fruits and
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Sept., Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 114-116 (2006).
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... Despite the various medicinal uses to which this plant has been put into, it lacks scientific basis. Although previous work has been done on the fruits, fruit pulp, seeds, seed coats, leaves, either by way of screening its aqueous extracts against clinical isolates [3], investigating the response of some farm animals to diets containing the fruit pulp [4], comparing the biological actions of the chemical constituents of the leaves, stems and roots [5], there is no report or documentation made on the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum. The aim/purpose of this work is to come up with standards for the development of a monograph for the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum by evaluating the Pharmacognostic charactersters of its stem bark. ...
... The weight of the residue (the acid insoluble ash) was determined by subtracting the weight of the crucible from the final weight. The acid insoluble ash value (in percentage) was calculated with reference to the initial weight of the powdered drug from the Total- Ash-Value experiment [4]. Five grams of the powdered stem bark was accurately weighed into a 250 ml conical flask. ...
... Kouyate and Van Damme (2006) recorded that the fruit pulp contains 4-6 g/100 g protein and 3 mg/100 g ascorbic acid. Olafedehan et al., (2010) reported that D. microcarpum pulp contained 0.023% tannin, saponin, phytate, oxalate and hydrogen cyanide were not detected. Umar et al. (2007), reported Oibiokpa et al. 345 that D. microcarpum fruit pulp from Zamfara State, northeastern Nigeria, contained 593.7 mg/100 g potassium, 438.5 mg/100 g sodium, 20.5 mg/100 g magnesium and 90.0 mg/100 g calcium. ...
... The ash content of the fruit pulp was observed to be 4.47%. Olafedehan et al. (2010), evaluated D. microcarpum fruit pulp as a feed ingredient in rabbit's diet and found the ash content to be 3.40%, this value is lower than those obtained in this research and variations could be due to differences in environmental factors such as soil and genetic differences. Obun et al. (2011) reported that the seed of D. microcarpum fruit contained 3.49% ash, showing that the seed and pulp have similar ash contents and are both good sources of minerals. ...
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The pulp of Detarium microcarpum fruit was extracted and samples were analyzed for the proximate, vitamin, mineral and anti-nutrient composition using standard methods. Crude protein content obtained in D. microcarpum fruit was 4.68% while the crude fat content was 2.23%. The fruit also contained 4.47% moisture, 4.47% ash, 11.06% crude fibre and 65.38% total carbohydrates. The mineral composition of the fruit pulp showed that potassium was the most abundant (908.10 mg/100 g) and cadmium was the least abundant (0.03 mg/100 mg). Vitamin analysis showed that the fruit is rich in vitamin C (55.10 mg/100 g). The fruit was also discovered to contain 12.44 mg/100 g, vitamin E, 4.20 mg/100 g vitamin B 2 and 0.17 mg/100 g folic acid. The anti-nutrient compositions of D. microcarpum were phytate (0.41 mg/100 g), cyanide (0.07 mg/100 g), tannin 0.17 mg/100 g, oxalate 1.06 mg/100 g, saponin (2.73 mg/100 g). D. microcarpum fruit is a good source of carbohydrates, fibre, minerals and vitamins and could also contribute to the daily requirements of protein and fats. The anti-nutrient contents of the fruit pulp are lower than established toxic levels.
... The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in biological systems, as single oxygen scavengers as well as freer radicals have been reported to be associated. [32,33] Due to its ability to penetrate biological membranes, hydrogen peroxide is a particularly targeted and highly significant reactive oxygen species. However, by reacting with Fe2+ and presumably Cu2+ ions, it may be toxic if converted into hydroxyl radical in the cell. ...
Full-text available
Detarium microcarpum is generally utilized for the treatment of various diseases in Northern Nigeria. Using the spectrophotometer technique against 1,1-dipenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2), the phytochemical and antioxidant free radical rummaging behavior of the ethanolic leaves concentrate of this plant was examined in vitro. Free radical scavenging activity of the plant extract against DPPH and H 2 O 2 was focus subordinate with IC 50 estimation of 4.84 and 2.77 separately as contrasted and those of standard ascorbic acid with IC 50 estimation of 2.93 and 1.72 individually. In this research, it was discovered that the ethanolic extract of D. microcarpum contains high phenolic content that may represent the powerful action against DPPH and H 2 O 2 radicals. This
... The fruits of D. microcarpum are well-known in West Africa for its nutritional and therapeutic values [8]. Fruit pulp is rich in vitamin C, protein, carbohydrate and in mineral contents such as iron, calcium, magnesium and sodium [9]. Antifungal and antioxidant phytomolecules such as clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the fruit pulp [10]. ...
... The fruits of D. microcarpum are well-known in West Africa for its nutritional and therapeutic values [8]. Fruit pulp is rich in vitamin C, protein, carbohydrate and in mineral contents such as iron, calcium, magnesium and sodium [9]. Antifungal and antioxidant phytomolecules such as clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the fruit pulp [10]. ...
Abstract: DNA is continuously degraded by numerous genotoxic agents including intracellular reactive oxygen species produced by cell metabolism and exogenous environmental pollutants. These genotoxic agents destroy the DNA integrity leading to carcinogenesis or cell death. An increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and other foods rich in antioxidant compounds can protect DNA from oxidative damage and prevent cell carcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate in vitro the genoprotective and DNA repair activities of the fruit pulp ethanol extract from Detarium microcarpum against two known mutagenic agents such as hydrogen peroxide and methyl methane sulfonate. To assess the genoprotective and DNA repair activities of extract, human lymphocytes in culture were treated with the extract before or after the genotoxic agent exposing. The amount of DNA damages was assessed by using the standard comet assay. The fruit pulp extract in concentration up to 500 μg/mL, compared to vehicle didn’t affect the integrity of DNA. Interestingly, the genotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and methyl methane sulfonate on human lymphocytes were significantly reduced by the extract pretreatment. In addition, the DNA damages induced by hydrogen peroxide and methyl methane sulfonate were repaired further to the extract addition. The fruit pulp ethanol extract from Detarium microcarpum contains bioactive compounds that can preserve the integrity of DNA from the deleterious effects of genotoxic agents. The daily intake of this fruit pulp as food supplement could prevent DNA damages and carcinogenesis. Keywords: Detarium microcarpum, Genoprotection, DNA Repair, Hydrogen Peroxide, Methyl Methane Sulfonate
... Detarium microcarpum (Caesalpiniaceae) is widely and commonly used in traditional medicine to treat diverse ailments including malaria, bronchitis, and meningitis [9][10][11]. Bioactive diterpenes with antifungal, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities were isolated from its fruit pulp extract [12]. ...
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The current study aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the antioxidant capacity and the human lymphocyte-protective effect of the ethanolic extract from Detarium microcarpum fruit pulp against oxidative stress damage. Human lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of extract, followed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, the antioxidant property of the extract was evaluated in vitro using hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical-scavenging assays. Compared to the vehicle, the fruit pulp ethanol extract did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect on human lymphocytes. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide to human lymphocytes was significantly reduced by fruit extract pretreatment. The extract and ascorbic acid exhibited similar cytoprotective activity (p > 0.05). The fruit pulp extract showed more antioxidant activity than gallic acid in the hydrogen peroxide-scavenging model, while in the nitric oxide-quenching model, the fruit extract and gallic acid showed similar activity. The fruit pulp of D. microcarpum contains potent antioxidant and cell-protective compounds. The use of the fruit pulp of D. microcarpum as a food supplement could rescue cellular oxidative damage responsible for numerous pathologies.
... It is also used as good quality fuel wood and charcoal. The leaves, stems, roots, barks, as well as the fruits have found tremendous usage in treatment of various ailments like tuberculosis, meningitis, itching and diarrhoea (Obun et al., 2010). Itis a leguminous tree from West Africa that bears pods containing sweet sour pulp which is popularly eaten by local people. ...
... The results of this study conform to the findings of other authors with variation in the values of the proximate constitutents due to differences in plant-parts used in the various studies: The relatively high crude fibre content in W. indica will help to maintain the movement of food through the gut and may be broken down by enzymes and bacteria in the gut to provide energy (Oladiji et al., 2005). The fruit pulp of D. microcarpum can serve as a source of foods for man and livestock because of its crude protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate content (Obun et al., 2010a). Mariod et al. (2009) analysed D. microcarpum fruit for its proximate compositions and recorded 29.1 -30.9 % crude protein in its dried fruit pulp. ...
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Aim: Ethnobotanical investigation revealed that Parquetina nigrescens, Sorghum bicolor, Terminalia catappa, Trema orientalis, Mangifera indica, Waltheria indica, Theobroma cacao, Harungana madagascariensis, Tetracera alnifolia and Detarium microcarpum are used traditionally for the treatment of anaemia in southwestern Nigeria. This study screened the plants for their proximate constituents and phytochemical compounds to provide scientific details for their therapeutic use for the treatment of anaemia. Study design: Proximate and phytochemical analyses of ten ethnobotanicals. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Botany, Pharmacognosy and Animal Nutrition, University of Ibadan, between January and September, 2010. Methodology: Proximate and phytochemical analyses of plant parts of ten ethnobotanicals were carried out using standard laboratory methods. Data were analysed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Differences between means were assessed for significance at p<0.05 by Duncan’s Multiple range test (DMRT). Results: The habits of the tested plants were 60% trees, 30% shrubs and 10% herbs. The use-value of plant parts were 60% barks and 40% leaves. The highest value (19.95%) of crude protein was recorded for P. nigrescens . S. bicolor showed significantly (P < 0.05) high content of crude fibre (30.00%) and highest dry matter was obtained from T. cacao and T. catappa . Anthraquinones were present in Harungana madagascariensis , Theobroma cacao , Mangifera indica and Waltheria indica , 70% of the test plants contained tannins, and cardiac glycosides were present in all plant samples. This study, thus confirms the nutritional potential of the test plants in addition to their active phytochemical constituents. Their nutrients might complement the active phytocompounds in therapeutic activities. Research Article
Conference Paper
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his experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using dried strawberry by-product (ASB) in growing rabbit diets on growth performance, nutrients digestibility coefficients, some blood parameter and relative economic efficiency. Seventy two weaned male New Zealand White rabbits at 6 weeks received diets containing 0, 25, 50 and 75% ASB as a replace of berseem hay. The growth trial lasted for 8 weeks. Results obtained could be summarized as follows: There were significant increases in body weight gain with increasing ASB levels in the diets. Whereas, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by ASB feeding. Ether extract digestibility coefficients were significantly decreased with increasing dietary level of ASB, while the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP and CF were higher in treatments containing ASB, while the digestibility coefficients of OM, CP and CF were significantly higher in treatments containing ASB. Dressing percentages of rabbits were significantly higher with 75% ASB feeding compared with other treatments. Dietary ASB treatments had no significant effects on meat chemical analysis (moisture, DM and CP contents). But EE and ash contents were decreased with ASB feeding. Blood plasma concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, vLDL and total lipids were significantly decreased with increasing the level of ASB in rabbit diets. Feeding ASB had a significant positive effect on blood plasma antioxidant profile. Leveling up dietary ASB inclusion rate decreased MDA level and increased the TAC capacity in an incremental manner with increasing ASB of the diet. Using ASB as a feed ingredient improved the relative economic efficiency of diets. It could be concluded that ASB can be used in the growing rabbit diets with no adverse effects on performance and health status of the rabbit. Besides, ASB could reduce the cost of the diet.
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A total of forty (40) growing rabbits with an average initial weight of 921.5g were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% palm kernel cake as replacement for soyabean cake respectively. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (20% CP). The final live weights of the rabbits were higher in the control diet compared to those on palm kernel cake diets. With the exception of the rabbits placed on 40% level of palm kernel cake daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency values compared favourably with those on control diet. Carcass weight and weight of primal cuts expressed as percentage of carcass weight did not show any significant difference between the treatment means. Animals on 40% palm kernel cake diets had the highest (P<0.05) cost per kg gain compared to those on other dietary treatments. It was concluded that palm kernel cake can be used up to 30% level in a maize – soyabean meal based diet for grower rabbits without adverse effect on the performance of the animals.
Browsing ruminants have access to different biomass, depending on how high they can reach. Foliage consisting of leaves and green pods from Acacia senegal, Pterocarpus lucens and Guiera senegalensis, was collected according to height above ground accessible to either sheep (0.90m), goats (1.65m) or cattle (1.50m). There was a significant variation in the chemical composition of the biomass between species. The crude protein (CP) content was 114, 157 and 217g/kg dry matter (DM) and the neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) content 604, 534 and 412g/kg DM for G. senegalensis, P. lucens and A. senegal, respectively. There was no significant variation in chemical composition according to the height accessible by cattle, sheep or goats. The voluntary intake was studied using eight goats per diet. The six diets consisted of the three browse leaves and two pods (A. senegal and P. lucens) and a control. The leaves were fed combined with hay of Schoenefeldia gracilis (maximum 30%) and the control was pure hay. Apparent digestibilities of the same diets, with the exception of G. senegalensis, were measured using five goats per diet. All browse fodders used in the feeding and digestibility trials were high in CP (105–170g/kg DM) and lignin (164–234g/kg DM except A. senegal leaves) and low in fiber (322–590g/kg DM of NDF) compared to the hay (31g/kg DM of CP and 755g/kg DM of NDF). The highest intake was of the P. lucens diet (864g) and the lowest of the G. senegalensis diet (397g). The intake of pods from A. senegal was higher (1033g) than from P. lucens pods (691g). The apparent digestibility of OM and CP in the browse leaves was 0.63 and 0.57 and 0.63 and 0.64 for A. senegal and P. lucens, respectively, higher than for the hay, which showed higher digestibility of NDF. A. senegal pods had higher digestibility for all nutrients than P. lucens pods. Based on the high CP content and the intake and digestibility characteristics, P. lucens leaves and A. senegal leaves and pods can be recommended as protein supplements to low quality diets.
Tree seeds are a potentially valuable source of nutrients for livestock in Botswana but their use has been limited by scant research on their chemical and nutritional properties. Seeds of five browse trees from the hardveld region of Botswana were analysed for condensed tannins, proximate composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility and mineral elements. Content (% DM) of condensed tannins as determined by the butanol–HCl method were 2.62, 3.09, 3.10, 4.26 and 5.07 for Sclerocarya birrea, Zizyphus mucronata, Kirkia acuminata, Lonchocarpus capassa and Rhus lancea, respectively. The seeds contain low crude proteins (% DM) at 7.08, 6.17, 10.96 and 7.79 for, Z. mucronata, S. birrea, K. acuminata and R. lancea, respectively, except L. capassawith 54.2% crude protein. The dry matter digestibility (%) ranged from 7.95 for S. birrea to 72.34 for L. capassa. This coupled with low condensed tannin content suggests that some of them may be valuable protein supplements in ruminant diets. The NDF (%) and ADF (%) ranged from 24.53 and 8.70 in L. capassa to 80.33 and 67.10 in S. birrea, respectively. In general, the seeds had adequate quantities of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and copper to meet requirements for beef, sheep and goat production. The content of sodium, manganese and zinc (except in L. capassa ) were below recommended levels required by ruminants for growth and productivity. The study suggested that these browse seeds serve as potential nutrient sources for free grazing animals on the ranges in Botswana.
The feasibility of using Verano stylo (Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv. Ntchisi) hays and their replacement values in concentrate diets for rabbits were determined. The intake and growth of the rabbits were monitored over a 7-week growth study following a 2-week adaptation period, while nutrient digestibility was determined over a 5-day period during the eighth week of the study. The DM intakes of the rabbits during the growth study were 53.1g/day of the grass+concentrate (50:50) diet, 56.0g/day of the all-concentrate diet and 64.8g/day for the Verano stylo+concentrate (50:50) diet. The respective weight gains were 5.13, 8.44 and 8.35g/day. Lower DM intake and consistent losses in weight of the animals were recorded on Verano stylo or Guinea grass alone. Verano stylo hay was better than Guinea grass hay. Thus, concentrate supplementation of forage diets is necessary for rabbits. Replacement of 0.50 of the concentrate with Verano stylo hay gave a similar performance to that for the all-concentrate diet. It is, therefore, possible to reduce the use of concentrates in the diets for growing rabbits in the dry season by replacing part of the diet with Verano stylo hay.
Forty five, 4-week-old weaner crossbred rabbits were used to investigate the effect of replacing palmkernel cake (PKC) for groundnut cake (GNC) in the diets of weaner rabbits. Dietary GNC was replaced with PKC at 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50%. Increasing the level of PKC in the diets of the rabbits had no significant effect (P>0.05) on feed intake, weight gain and feed to gain ratio. There was also no treatment effect on nitrogen intake (P>0.05). However, increasing the level of PKC in the diet had a significant effect on faecal nitrogen, urinary nitrogen, nitrogen balance and nitrogen digestibility. Feed cost decreased with increase in the level of PKC replacement. The results showed that PKC could replace up to 37.5% of dietary GNC level in the diets of weaner rabbits without adverse effects on performance.