Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical global health concern. Animal husbandry operations are AMR hotspots due to heavy antibiotic use and dissemination of animal waste into the environment. In this systematic review, we examined the impact of swine, poultry and cattle operations on AMR in groundwater. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct, and the North Carolina State ... [Show full abstract] University Agricultural and Environmental Science databases in June 2022. The search returned 2,487 studies, of which 23 met our inclusion criteria. Studies investigated facilities for swine (13), poultry (4), cattle (3) and multiple types of animals (3), mostly in high-income countries. The sampling distance ranged from onsite to > 20 km from facilities; the majority of studies (19) sampled onsite. Most studies collected samples from monitoring wells; only 4 studies investigated private drinking water wells. Among the 23 studies, 17 found evidence of AMR in groundwater associated with animal husbandry operations. Contamination was mostly found in onsite wells, especially downgradient of waste lagoons, but also in offsite private wells up to 2–3 km away. AMR contamination was more common in non-high-income countries and increased with rainy conditions. Future studies should sample private wells at varying distances from animal husbandry operations under different weather conditions and include low- and middle-income countries where food animal production is intensifying.