DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Once again, the Horn of Africa has been in the headlines. And once again the news
has been bad: drought, famine, conﬂict, hunger, suffering and death. The ﬁnger of
blame has been pointed in numerous directions: at the changing climate, at environ-
mental degradation, at overpopulation, at geopolitics and conflict, at aid agency
failures, and more. But it is not all disaster and catastrophe. Many successful develop-
ment efforts at ‘the margins’ often remain hidden, informal, sometimes illegal; and
rarely in line with standard development prescriptions. If we shift our gaze from the
capital cities to the regional centres and their hinterlands, then a very different
perspective emerges. These are the places where pastoralists live. They have for
centuries struggled with drought, conﬂict and famine. They are resourceful, entre-
preneurial and innovative peoples. Yet they have been ignored and marginalized by
the states that control their territory and the development agencies that are supposed
to help them. This book argues that, while we should not ignore the profound
difﬁculties of creating secure livelihoods in the Greater Horn of Africa, there is much
to be learned from development successes, large and small.
This book will be of great interest to students and scholars with an interest in
development studies and human geography, with a particular emphasis on Africa.
It will also appeal to development policy-makers and practitioners.
Andy Catley is a Research Director at the Feinstein International Center, Tufts
University. He has worked on regional and international policy issues related to
livestock development and pastoralism in the Horn of Africa for many years, and
established the Center’s Africa Regional Ofﬁce in Addis Ababa in 2005.
Jeremy Lind is currently a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development
Studies, where he convenes a research theme on pastoralism for the Future
Ian Scoones is a Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, and
co-director of the ESRC STEPS Centre (www.steps-centre.org) and joint coordi-
nator of the Future Agricultures Consortium (www.future-agricultures.org).
Pathways to Sustainability Series
This book series addresses core challenges around linking science and technology
and environmental sustainability with poverty reduction and social justice. It is based
on the work of the Social, Technological and Environmental Pathways to
Sustainability (STEPS) Centre, a major investment of the UK Economic and Social
Research Council (ESRC). The STEPS Centre brings together researchers at the
Institute of Development Studies (IDS) and SPRU (Science and Technology Policy
Research) at the University of Sussex with a set of partner institutions in Africa, Asia
and Latin America.
Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones and Andy Stirling
STEPS Centre at the University of Sussex
Editorial Advisory Board:
Steve Bass, Wiebe E. Bijker, Victor Galaz, Wenzel Geissler, Katherine Homewood,
Sheila Jasanoff, Colin McInnes, Suman Sahai, Andrew Scott
Titles in this series include:
Technology, environment, social justice
Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones and Andy Stirling
Science, policy and politics
Edited by Ian Scoones
Lessons for global science and development
Science, governance and social justice
Edited by Sarah Dry and Melissa Leach
Agricultural research in a changing world
James Sumberg and John Thompson
Pastoralism and development in Africa
Dynamic change at the margins
Edited by Andy Catley, Jeremy Lind and Ian Scoones
‘In 2010 the African Union released the ﬁrst continent-wide policy framework to
support pastoralism and pastoralist areas in Africa. The policy draws on a central
argument of this new book, being that innovative and dynamic changes are occur-
ring in pastoralist areas in response to increasing livestock marketing opportunities,
domestically, regionally and internationally, and these changes are providing
substantial but often hidden economic benefits. At the same time, the book also
shows very clearly how we also need to accelerate support to alternative livelihood
options in addition to supporting pastoralism and livestock production.’
– Abebe Haile Gabriel, Director, Department of Rural Economy
and Agriculture, African Union Commission
‘There is a rich array of case studies in this book, which capture the vitality and
innovation of pastoral societies. They are a welcome antidote to the negativity that
infects far too much of the discourse on pastoralism. Each chapter also illuminates
the forces that are driving change in pastoral areas and the impact of change on rich
and poor, women and men. In such a fluid environment, policy-makers and
practitioners need to start ‘seeing like pastoralists’ if they are to ﬁnd the right way
forward. This book will help us do so.’
– Mohamed Elmi, Minister of State for Development of Northern Kenya
and other Arid Lands, Kenya
‘This book is essential reading for anyone concerned with the future of pastoralism
in Africa. In Ethiopia, pastoralism is a vital economic sector and essential for the
country’s development. This book will provide important guidance for both
policymakers and development practitioners.’
– Ahmed Shide, State Minister, Ministry of Finance and Economic
‘This book is exceptionally deep in the analysis of the conditions of pastoralists and
provides far-sighted and comprehensive options for improving their livelihoods
within the context of country-speciﬁc reality and regional and global challenges.
Understanding the resilience of pastoralists in the face of growing complex
challenges moves us away from a focus on traditional coping strategies to innovative
efforts which provide more robust and sustainable solutions for the livelihoods of
– Luka Biong Deng, formerly National Minister
for Cabinet Affairs of Sudan
‘This is a candid and thought provoking scrutiny of some of the diverse, complex
and often emotive issues around pastoral development and investment. The book
is an important and timely resource as African countries embark on securing the
future of pastoralists as espoused by the recently approved AU Policy Framework
for Pastoralism in Africa.’
– Simplice Nouala, African Union Inter-African Bureau for
Animal Resources (AU-IBAR)
‘This book is a fascinating, timely collection of case studies by researchers, activists
and policymakers (many of whom are African pastoralists themselves) that document
the creativity of pastoralists in seeking economically secure, politically stable and
environmentally sustainable livelihoods – and the many challenges they face.? By
analyzing what pastoralists are actually doing (rather than dictating what they should
be doing), the book will be of tremendous value to anyone with an interest in the
future of pastoralists and pastoralism in the Greater Horn of Africa.’
– Dorothy Hodgson, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, USA
‘This book drives home the tremendous scale and pace of change in northeast African
pastoralism. Grounded in authoritative knowledge of general context as well as
incisive analysis of social and historical particularities, the book spans resources and
production, commercialisation and markets, land and conﬂict, established and
emerging alternative livelihoods. The book brings alive the way this seemingly
remote and notoriously volatile region, with its rapid and violent shifts in socio-
political and biophysical environments, connects at all levels with national and
international arenas, policies and economic ﬂows. It traces the multiple and divergent
directions of pastoralist enterprise, the risks run and opportunities seized, the striking
innovations developed alongside robust, tried and tested strategies being maintained,
and the successful diversiﬁcation for some as against spiralling impoverishment for
others. The book conveys the vigour, dynamism and adaptability of these arid and
semi arid land populations, and their ability to embrace and exploit change, in a
context of policies that too often constrain rather than enable.’
– Katherine Homewood, University College London, UK
‘This timely and highly relevant publication challenges the prevailing view that there
is no future for pastoralism in the Horn of Africa. It further advances the debate and
deepens our understanding of pastoralism and its dynamics in the drylands of Africa,
providing a nuanced and differentiated analysis of its potential and limitations in the
face of new opportunities and challenges. Its detailed case studies and fresh empirical
evidence offer clear insights into a range of potential pathways for the development
of these complex and uncertain environments.’
– Ced Hesse, International Institute for Environment
and Development, UK
‘This important book helps narrow the prevailing knowledge gap on pastoralism
and pastoral development.’
– Tezera Getahun, Executive Director, Pastoralist Forum Ethiopia
‘This book, about one of the most diverse pastoral regions of the world, brings
together many cutting-edge studies on the sustainability of pastoral development.
The book provides cause for optimism as well as pause for thought, since
pastoralism is evidently thriving in drylands that are also home to some of the
world’s worst poverty. The book illustrates how sustainable pastoralist development
depends on development partners doing what pastoralists have always done:
– Jonathan Davies, Global Drylands Initiative, IUCN,
the International Union for Conservation of Nature
Dynamic change at the margins
Edited by Andy Catley,
Jeremy Lind and Ian Scoones
First edition published 2013
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2013 Andy Catley, Jeremy Lind and Ian Scoones selection and editorial
material; individual chapters, the contributors
The right of the editors to be identiﬁed as the author of the editorial material,
and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance
with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
The Open Access version of this book, available at www.taylorfrancis.com,
has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non
Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Pastoralism and development in Africa : dynamic change at the margins / edited
by Ian Scoones, Andy Catley and Jeremy Lind. — 1st ed.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Herders—Horn of Africa—Economic conditions. 2. Herders—Africa,
Eastern—Economic conditions. 3. Pastoral systems—Horn of Africa. 4. Pastoral
systems—Africa, Eastern. 5. Horn of Africa—Economic conditions. 6. Africa,
Eastern—Economic conditions. 7. Economic development—Horn of Africa.
8. Economic development—Africa, Eastern. I. Scoones, Ian. II. Catley, Andy.
III. Lind, Jeremy.
ISBN13: 978–0–415–54071–1 (hbk)
ISBN13: 978–0–415–54072–8 (pbk)
ISBN13: 978–0–203–10597–9 (ebk)
List of ﬁgures
List of tables
List of contributors
1 Development at the margins: pastoralism in the Horn of Africa
Andy Catley, Jeremy Lind and Ian Scoones
Resources and production 27
2 The sustainability of pastoral production in Africa
3 Rangeland enclosures in Southern Oromia, Ethiopia: an
innovative response or the erosion of common property
4 Pastoralists and irrigation in the Horn of Africa: time for a
5 Counting the costs: replacing pastoralism with irrigated
agriculture in the Awash Valley
Roy Behnke and Carol Kerven
6 Climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa: what consequences
Polly Ericksen, Jan de Leeuw, Philip Thornton, Mohamed Said,
Mario Herrero and An Notenbaert
Commercialization and markets 83
7 Moving up or moving out? Commercialization, growth and
destitution in pastoralist areas
Andy Catley and Yacob Aklilu
8 Pastoralists’ innovative responses to new camel export market
opportunities on the Kenya/Ethiopia borderlands
Hussein Abdullahi Mahmoud
9 ‘Responsible companies’ and African livestock-keepers:
helping, teaching but not learning?
10 Town camels and milk villages: the growth of camel milk
marketing in the Somali Region of Ethiopia
Abdi Abdullahi, Seid Mohammed and Abdirahman Eid
Land and conﬂict 129
11 The future of pastoralist conﬂict in the Horn of Africa
12 Land grabbing in the Eastern African rangelands
John G. Galaty
13 Land deals and the changing political economy of livelihoods
in the Tana Delta, Kenya
Abdirizak Arale Nunow
14 Squeezed from all sides: changing resource tenure and
pastoralist innovation on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya
John Letai and Jeremy Lind
15 Mobile pastoralism and land grabbing in Sudan: impacts and
16 The need to strengthen land laws in Ethiopia to protect pastoral
Abebe Mulatu and Solomon Bekure
Alternative livelihoods 195
17 Seeking alternative livelihoods in pastoral areas
18 Reaching pastoralists with formal education: a distance-learning
strategy for Kenya
David Siele, Jeremy Swift and Saverio Krätli
19 Social protection for pastoralists
Stephen Devereux and Karen Tibbo
20 Women and economic diversiﬁcation in pastoralist societies:
a regional perspective
John Livingstone and Everse Ruhindi
21 Reﬂections on the future of pastoralism in the Horn of Africa
Peter D. Little
1.1 The Greater Horn of Africa 4
1.2 Four scenarios for the future of pastoralism 15
5.1 The Awash Basin 59
5.2 Revenue per hectare – cane cultivation, livestock production, and
sugar processing 65
5.3 Revenue per hectare – alternative uses of the Awash ﬂoodplain 66
6.1 Variation of monthly and 12 month running average of NDVI for
Kajiado district from 1982 to end of 2009 73
6.2 Relation between total animal biomass (dots, g.m-2) and the ﬁve
year running average of NDVI from 1987 to 2009, Kajiado district,
6.3 Areas in East Africa that may undergo a ﬂip in maximum
temperature overall and during the growing season 76
6.4 Areas in East Africa where a) rain per rainy day may increase by
more than 10 per cent and b) rain per rainy day may decrease
by more than 10 per cent 76
6.5 Changes in ratio of shoats (sheep and goats) to cattle 1977–78 and
2005–10 in Kenya 80
7.1 The ‘moving up, moving out’ scenario – trends in livestock
ownership by wealth group over 60 years (1944-2004), Shinile
zone, Somali Region 90
7.2 Short-term trends in livestock ownership by wealth group,
lowland Hawd area, Somali Region 90
7.3 Mean annual rainfall patterns in pastoralist areas of Ethiopia,
Somalia, Somaliland and Kenya 93
7.4 Simple modeling of long-term trends in high export pastoralist
areas and impacts on wealth groups 94
8.1 Camels slaughtered in Garissa town, 1999–2009 104
10.1 Map showing milk trading routes 126
13.1 Location of the Tana River District in Kenya 156
13.2 The River Tana Delta 157
14.1 Land uses on the Laikipia Plateau 167
14.2 Livestock movements from group ranches to Mt. Kenya and the
Aberdares in 2009 172
17.1 Measures of malnutrition for weight-by-age, pastoral versus
sedentary samples, wasting deﬁned as below -2 Z-scores 204
17.2 Measures of malnutrition for height-by-age, pastoral versus
sedentary samples, stunting deﬁned as below -2 Z-scores 204
1.1 Contrasting visions of development at the margins 22
3.1 Examples of violent internal conﬂicts over enclosures in selected
kebeles, Moyale District in 2009 and 2010 45
4.1 Irrigable land and the number of pastoralists in the Horn of Africa 49
4.2 Beneﬁts and costs of irrigated small-holdings on four pastoralist-
related irrigation schemes 53
5.1 Head of stock and breeding females supported per hectare of
valley grazing alternate stocking rates 60
5.2 Gross value in 2009 of live animal, meat and milk for human
consumption, EB per hectare per annum at two stocking densities 61
5.3 Husbandry costs in 2009 exclusive of weaponry and security
provision at two stocking rates in EB 61
5.4 Net returns in 2009 to one hectare of riverine land under seasonal
pastoral land use in EB 62
5.5 MAADE yields, operating expenses and revenue from seed cotton,
5.6 MAADE yields, costs and revenue from cotton production and
processing, 2004–09 63
6.1 GCM consistencies in regional precipitation projections for 2090–99 77
7.1 Volume and value of livestock exports from Ethiopia 87
7.2 Livestock exports from Somaliland 88
7.3 Annual pastoral household income from livestock sales in Somali
areas of Kenya, and Borana and Guji areas of Ethiopia 88
7.4 Trend analysis of annual total rainfall by location, Kenya, Ethiopia
and Somalia 94
8.1 Grades, body description and prices in Moyale, Ethiopia market,
8.2 Estimating the value of camel sales at Moyale, Ethiopia market 103
10.1 Urban camel milk production in Gode, Somali Region 124
13.1 Known details and status of proposed land deals in the Tana Delta 158
14.1 Beneﬁts of herder-farmer agreements 173
15.1 Recent land deals in Sudan 179
15.2 Changes in land use in Gedaref State, 1941–2002 181
17.1 Income generation sources among Northern Kenyan pastoralist
19.1 Classifying social protection interventions for pastoral areas 220
Abdi Abdullahi has an M.A. from the Institute of Development Studies at the
University of Sussex. He has more than 30 years of experience working as a
development practitioner serving in different capacities in various international and
national NGOs concerned with pastoral issues in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa.
He is currently leading an Ethiopian NGO, Pastoral Concern.
Yacob Aklilu is a senior researcher at the Feinstein International Center, Tufts
University. He is a livelihoods specialist with in-depth knowledge of humanitarian
and development programming and policies in Africa. An agricultural economist,
he has more than 25 years’ experience of policy analysis and reform at national and
regional levels. He has specialist knowledge of livestock marketing at domestic,
regional and international levels and was the instigator of the Pastoral Livestock
Marketing Groups approach in Ethiopia and Kenya.
Mustafa Babiker has worked with the Development Studies and Research Institute
(DSRI), University of Khartoum since 1988. He holds a Ph.D. in sociology and
social anthropology. Currently he is seconded to Sultan Qaboos University in
Oman. His main research interests are in the ﬁeld of natural resource management
and conﬂict in pastoral areas.
Roy Behnke was trained in Islamic studies and social anthropology at the
Universities of Chicago and California, and undertakes research on extensive
livestock production and rangeland management in semi-arid Africa and Central Asia.
He is a Fellow of Imperial College London and a researcher for the Odessa Centre
Ltd. Currently he is conducting research on pastoral land use in Turkmenistan and
attempting to quantify the economic contribution of livestock to national economies
in East Africa.
Solomon Bekure is an economist with more than 40 years of extensive experience
in academia (Haile Selassie I University, 1963–65 and 1970–72), government
(Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture, 1974–76), national and international research
(ILRI, 1976–1998) and development and finance institutions (the World Bank,
1988–2002 and the Agricultural and Industrial Development Bank of Ethiopia,
1972–74). Throughout he has had a focus on agricultural policy, rural development,
livestock production, marketing, ﬁnance, natural resources and land tenure and land-
use systems. He has led multidisciplinary teams in formulating, reviewing, monitor-
ing, and evaluating the policies, performance and status of the agriculture sector of
many African countries. He has worked in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana,
Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. He graduated
from Oklahoma State University, U.S.A. with a Ph.D. (1970) and M.Sc. (1967) and
Haile Selassie I University (1963).
Andy Catley is a research director at the Feinstein International Center, Tufts
University. He established the Center’s Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia in 2005, and has worked on development and humanitarian issues in
pastoralist areas of the Horn of Africa since 1992.
Jan de Leeuw is a team leader at ILRI in Nairobi, leading research on vulnerability
in pastoral systems. He holds a Ph.D. in ecology. He has worked in higher education
and research in environmental science in a wide variety of environments around the
world. At ILRI, he works on ways to reduce pastoral vulnerability, including early
warning systems and more appropriate drought relief strategies, and options for
livelihood diversification through payment for environmental services. Current
activities include mapping and valuation of ecosystem services in drylands, assessment
of the potential for carbon sequestration in African dryland ecosystems and economic
analysis of benefits derived from income from wildlife based tourism in conservancies
Stephen Devereux has been a fellow at the Institute of Development Studies since
1996. He is a food security and social protection specialist whose research has been
conducted mainly in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. His work with pastoralists
includes a survey (as team leader) of livelihoods and vulnerability in the Somali
Region, Ethiopia, and an evaluation (as a team member) of the Hunger Safety Net
Programme in arid and semi-arid districts of northern Kenya.
Abdirahman Eid has a Masters degree in agricultural economics from Haramaya
University. He has ﬁve years of experience working in Somali Regional Research
Institution, Somali Regional Agriculture Bureau where he once served as deputy
head. He is currently a lecturer at Jigjiga University.
Polly Ericksen is a senior scientist at ILRI in Nairobi, Kenya. Her speciﬁc areas
of research are adapting food systems to enhance both food security and key
ecosystem services; options for lessening the vulnerability of pastoral livelihoods to
climate and other shocks; strategies for adaptation to climate change in agricultural
systems; and using participatory scenarios for planning under uncertainty. She holds
a B.A. in history, an M.Sc. in Economics and a Ph.D. in Soil Science. She has
worked extensively in Latin America, Africa and South Asia with both research and
Elliot Fratkin is a professor of Anthropology at Smith College in Northampton,
Massachusetts, a member of the graduate faculty of the University of Massachusetts-
Amherst, and editor of the African Studies Review. He has studied nomadic pastoralists
in East Africa since the 1970s, particularly Ariaal (mixed Samburu/Rendille) of
northern Kenya. In 2003 Fratkin was a US Fulbright Scholar at the University of
Asmara in Eritrea and in 2011–12 at Hawassa University in Ethiopia.
John G. Galaty pursued his graduate studies in Anthropology at the University of
Chicago and in Paris. He is now a professor in the Department of Anthropology,
an associate member of the McGill School of the Environment, president of the
McGill Association of University Teachers, and director of the Centre for Society,
Technology and Development. He serves as a member of the Scientiﬁc Advisory
Board of the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, is scientiﬁc advisor to
the International Foundation for Science, and is an editorial board member for
Nomadic Peoples. He has been president of the Canadian Association of African
Studies, an FAO expert and social analyst, and an international elections monitor
(in Kenya and Tanzania) for Rights and Democracy. He has worked closely with
pastoral communities in Kenya and Tanzania as a researcher, an international advisor
to the IDRC Arid Lands and Resource Management Network (ALARM), and
director of McGill’s ongoing Pastoral Property and Poverty Project.
Paul Goldsmith completed a Ph.D. in anthropology and tropical agriculture from
the University of Florida. After graduating in 1993, he returned to Africa where he
has continued to undertake research, teach on a periodic basis, publish in the local
press and scholarly publications, and work actively with civil society initiatives. His
main areas of interest are pastoralism, environmental management, conﬂict analysis
and minority rights. He recently completed a study of the Mombasa Republic
Council, a secessionist movement on Kenya’s coast and is currently involved in
several projects on the coast and an advocacy campaign for indigenous land rights
and the ecological and cultural conservation of the Lamu archipelago.
Mario Herrero is a senior agro-ecological systems analyst with more than 15 years
experience working on livestock, livelihoods and the environment interactions in
Africa, Latin America and Asia. He leads ILRI’s Sustainable Livestock Futures Group
and he also coordinates ILRI’s work on climate change. He works in the areas of
livestock and global change, climate change (impacts, adaptation and mitigation),
development of scenarios of livestock and livelihoods futures, multi-scale integrated
assessment, sustainable development pathways for livestock systems, ex-ante impact
assessment of livestock interventions and investment opportunities, and others. He
has contributed to numerous international assessments and international task forces.
He has published widely in his areas of expertise and is currently on the editorial
board of Agricultural Systems, and a guest editor for the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences journal (PNAS) in the area of livestock, sustainability science and
Carol Kerven trained in social anthropology and is the director of the Odessa
Centre, Ltd, is a fellow of Imperial College London, and senior editor of the journal
Pastoralism: research, policy and practice. She has published extensively on pastoralism
in both Africa and Asia. She is currently investigating rangeland tenure in Kazakhstan
and continuing a long-term interest in the production and marketing of ﬁne ﬁbres
from pastoral livestock.
Saverio Krätli works as an independent researcher and scientific advisor specializing
in the interface between pastoral producers, science and development. His main
ﬁeldwork experience is amongst the WoDaaBe (central Niger), Turkana (Kenya)
and Karamojong (Uganda). He is editor of Nomadic Peoples.
John Letai has over 16 years’ experience in the Horn and East Africa drylands
working with pastoralists and other marginalized groups living in these areas. He has
a wealth of knowledge in working with communities on natural resource man-
agement, insecurity or conflicts and other development issues. He is a strong
advocate of pastoral land tenure reform and has been involved in land policy
formulation, as well as policy advocacy and implementation. He has worked with
different actors including governments, local and national NGOs, international
organizations among them International Committee of the Red Cross, Resource
Conﬂict Institute (RECONCILE), IIED and Oxfam GB.
Jeremy Lind is a development geographer with over 10 years’ research and advisory
experience on livelihoods, conﬂict and the delivery of aid in pastoral areas of the
Horn of Africa. He is currently a research fellow at the Institute of Development
Studies (IDS), where he jointly convenes a research theme on Pastoralism for the
Future Agricultures Consortium. An area of his work relating to pastoralism
concerns the linkages between resources and conflict. He (co)edited Scarcity and
surfeit: the ecology of Africa’s conﬂicts (2002).
Peter D. Little is an economic and development anthropologist who received his
graduate training in anthropology from Indiana University. Currently he is a
professor of Anthropology and Director of Emory University’s new Development
Studies Program. Prior to moving to Emory he most recently was chair and professor
of Anthropology, University of Kentucky (1994–2007). During the past 27 years,
his research has addressed the anthropology of development and globalization,
political economy of agrarian change, pastoralism, environmental politics and
change, informal economies and statelessness, and food insecurity in several African
countries. Most of his ﬁeld studies have been conducted in Africa, with a primary
emphasis on eastern Africa (Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia).
John Livingstone studied economics at the University of Warwick and Queen
Mary College (London). After brief stints as a researcher at UEA (Norwich) and the
Institute for European–Latin American relations (Madrid) in the 1990s, he has
worked as a consultant for several international development agencies and as regional
policy ofﬁcer for PENHA (the Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn
of Africa), a non-proﬁt organization focused on pastoralism.
Hussein Abdullahi Mahmoud holds a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University
of Kentucky and is a senior lecturer in the Department of Social Sciences, Pwani
University College, Kilifi, a constituent college of Kenyatta University, Kenya.
His current research projects include an association with the Future Agricultures
Consortium as a researcher and co-convener of the Pastoralism Theme. He is also
Co-PI on the Climate Induced Vulnerability and Pastoralist Livestock Marketing
Chains in the Horn of Africa project with Peter Little at Emory University. He was
lead researcher on CARE/FAO/DFID project on Sustainable Pastoralism in Sool
and Sanaag Regions of Northern Somalia and on the Informal Cross-Border
Livestock Trade on the Kenya/Somalia Borderlands project of the FAO Subregional
Ofﬁce for Eastern Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Seid Mohammed has an M.Sc. in Tropical Ecology and Management of Natural
Resources from the University of Life Sciences, Norway. He has five years of
experience teaching pastoral related subjects such as range ecology and management
in both in Mekelle and Jigjiga Universities, Ethiopia. Currently he is serving as
Academic and Research Vice President of Jigjiga University.
John Morton has a B.A. in social anthropology from the University of Cambridge
and a Ph.D. from the University of Hull. He has worked at the Natural Resources
Institute, University of Greenwich since 1993, most recently as a professor of
Development Anthropology, and head of the Livelihoods and Institutions
Department. His work focuses on social, institutional and policy aspects of livestock
and pastoralist development, as well as on climate change impacts on pastoralists and
on the rural poor in general. He has ﬁeld experience in numerous African countries
(especially in the Horn of Africa), South Asia and Mongolia.
Abebe Mulatu is a property rights lawyer working with the Ethiopia –
Strengthening Land Administration Program, a USAID assisted project implemented
by Tetra Tech ARD, providing technical and ﬁnancial assistance to the regional
states of Afar and Somali among others. He was a Land Tenure and Land Dispute
specialist (2005–08) in a preceding project. He has worked as Head of the Property
Laws Reform Department in the Ethiopian Justice and Legal System Reform
Institute, a government think tank between 1999 and 2005. He was also a part-time
lecturer in law at the Addis Ababa University, Law Faculty and the Ethiopian Civil
Service College, Law Faculty (1998–2008). He has consulted for various organiza-
tions on policy and regulatory frameworks regarding land tenure and natural
resource administration and management. He holds an LL.M. degree from Temple
University School of Law, Philadelphia (1996) and an LL.B. degree from the Law
Faculty of Addis Ababa University (1986).
An Notenbaert is a land use planner with 15 years of research and development
experience in Belgium and Africa. Currently she is working as a Spatial Analyst
working in the ‘Sustainable Livestock Futures’ programme at ILRI. In this capacity
she provides spatial analysis for a wide range of studies across the institute, thereby
interacting with and supporting a multi-disciplinary research team of economists,
systems analysts, natural resource managers, epidemiologists, etc. Her work focuses
on methodologies for strategic analysis on the poverty–environment nexus with a
special interest in climate change issues.
Abdirizak Arale Nunow was born in Garissa District, among the Somali
pastoralists of north-eastern Kenya. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Environmental
Science from the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and his dissertation
studied the market participation of the pastoralists with a view to improving their
food security situation. He also holds an M.Phil. degree in Environmental Planning
and Management (Moi University, 1994) and a B.A. in Economics and Business
Studies (Kenyatta University, 1990). He has over 17 years’ experience in develop-
ment issues in arid and semi-arid areas in Eastern Africa and his main interests include
commercialization of the pastoral economy and pastoral livelihood systems in the
drylands. He currently teaches in the School of Environmental Studies of Moi
University, Kenya, besides undertaking diverse consultancy work in land use systems
in the drylands and pastoralist studies in the Horn of Africa. He is currently involved
in research on pastoralist marketing and wealth differentiation of pastoral households
in commercialization of the pastoral economy.
Gufu Oba is a professor at the Department of International Environment and
Development Studies (Noragric) at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. He
is currently on a sabbatical at Emory University, Atlanta. He has since 1981 carried
out research on rangelands and pastoralists across Africa, with extended ﬁeld experi-
ence in eastern Africa and the Horn, as well as Northern Namibia. He has combined
his long-term research working with pastoralists and his personal knowledge from
that background to develop new ways of understanding pastoralism and grazing
lands. He has published articles in more than 25 different scientiﬁc journals.
Everse Ruhindi graduated from Makerere University and did postgraduate studies
in Women’s Law and Business Administration. From the late 1990s, she has worked
in community development, with the Uganda Gender Resource Centre (UGRC)
and the Pastoral and Environmental Network in Horn of Africa (PENHA). She has
conducted action-oriented studies on a range of development issues, with a focus
on gender and women in pastoralist communities.
Mohammed Said is a research scientist working with ILRI and joined the institute
in 2003. His background is in ecological monitoring, specialising in aerial counts,
remote sensing, land use and land cover mapping, community mapping, spatial
analysis and modeling. His interest is in analysing information and linking knowledge
to various uses by community, researchers and decision makers in resource man-
agement. He holds a Ph.D. in Ecology from Wageningen University and ITC in
Stephen Sandford was born in Ethiopia and ﬁrst travelled through the pastoral
areas of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia 70 years ago. From 1966 until 1968
he researched the economics of irrigation in East Africa. Between 1970 and 1975
he was a member of an Ethiopian government team that prepared ambitious projects
for pastoral development. The work included the construction and operation of a
pilot spate irrigation scheme for Afar pastoralists. From 1975 to 1982 he established
and ran the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) Pastoral Development Network,
which for 20 years thereafter led the international exchange of information on
pastoral development. In 1983 he published an inﬂuential book on pastoral develop-
ment, Management of pastoral development in the third world. He subsequently worked
for the CGIAR’s International Livestock Centre for Africa and for the British NGO,
FARM Africa. Since 2000 he has become increasingly convinced (and noisy, under
the slogan ‘Too many people, too few livestock’) that the conventional approaches
to pastoral development, through improved animal health and better managed
rangelands, need to be matched by much greater efforts to assist pastoralists to
develop alternative livelihoods not dependent on animal production based on
rangelands. Recently he has been involved in planning an Ethiopian NGO’s project,
which includes irrigation, to assist pastoralists and adjacent farmers in Afar Region.
Ian Scoones is a professorial fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, co-
director of the ESRC STEPS Centre (www.steps-centre.org) and joint coordinator
of the Future Agricultures Consortium (www.future-agricultures.org). He originally
trained as an ecologist but has since worked on the institutional and policy issues
surrounding agricultural and environmental change in Africa. He has worked on
livestock development issues in Africa for many years and was (co-) editor of Range
ecology at disequilibrium (1993) and Living with uncertainty: new directions in pastoral
development in Africa (1995).
David Siele is a holder of a M.Ed. degree from Leeds University. Earlier he
acquired a B.Ed. from the University of Nairobi in Kenya. He served as a high
school teacher of physics and chemistry before moving to Kenya’s Ministry of
Education where he held several offices, including that of provincial director of
Education. Eventually he rose to the position of director of Higher Education at the
national ofﬁce. Later he moved to the Ministry of Northern Kenya and Other Arid
Lands as a director in charge of human capital development. The ministry is
mandated with looking at alternative ways of reaching children from pastoralist
communities, hence the move to give them education through distance learning.
Jeremy Swift was formerly a fellow at the Institute of Development Studies at the
University of Sussex. He works on research and policy processes in nomadic pastoral
societies in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. His main interests include
natural resource management, conﬂict, education and famine.
Boku Tache was born into a pastoralist family in southern Ethiopia, trained in
sociology and social anthropology at Addis Ababa University, and received his Ph.D.
in Development Studies from the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. He has
worked for international organizations on pastoral development in Ethiopia, includ-
ing pastoral community health, social forestry, shared management of common
property resources, empowerment of customary institutions and participatory
resource mapping. His main areas of his research interest include social development
and poverty reduction, sustainable pastoral livelihoods, resource tenure issues,
culture and conservation, community-based natural resource management and
climate change and development, on which he has published articles and book
chapters. He is currently working as an independent consultant based in Addis
Philip Thornton is leader of the Integration for Decision Making research theme
of the CGIAR Research Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food
Security (CCAFS) at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in
Nairobi, Kenya. He is also an honorary research fellow in the Institute of
Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences at the University of Edinburgh. He holds
a Ph.D. in Farm Management from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
He has worked for over 25 years in Latin America, Europe, North America and
Africa in agricultural research for development. He has published widely on systems
modelling and impact assessment, with a current focus on the effects of global change
on agriculture in developing countries.
Karen Tibbo has 14 years of food security and livelihoods experience in Africa.
She was the Nairobi-based coordinator of the impact evaluation of the Hunger
Safety Net Programme in northern Kenya. Previously she was the regional social
protection adviser for CARE, based in Johannesburg, and an Oxfam food security
adviser for Southern Africa and Kenya. She also has worked with DFID and FAO.
This book has emerged out of a highly productive collaboration between the
pastoralism theme of the Future Agricultures Consortium (FAC) (www.future-
agricultures.org) and the Pastoralist Livelihood Initiative (PLI) at the Feinstein
Center, Tufts University in Addis Ababa (http://ﬁc.tufts.edu ). The contributions
to this book were originally presented at an international conference on ‘The future
of pastoralism in Africa’ held in Addis Ababa in March 2011 (http://www.future-
agricultures.org/pastoralism.html). The ‘end piece’, Chapter 21, was written by
Peter Little in response to the near-ﬁnal manuscript.
We gratefully acknowledge support from the UK Department for International
Development (to FAC), the United States Agency for International Development in
Ethiopia (under the PLI) and CORDAID (for support to African conference
participants). We would like to thank Leah Plati, Oliver Burch and Shona McCulloch
at IDS and Fasil Yemane and Yemisrach Weldearegai at Tufts University in Addis
Ababa for making the conference a huge success, as well as the facilities and
communications team at the campus of the International Livestock Research Institute
where the conference was held. David Hughes and Liz Adams did a great job
providing communications support, and a conference website where the original
papers, plus videos, blogs and more are available. The conference was attended by
over 100 scholars, pastoralist representatives and ofﬁcials from inter-governmental
agencies, governments and donors. We would like to thank all conference
participants for their many contributions to the conference, which have greatly
enriched the insights shared in this book.
Ced Hesse and Dorothy Hodgson shared critical feedback on the book outline,
and Katherine Homewood also commented on the full manuscript. The STEPS
Centre ‘Pathways to Sustainability’ series editors also provided useful guidance.
Indeed, many of the themes discussed at the conference and elaborated in this book
are central to the concerns of the STEPS Centre (www.steps-centre.org), as
uncovering alternative pathways for development and towards sustainability often
does happen ‘at the margins’ and outside the mainstream.
Naomi Vernon and Manus McGrogan provided invaluable copy-editing
assistance. Marion Clarke worked efﬁciently at short notice with Alison Davies, a
map-maker, to produce several of the maps in the book. Acknowledgements linked
to individual chapter contributions are contained in the endnotes at the close of each
ABET Alternative Basic Education for Turkana
ACDI-VOCA Agricultural Cooperative Development International/Volunteers
in Overseas Cooperative Assistance
ADC Agricultural Development Corporation
AFCON Advanced Frigate Consortium of the US Army
ALRMP Arid Lands Resource Management Project
ASAL arid and semi-arid lands
ASARECA Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern
and Central Africa
AU African Union
CCAFS Challenge Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food
CCPP Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
CEWARN Conﬂict Early Warning and Response Mechanism
CMIP3 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Three
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
DCM Drought Cycle Management
DFID Department for International Development (UK)
DRSRS Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing
EAC East Africa Community
EB Ethiopian Birr
EDRI Ethiopian Development Research Institute
EMOPs Emergency Operations
ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation
EPRDF Ethiopian People Revolutionary Democratic Front
EWS Early Warning System
FAC Future Agricultures Consortium
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAOSTAT Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database
FCAR, now Québec Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et l’Aide à la
FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
GCA Game Controlled Area
GCMs General Circulation Models
GSU General Services Unit
HHS High Heights Services
HSNP Hunger Safety Net Programme
HVA Handels Vereniging Amsterdam
IBLI Index-Based Livestock Insurance
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
ICU Islamic Courts Union
IDS Institute of Development Studies
IGAD Intergovernmental Authority on Development
IIED International Institute for Environment and Development
IK Industri Kapital
ILRI International Livestock Research Institute
INSEAD Institut Européen d’Administration des Affaires
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ITCZ inter-tropical convergence zone
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
KBC Kenya Broadcasting Corporation
KCPE Kenya Certiﬁcate of Primary Education
KIE Kenya Institute of Education
KIPOC Korongoro Integrated People Oriented to Conservation
KNEC Kenya National Examinations Council
LAPSSET Lamu Port South Sudan and Ethiopia Transport Corridor
LGP Length of the Growing Period
LIU Livelihoods Information Unit
MAADE Middle Awash Agricultural Development Enterprise
MDNKOAL Ministry for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid
MGNREGA Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
MIS Management Information Systems
MMD The Multi-Model Data Set
MOESTK Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
MPIDO Mainyoito Pastoral Development Organization
MRC Mombasa Republican Council
NACONEK National Commission on Nomadic Education in Kenya
NAO North Atlantic Oscillation
NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NPV Net Present Value
OBC Ortello Business Corporation
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
PARIMA Pastoral Risk Management Programme
PCMDI Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison
PMAC Provisional Military Administration Council (Derg)
PRRO Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation
PSNP Productive Safety Net Programme
REC Regional Economic Community
SCUS Save the Children US
SCUK Save the Children UK
SNNPR Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples’ Regional State
SOS Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness Campaign, Uganda
SRES Special Report on Emissions Scenarios
TARDA Tana Athi River Development Authority
TLU Tropical Livestock Unit/Total Livestock Unit
TNRF Tanzania Natural Resource Forum
TSC Teachers Service Commission
UCRT Ujamaa Community Resource Team
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientiﬁc and Cultural Organization
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
UNOCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
USAID The United States Agency for International Development
WCED World Commission on Environment and Development
WCRP World Climate Research Programme
WFP World Food Programme
WMA Wildlife Management Area
WMO World Meteorological Organization
DEVELOPMENT AT THE MARGINS
Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa
Andy Catley, Jeremy Lind and Ian Scoones
Once again, the Horn of Africa has been in the headlines. Once again the news has
been bad: drought, famine, conﬂict, hunger, suffering and death. And once again,
development and humanitarian aid experts have said we need to rethink. The famine
of 2011–12 in southern Somalia and the humanitarian crisis in neighbouring areas
of Kenya and Ethiopia have undoubtedly caused immense human suffering. The
ﬁnger of blame has been pointed in numerous directions: to the changing climate,
to environmental degradation, to overpopulation, to political interference, to geo-
politics and conﬂict, to aid agency failures, and more. Of course this is not the ﬁrst
– or likely the last – time that the Horn of Africa has featured so prominently in
global debates. But sadly the lessons are rarely learned and business-as-usual quickly
This book argues that, while we should not ignore the profound difﬁculties of
creating secure livelihoods for the majority of people in the Horn of Africa, there
is much to be learned from development successes, large and small, in these areas.
And that building from these is essential if future disasters are to be avoided. It offers
a more positive, yet also nuanced, assessment than the doom and gloom view of
powerless, suffering famine victims that is depicted by 24-hour news channels. It
argues that development pathways at ‘the margins’ are imagined and constructed in
new ways; ones that do not get recognized, appreciated or adopted easily by the
mainstream. Such pathways often remain hidden, under the radar, informal, some-
times illegal, sometimes in contradiction to the priorities and interests of national
political elites in the region, and rarely in line with standard, mainstream prescrip-
tions. But if we shift our gaze from London, Washington, Rome or Geneva, not to
the capital cities of Nairobi, Addis Ababa, Khartoum or Kampala, but to the regional
centres of Jijiga, Hargeisa, Garissa, Gode, Isiolo or Moyale, and their hinterlands,
DOI: 10.4324/9780203105979 -1
2 Catley et al.
then a very different set of development pathways emerge. These are the places
where pastoralists – people who gain a substantial portion of their livelihood from
livestock – live. They have for centuries struggled with drought, conﬂict and famine.
They are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative peoples by necessity. This book
addresses some of the recurrent misunderstandings about pastoral livelihoods,
highlighting the particular features of pastoral resource and land management
strategies, commercialization and marketing options, as well as wider livelihood
dilemmas in the drylands.1
A view of ‘development at the margins’ is one that highlights innovation and
entrepreneurialism, not just coping or adaptation, as well as cooperation and net-
working across social and ecological borders, not just conﬂict and armed violence.
It emphasizes diverse scenarios for responding to changing economic, ecological and
political drivers, with multiple pathways envisaged for the future development of
pastoral areas. It highlights the importance of the political and cultural contexts of
such areas as central to addressing development challenges, and moves us beyond an
‘aid’ or ‘project’-driven intervention focus to a more systemic understanding of the
complex, often uncertain, and always dynamic challenges and opportunities.
This book, focusing on pastoral societies across the Greater Horn of Africa (in
this book a broadly deﬁned region2), is not simply a story of marginal peoples living
in marginal places, struggling in the face of exceptional hardships, remoteness and
outside of the development mainstream. The challenges and opportunities of
development at the margins have a far wider resonance in rethinking development
more generally. The creative projects and innovative repertoires of those living in
the margins offer many important lessons (Tsing, 1993). For, even in the places more
connected to the mainstream – the ‘high potential’ farming areas and the com-
paratively fecund highland areas of north-eastern Africa, which are usually contrasted
with the dryland ‘margins’ – we can observe many of the same challenges. The
uncertainties of highly liberalized financial systems, heightened vulnerability
provoked by climate change, variability of non-equilibrium ecologies, inequalities
generated by an engagement with global markets and trade, ambivalent relationships
between citizens and a retreating central state, threats posed by cross-border conﬂict
and unconventional warfare and scarcities unleashed by competition over limited
resources are evident in many places, not just at the so-called margins.
Just as with other ‘crises’ provoked by similar drivers, but in different contexts,
decision-makers are perplexed as to how to respond. The system is broken, they
say, but what do we do? In pastoral areas, many organizations – governments,
NGOs, donors and research groups – lack long-term strategies based on solid
evidence and insight into the multiple potential pathways for development. This
book offers a guide to more suitable responses. While our focus is on the particular
challenges of pastoral areas in the Horn of Africa, many of the emergent lessons are,
as we discuss below, of more general importance for recasting development as a
more effective response to current contexts characterized by uncertainty and
Development at the margins 3
Contexts, complexities and commonalities
The Greater Horn of Africa region is a highly dynamic political-economic region
(Figure 1.1), with different countries having very different political histories, cultural
and religious afﬁliations, geopolitical positioning and development pathways. The
colonial period split traditional socio-economic and spatial units with new state
borders, and so reconﬁgured dramatically social and economic systems (Clapham,
1996). Pastoralists often found themselves both on the physical edges of new states,
and in a situation where traditional movements to gain access to grazing, water or
markets were prohibited due to their nature of cutting across both borders within
new colonial states, as well as across newly established international boundaries. This
period marked the beginnings of pastoral geographical and political marginalization
in many countries (Lewis, 1983; Abbink, 1997; Schlee, 2003). In addition, colonial
policies further isolated pastoralists from development, with, for example, an empha-
sis on agrarian highland areas and livestock development strategies in the lowlands
based on ranching (Sandford, 1983; Baxter, 1991). African administrations in the
post-colonial era often adopted or re-enforced the colonial policies, and these old
attitudes and understandings are still very evident today, some 50 years or more after
independence. Even in Ethiopia, which was never colonized, misunderstandings at
a policy level about pastoralism, economics and mobility are strikingly similar today
to those in Kenya or Uganda. Whereas in 1965, Jomo Kenyatta’s economic
blueprint formalized the inequitable allocation of resources to agricultural areas,
Ethiopia’s relatively recent policies describe pastoral areas as ‘backward’ and within
the last ﬁve years, government resettlement schemes indicate that pastoralists should
be displaced from riverine areas to make way for more commercially orientated
investors (Lavers, 2012). The other deﬁning aspects of pastoralist areas of the Horn
have been violent conflict and drought, and the related humanitarian crises and
famines. Natural and human causal factors combine in a deadly mix, as in the Afar
region of Ethiopia (Markakis, 2003; Unruh, 2005), Darfur in Sudan (de Waal, 1989;
Johnson, 2003; Young et al., 2005, 2009), the Uganda-Kenya border (Mkutu, 2007;
Lind, 2012) or in southern Somalia today.
While such generalizations of geographical and political marginalization,
misguided policy, and conﬂict and crisis apply to much of the Horn of Africa region,
there are marked differences in the speciﬁc ways these trends have played out in
different places. Each local set of conflict and livelihoods issues has a long and
complex history, a history that is often poorly understood by policy-makers and
development planners. Compare, for example, the myriad of contextual factors,
varying over time, that contributed to local conﬂict between the Somali Issa and
Oromo in eastern Ethiopia from the 1960s (Shide, 2005), conﬂict and livelihood
collapse in Karamoja in Uganda (Stites et al., 2007) or the violent drivers of famine
in Bahr el Ghazal in South Sudan in the 1990s and early 2000s (Deng, 2002).
Variations occur between and within countries, and across time. There is no simple
cause–effect story for how crises emerge.
Further layers of complexity are evident in many pastoral areas because local
conflict, trade and livelihood issues are so often linked to national, regional and
4 Catley et al.
FIGURE 1.1 The Greater Horn of Africa.
international political and economic trends. Where, for example, does one draw a
boundary around the causes of conﬂict currently seen in South Sudan or Somalia?
Are the challenges facing pastoralism in South Sudan merely due to local conﬂict
drivers, or are there important north–south factors or, in some areas, cross-border
links to conﬂicts in northern Kenya and Uganda, and south-west Ethiopia? And if
so much of the conflict in South Sudan centres on the control of oil reserves in
Upper Nile, where do foreign interests become critical (Coalition for International
Justice 2006)? In Somalia, a long history of conﬂict is really a regional and inter-
national history. The regional elements include tensions with Ethiopia dating back
to the Ogaden war in the 1970s and before, and reflected more recently by
Ethiopian army incursions into southern Somalia in 2006. But would these events
have happened without Soviet and US interests in the Horn during the Cold War,
or more recent post-9/11 US foreign policy, framed around counter-terrorism
objectives, or tense Ethiopia-Eritrea relations and Ethiopia’s reliance on the Djibouti
Development at the margins 5
In order to understand both past and future pathways of change, in-depth,
longitudinal analysis of complex, interacting factors is required. There is no shortage
of high-quality research on the Horn of Africa. Consider the long-term research
efforts around livelihoods, conﬂict and crisis in Darfur (de Waal, 1989; Young et al.,
2005, 2009), the dynamics of the cross-border livestock trade from southern Somalia
(Little and Mahmoud, 2005), conﬂict analyses in Afar, Ethiopia (Markakis, 2003),
the emergence of stable government in Somaliland (Bradbury, 2008), and the
changes observed in Maasai (Galaty, this book), Turkana (Little and Leslie, 1999;
McCabe, 2004) and Rendille (Fratkin, 1991) areas of Kenya, or the Somali region
of Ethiopia (Devereux, 2006). Across the drylands of Africa, there is better
understanding of the dynamics of non-equilibrium environments (Ellis and Swift,
1988; Behnke et al., 1993; Vetter, 2005), and how pastoralists both live with and off
uncertainty (Scoones, 1995a; Little et al., 2001; Lybbert et al., 2004; Umar and
Baulch, 2007; Krätli and Schareika, 2010). Yet whether local or regional, the analysis
is becoming even more complex, with long-term trends combining with
unpredictable events and shifting narratives. Today the high-proﬁle concerns are,
among others, climate change, counter-terrorism, food prices and global ﬁnancial
crises. One might also ask how the profound political events in the Arab world will
affect conﬂict, oil and stability in the Horn. Or will the emergence of the ‘world’s
newest pseudostate’, being the US-backed buffer state of Azania/Jubaland in
southern Somalia (Thurston, 2011), help to support pastoralism, peace and trade, or
create new barriers? Furthermore, how will China’s increasing involvement in aid
in Africa affect pastoralists, and to what extent might China’s domestic policies affect
African thinking, as Goldsmith asks in this book? Against these storylines, the more
mundane, but possibly more important trends quietly continue: population growth,
commercialization and its impacts, and urbanization and out-migration.
Given the regional dimensions of livelihoods for so many pastoralists in the Horn,
harmonized regional policies and support to the African organizations mandated to
lead these processes are especially important. Yet, as in Europe, there are many
challenges in bringing together governments with contrasting histories and political
ideologies, and very different levels of legitimacy and stability. In terms of economies
and trade, different states are pulled in different directions – towards the Middle East
and North Africa, towards the highland core of East Africa or towards Central
Africa, depending on market, political and cultural ties. As a category therefore,
despite the pleas for integration, the Horn does not exist as a ﬁrm, easily deﬁnable
geographical, political or economic unit.
The formal policy structure that has emerged since the transition of the
Organization of African Unity into the African Union (AU) in 2002, places
responsibility on the AU for developing the broad policies for Africa’s develop-
ment. The policies of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) should
then follow the AU lead, but with regional adaptation suited to context. However,
many countries are members of more than one REC – Kenya and Uganda are
members of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA),
the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and the East Africa
6 Catley et al.
Community (EAC); while Djibouti, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea are members of
both COMESA and IGAD. In addition, the importance of trade linkages across the
Red Sea is illustrated in other alliances and groupings, such as the trade-based Sana’a
Forum for Cooperation, comprising the four countries of Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia
and Yemen and, notably, excluding Eritrea. Despite the complexity of these
relationships, the common language of regional economic integration, and the free
movement of goods, services and people may offer opportunities for pastoralism.
While pastoralists might now be marginalized in terms of national economies, within
RECs they can become more formally recognized as being central to regional
economies. However, there are important caveats. The imperatives of regional
integration proclaimed by the World Bank, the African Development Bank and
repeated by many national governments, and highlighted especially by IGAD, EAC
and the AU, are centred on the presumed beneﬁts of economic growth, modelled
on groupings such as the European Union (African Development Bank, 2010;
Mattli, 1999; Healy et al., 2009). Yet the wider political economy question of ‘inte-
gration for whom?’ is rarely asked. Of course, it depends on where your locus of
power and economic activity lies. Pastoralists have long been integrating economies
across borders, linking production systems and markets, in ways only dreamed about
by the economic planners. Yet such efforts have often fallen foul of national
regulations, border restrictions and laws created by national policy elites, who are
often culturally, economically and politically distant from pastoral people and areas.
Although pastoralists are often omitted from most ofﬁcial documents on regional
economic integration, an important exception is the 2010 AU Policy Framework
for Pastoralism in Africa which recognizes the economic, social and cultural
contributions of pastoralists both historically and into the future (African Union,
2010). At the highest level of policy-making in Africa, the framework directly
addresses many of the myths surrounding pastoralism, and formally calls for national
and regional processes that prioritize the involvement of pastoralists and their
institutions in policy-making. In the following section we discuss the vibrant and
substantial market activity in and out of pastoralist areas and, contrary to many
national policies, the AU framework recognizes this activity and aims to develop it
further. While there is clearly much work to be done to align national and regional
policies with the AU policy, for the first time Africa has a continent-wide and
progressive policy on pastoralism.
One of the most persistent policy and development myths around pastoralism has
been the picture of the conservative herder, bound by a primitive cultural imperative
to build his herd for the sake of ego and prestige, and sell as few animals as possible
(Herskovits, 1926). It is a story that is still heard today in government and donor
meetings, and underpins the misguided programmes that aim to make pastoralists
understand markets and behave more rationally. Yet, as the ﬁrst section of this book
shows, the livestock trade networks emerging from pastoralist areas of the Horn are
Development at the margins 7
so massive that Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia can be categorized as ‘high export’
countries (Aklilu and Catley, this book). The signiﬁcance of pastoral trade becomes
clearer when our gaze shifts again, away from the capitals and towards the ﬂows of
people, livestock and commerce that emanate from the places at the borders of the
nation state. Connecting huge hinterlands to key terminal markets, in Nairobi, Addis
Ababa, Khartoum, and outside the region to Kinshasa to the south or Cairo and the
Arabian Peninsula to the north and east, the livestock trade, and the huge range of
economic activity associated with it – transport, marketing, ﬁnance, processing and
so on – portrays a very different economic geography.
This makes a broader regional perspective on ‘the Horn’ much more real,
envisaged as a complex network connecting producing areas with intermediary
markets and ports and terminal markets. Almost without exception, these vibrant
commercial routes cut across borders. They involve the movement of camels, cattle,
goats and sheep which are traded in vast numbers across the region and inter-
nationally (Catley and Aklilu, this book; Mahmoud, this book). Consider estimates
of livestock exports from Sudan, which for decades has been exporting around 1.5
million pastoral sheep, 200,000 camels and 100,000 goats annually (apart from 2007
and 2008) (Aklilu and Catley, 2009). Similarly, the Somaliland port of Berbera
receives livestock from the Somali Region of Ethiopia and locally, and exported 1.6
million sheep and goats, 136,000 cattle and 97,000 camels in 2010 (Somaliland
Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture and Industry, 2010). To these ﬁgures we can
add the formal livestock and meat export values from Ethiopia for 2010–11 (Catley
and Aklilu, this book) – derived mainly from pastoralist areas – and reach a
provisional total livestock export value from these three countries that exceeds
US$500 million in 2010. However, to this figure we should also add the cattle
exports from southern Somalia into Kenya, valued at US$8.8 million in 2000 (Little,
2003), but rising to around US$13.6 million in 2007.3 In addition, there are livestock
exports from other large and small ports along the Somali coast, from Djibouti and
from Mombasa, plus a substantial domestic livestock trade in Djibouti, Ethiopia,
Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda. It seems feasible, therefore, to propose
a pastoral livestock and meat trade value approaching US$1 billion for the Horn in
2010. Yet this trade remains under-valued at national level, with countries such as
Kenya and Ethiopia continuing to misrepresent the livestock economy, and there-
fore the pastoral economy, in national planning processes. In Kenya, comprehensive
assessment of the contribution of livestock to gross domestic product valued
livestock 150 per cent higher than government figures (Behnke and Muthami,
2011), whereas in Ethiopia, a similar study valued livestock at 350 per cent higher
than government figures (Behnke and Muthami, 2011). This analysis points to
the wider challenge of understanding the total economic value of pastoralism,
given the diverse range of goods and services that pastoralists provide (Hesse and
Pastoralists have adapted to, rather than ignored, market demands and oppor-
tunities. In the 1980s, Somalis shifted the species composition of their herds away
from camels to cattle in response to export demands (Al-Najim, 1991), whereas the
8 Catley et al.
last few years have seen a shift back to camels and, indeed, a boom in camel prices
and expansion of trade (Mahmoud, this book). In Ethiopia, a substantial internal
camel trade has evolved in response to demand for camels in the highlands, involving
networks that cover 2000km and cross four regions of the country (Aklilu and
Catley, 2011). Also linked to camel exports to Sudan, this trade was valued at
US$61 million in 2010 and evolved without aid or government programmes. Other
local initiatives include the emergence of private abattoirs in pastoral areas of Somalia
and Somaliland, with exports of chilled meat to the Gulf States using privately
owned aircraft. Engagements with the private sector, sometimes under the banner
of ‘corporate social responsibility’ are growing, with a diversity of marketing and
service provision relationships being developed (Morton, this book). Further types
of pastoral market-based adaptations are seen in the area of milk marketing, as
pastoralists organize themselves to supply milk to growing urban populations within
pastoral areas (for example, see Abdullahi et al., this book) but also to those who
out-migrated and reside in cities such as Nairobi, Addis Ababa, and even London.
In eastern Ethiopia, camel milk is collected from pastoral producers and ﬂown to
the Gulf, while recent developments in Kenya include the processing and packing
of camel milk for sale in supermarkets and other outlets. All these changes do not
depend on aid or government, are dramatically assisted by technological change in,
for example, the expansion of mobile phone networks or milk processing and
packing, and reﬂect a market response to changing consumer preferences in import-
ing countries. In other words, new pathways are emerging, responding to changing
conditions, but often under-the-radar, and outside the inﬂuence and control of aid
interventions or state policies, yet facilitated by changing technological and market
Some of the fastest growing urban areas in Africa are linked to these pastoral trade
activities. The town of Garissa in north-eastern Kenya has grown from 14,076
people in 19795 to an estimated 250,000 people in 2008, driven by the livestock
trade, but also, refugees from Somalia and destitute pastoralists locally (Gedi et al.,
2008). The price of goats/sheep, camels and cattle for export from the Port of
Bosasso increased threefold between 2000 and 2006.6 And the growing wealth of
cities like Addis Ababa, Nairobi, Khartoum and Kampala, as well as regional towns
such as Mbarara, Nakuru, Isiolo, Kassala, and Adama provide a burgeoning demand
for meat and animal products. The ‘livestock revolution’ (cf. Delgado et al., 1999)
is happening in Africa, and is centred on the Horn. Yet this revolution does not
follow the standard prescriptions. This trade is largely unregulated, and run by a vast
network of producers and traders, ﬁnanciers and transporters who must continually
ﬁnd ways round customs restrictions, excessive taxation, border restrictions, out-
dated veterinary controls and conﬂict in order to make their businesses proﬁtable.
They are the quintessential ‘free marketeers’ so lauded by the liberalizers at institu-
tions like the World Bank, yet are rarely given necessary support or encouragement.
At the same time, major ‘contraband’ trade routes ﬂourish, where vast quantities of
clothes, electronics, cigarettes and household utensils are imported unofﬁcially into
cross-border pastoral areas. Typically, central governments link this trade to the
Development at the margins 9
apparently wayward and illegal tendencies of pastoralists, and overlook the fact that
much ‘contraband’ does not stay in pastoral areas, but ﬁnds its way to capital cities
and major towns with the involvement of government ofﬁcials, politicians, well-
connected business people, as well as the police and military. The political economy
of this trade, and its links to the pastoral economy, remain both under-researched
and highly sensitive. But any analysis quickly reveals how the maintenance of
illegality and instability at the margins in pastoral areas reaps beneﬁts for many non-
pastoral and government actors.
Development challenges: seas of failure, islands of success
Driving through pastoralist areas of the Horn in 2011, a common sight is that of a
dilapidated irrigation scheme, cattle dip tank, livestock market or borehole, all
constructed by aid programmes. In some places, a series of defunct facilities of the
same type are positioned right next to each other, and in various states of decay,
depending on the decade in which they were built – often by the same donor. It
seems that not only did development planners fail to understand pastoralism and its
opportunities in the 1970s (Sandford, 1983), but the same trend continues today.
Taking the example of the highly dynamic and successful pastoral livestock trade
networks outlined above, almost inevitably, a Western aid response is to formalize
and organize, cleanse and control. Rather than seeing a billion dollars of dynamic
trade activity in one of the most hostile regions in the world, the misperception is
one of inefﬁciency, disorganization, disease risks and tax avoidance.
We must ask: should pastoralists really be forced to comply with a set of
international standards developed for European markets with different disease
dynamics and consumer preferences, especially when those same standards are based
on outdated science?7 Even if European consumers wanted meat from pastoral
areas, will African countries ever really compete in these high-value markets when
exporters from Brazil, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand are already so
dominant? Furthermore, what is the appropriate market infrastructure and support
required in pastoral areas if so much trade already takes place in simple market yards
anyway? Would high-cost holding pens and abattoirs, designed for Texas or Utah,
add signiﬁcant value, or instead is there something more appropriate to the ﬂexible,
low-cost marketing systems of the region? If there is one area of development where
the concept of ‘appropriate technology’ was lost for decades, it is pastoral livestock
In the same vein, substantial policy and extension effort has been invested in
range management in the dry rangelands of Africa with the aim of replicating the
managed ranches of the US or Australia, with fencing, rotational grazing and other
approaches. Yet traditional mobile pastoral systems have consistently shown
themselves to be more productive than ranch systems in African settings (Western,
1982; Breman and de Wit, 1983; Behnke, 1985a; Cossins and Upton, 1988; Hogg,
1992; Abel, 1993), and external models have consistently failed (Scoones, 1995a;
De Jode, 2010).
10 Catley et al.
Thus development pathways, deﬁned by regulatory, market and technological
dimensions, are repeatedly being constructed through ill-informed and outdated
policy framings, which are out of kilter with the emerging alternative pathways on
the ground. But, while poorly designed projects will inevitably fail, more appropriate
investments may make a big difference. Where designs have taken account of local
circumstances and priorities, and where pastoralists themselves have been involved,
the success rate is much higher. Examples include the development of privatized
community-based animal health worker systems in pastoral areas of Ethiopia and
ofﬁcial endorsement of these systems in 2004 (Admassu, 2002), and, related to these
approaches, the eradication of rinderpest in the Afar region of Ethiopia and South
Sudan in the 1990s (Catley and Leyland, 2001). Other livestock examples include
support to small-scale women’s dairy groups in northern Kenya (Aklilu, 2004), the
introduction of commercial destocking to Ethiopia (Abebe et al., 2008) and working
with pastoralists to design and evaluate livestock feed supplementation during
drought (Bekele and Abera, 2008). Although difﬁcult to design and implement well,
restocking projects after drought can help to shift pastoralists away from food aid,
especially when drawing on traditional restocking systems (Lotira Arasio, 2004;
Wekessa, 2005). Livelihood-based approaches to drought response, such as
destocking and restocking, livestock feed supplementation, and veterinary voucher
schemes, have been incorporated into the global standards and guidelines for
humanitarian crises (LEGS, 2009), offering potential for good practice to be further
applied in pastoral areas. There have also been numerous community-based peace
building initiatives in pastoralist areas, focusing on conﬂict management between
groups within and across borders. These approaches can lead to local peace
agreements and reductions in conﬂict during project implementation, but the gains
are fragile and often undermined by higher-level political interference (e.g. Minear,
2001). Siele et al. (this book) highlight another type of innovation: a distance
learning system for the education of nomadic children developed by the Kenyan
government using a combination of radio programmes, mobile tutors and audio/
print materials. As they explain, the initiative is emblematic of an important shift in
the mindset of state planners in Kenya towards tailoring service delivery approaches
to the fundamental requirements of nomadic pastoralists to be ﬂexible and mobile.
Despite such bright spots demonstrating the possibilities of alternative pathways,
overall, mainstream pastoral development is a litany of failure, involving substan-
tial sums of wasted resources (Hogg, 1987, 1988; Baxter, 1991; de Haan, 1994;
Anderson and Broch-Due, 1999). For many in the aid industry and in national
governments, pastoral areas are poor investments, destined for failure, where no
‘quick wins’ are possible. With such a track record this view appears, on the surface,
to be justified. The response from the capital cities and the donor or NGO
headquarters has been either to abandon such areas, or impose radical new solutions,
including privatization of the rangeland to foster the emergence of a commercial
ranching sector, forced (or semi-voluntary) sedentarization in towns and in irriga-
tion schemes, large scale infrastructure investments (such as dams) to attract
alternative uses (such as irrigated plantations) or selling the marginality of such
Development at the margins 11
places as a tourist destination, with exotic people, charismatic wildlife and dramatic,
As reflected in the chapters of this book, a hot debate exists today about the
relative merits of ‘traditional’ land uses such as mobile pastoralism and ‘modern’
interventions such as irrigated farming. Of course the simplistic contrast between
tradition and modernity does not wash, given that pastoralism has been fast-changing
and responding to contemporary contexts, and irrigation has always been an impor-
tant if small component of livelihoods in dryland areas (Anderson and Johnson, 1988;
Sandford, this book). But this debate raises many issues, including what are the
comparative returns from different land uses and the forms of productive activity
that may be taxed more easily by states. As explained above, the weight of evidence
suggests that ‘modern’, commercialized forms of livestock-keeping and irrigated
farming are not as productive as customary forms of pastoralism (Behnke and
Kerven, this book); although it is equally true that there are severe resource and
practical constraints to continued reliance on ‘traditional’ mobile pastoralism: ‘too
many people and too few livestock’ (Sandford, this book).
This raises the question of why governments seek to replace pastoralism with
alternative land uses? An important reason is the interest of governments in raising
tax revenue and, more generally, to exert greater control over economic and
political life at the margins. By controlling economic activity in the pastoral margins
through resource grabs, ruling regimes are able to capture economic wealth for
national development (see Behnke and Kerven, this book).
Borders and boundaries: sites of innovation
The processes of incorporation, assimilation and integration have long been at the
centre of the politics of the pastoral areas, driven by the imperatives of national elites
located far from the margins. The control of borders and the taming of the
borderlands has been a significant part of both colonial and post-colonial state
building (Young, 1994; Herbst, 2000).8 Indeed, the very identity of the central state,
and its visions and plans, is often presented in opposition to these areas. The central
state thus offers modernity and progress, security and stability, shaped by a settled
highland, crop-farming culture and practice. This is projected as a counter to the
backward, primitive, war-like and threatening mobile livelihoods of the lowlands.
The civilizing mission of development thus becomes associated with settlement
projects, irrigation schemes, road building and the provision of ‘modern’ services.
Such interventions have a political dimension. Settlement means ordering and
control, irrigation means proﬁt and taxation, roads allow for the extraction of surplus
to the metropolitan centres and service provision means disciplining, educating and
incorporating citizens through the attractions of schooling and services. ‘Seeing like
a state’ (cf. Scott, 1998) thus takes on a particular form in the relationship between
a highland-centric state and its peripheral territories in the drylands.
Thus state identity and processes of state formation must be seen in terms of
the relation between the centre and the periphery, the core and the margins, the
12 Catley et al.
metropole and the hinterland. Charles Tilly (1992) argues this in relation to the
origin of nation states in Europe, whose establishment depended on the incor-
poration of the margins through population control and the generation of capital to
support the creation of armies. The capture of land, the appropriation of agricultural
production and the extraction of surpluses provided the wealth to establish city
states, their infrastructure and military force. The very origins of the state were thus
reliant on the control of the margins. And the tools of statecraft (and development)
– taxation, statistics, bureaucracy and military might for example – were all deployed
to this end (Hagmann and Peclard, 2011). In the process of imperial conquest in
Africa, or the establishment of independent states more recently, the processes have
been similar. It is thus no surprise that tensions exist – politically, economically and
culturally – between these poles of authority, despite long periods of attempted
assimilation and incorporation.9
These pastoral borderlands are, in some important senses, beyond the reach of the
state, and so the development industry. Historically, these areas have been seen as
both threats: sites of famine, destitution and impoverishment, and so the origins of
mass migrations to cities, and threatening: undermining political stability through forms
of rebellion and insurrection, as well as a source of demands for services and basic
welfare from the central state, while contributing little tax or tribute to state coffers.
As Peter Little shows for Somalia (2003, 2005), even when a central state is
effectively absent, daily life, relationships and particularly markets are still governed.
Here segmented lineage systems, linked to complex clan-based hierarchies, operate
(Leonard, 2009), providing order amongst apparent disorder. Disintegration of the
Somali Republic precipitated a distinctively Somali-type of economic integration,
in which the free movement of livestock, people, goods and information across
Somali-inhabited territories of the Horn was helped – or was at least unhindered –
by the segmentary clan system (Little, 2003). As discussed earlier, the dynamic cross-
border cattle trade between Kenya and southern Somalia has responded to shifts in
state power and influence: from feeding the export market through Kismayo in
Somalia before the war to supplying Kenya’s domestic markets through Nairobi after
state collapse (Little, 2003, 2005, 2007).
Physically, culturally, economically and politically removed from the calculus of
power of the central state, these people and areas have always resisted incorporation,
avoiding taxation, resisting external imposition, and maintaining an apparently
aggressive war-like stance in relation to state efforts. With reference to the mobile
swidden agriculturalists of the south-east Asian highlands, James Scott explains that
they have developed the ‘art of not being governed’ (Scott, 2009) – or at least not
being governed in ways that the central state desires. A similar story applies to
pastoralists of the Horn of Africa. Scott argues that in south-east Asia, hill peoples
operate outside the reaches of state authority, or at least resisting it at every turn. He
argues that this grouping of peoples requires its own history which needs to be
counterposed with the standard national histories of the rice-growing valley states.
Although in the Horn the topographic distinction is reversed, the differences are
further accentuated by deep, historically rooted cultural and religious differences:
Development at the margins 13
livestock-keeping, nomadic (mostly Suﬁ-adhering) Muslims at the margins, con-
fronting a highland agriculturally based orthodox Christian state in Ethiopia or a
Wahabi-inﬂuenced Islamic state in the former Sudan, having to deal with animist
or Christian pastoralists in the south. The borderlands can thus be seen as places of
opportunity, with borders being a resource, a conduit for exchange, not a threat or
Yet despite the impacts of globalization and shifting notions of territory and
sovereignty (Appadurai, 2003; Ferguson, 2006), borders still have real meaning,
especially as such divisions become the focus for trans-national struggles over security
(Clapham, 1999; Newman, 2006). Thus cast at a global scale, the relationships with
other centres of power and these ‘marginal’ areas have been central to some of the
broader geopolitical struggles of recent times. In the Cold War era the alliances
between east and west were all-important in the playing out of interventions in the
region, with the Derg regime of Ethiopia backed by the East, especially the former
Soviet Union, until the fall of the Berlin Wall, while by contrast Kenya and Uganda
were closely allied with the West (Ottaway, 1982; Luckham and Bekele, 1984).
And, particularly since 9/11 and the emergence of the network of groups associated
with Al-Qaida, the borderlands of the Horn have become a site for a global struggle
over values, identity and power. In the Bush era this was dubbed the ‘war on terror’,
and presented as an epic and deﬁning struggle for Western civilization in the face
of barbaric forces inspiring terrorism, located in the marginal pastoral lands of the
Horn or the Sahel (Howell and Lind, 2009; Lind and Howell, 2010; Bradbury and
Kleinman, 2010; Goldsmith, this book).
Pastoral areas are thus seen as a threat, not just to peripheral states in the global
system, but to the political, security and commercial interests of leading industrial-
ized countries. US Special Forces operations inside Somalia since 2001, and drone
warfare launched from bases in Djibouti and southern Ethiopia against suspected
terror leaders in southern Somalia, as well as US support to Ethiopian proxy forces
to remove the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) from power in Mogadishu in 2006
under the guise of ‘counter-terrorism’ (Barnes and Hassan, 2007; Menkhaus, 2007),
indicates the importance of this region to the post-9/11 global security regime. The
ongoing conﬂict with the Al Shabaab group who occupied the vacuum of power
in Somalia, has helped exacerbate the impact of the 2011-12 famine in southern
Somalia (McVeigh, 2011; LaFranchi, 2011). The stand-off in the region between
the West and the pastoral margins creates a precarious politics, and with this a
rationale for highly top-down development, and sometimes draconian military
intervention (Hagmann and Mulugeta, 2008; Bradbury and Kleinman, 2010).
These geopolitical engagements with the margins have therefore given rise to a
plethora of new ‘development’ projects in pastoral areas, funded by a combination
of US/European conventional aid agencies, foreign affairs and defence/security
ministries. Labelled as ‘peace building’, ‘good governance’ or ‘conﬂict resolution’
efforts, they are often aimed at ensuring that the interests of a larger political-security
regime are upheld, and that development is the best remedy for countering terror
and destabilizing forces.
14 Catley et al.
Thus, to outsiders, whether based in Addis Ababa, Nairobi, London or
Washington, the pastoral borderlands are at once bafﬂing, unruly, threatening and
backward, and in need of taming, controlling, incorporating and civilizing. The
development enterprise over the past century or more has been geared to this
transformation, and informed by these perspectives to modernize the backward
borderlands and banish primitive practices that give rise to rebellion, insurrection
and, in extreme cases, terror. But a perspective that sees the margins as the centre,
borders as zones of exchange, and borderlands as sites of creativity and innovation
in response to adversity, offers an alternative, although one that requires both new
research methods and development practices (Little, 2006).
Future pathways: diverse livelihood options
What is the future for pastoralism in the Horn of Africa? This book is full of
examples of how pastoralists are responding to the diverse drivers of change that are
impinging on them. But, critically, not everyone succeeds, and processes of quite
extreme differentiation are unfolding in some places, with dire consequence for
those who lose out. A much more complex understanding is needed to provide
insight into the nuances and complexities of change.
A first step is to recognize that ‘pastoralism’ does not represent one form of
livelihood. All forms are broadly connected to mobile livestock production, but
pastoralists may have more or fewer animals, different combinations of species,
different levels of engagement with markets (local, cross-border or export), different
types and entry points into livelihood diversiﬁcation and varying objectives for pro-
duction. And these different pathways vary from place to place and over time.11
Some pathways are pushed by long-term processes (such as encroachment of pastoral
lands by agriculturalists or game parks) and some are shaped by sudden shocks, such
as disease epidemics or a large livestock raid. Many are shaped by a series of shocks
and stresses, acting sequentially or in combination, including climatic events such
as droughts and/or ﬂoods, trade bans imposed by veterinary regulations, wars and
conflicts, or sudden shifts in market opportunities. But these cannot be easily
predicted: future pathways are highly contingent and deeply uncertain – pastoralists
must live with uncertainty (Scoones, 1995a) and continuously adapt and innovate
(Scoones and Adwera, 2009).
Given this context, it is useful to think about future scenarios – possible pathways
that might be followed by different people in different places. Figure 1.2 offers a
simple schema for thinking about this. It was originally developed in a workshop
with Ethiopian policy-makers, development practitioners and pastoral leaders
(UNOCHA-PCI, 2007), and proved a useful heuristic tool for thinking about both
the past and the future. The diagram contrasts four ‘ideal type’ livelihood strategies
which are created through the interaction of two different axes: resource and market
access. Of course, access to resources and markets is in turn affected by multiple
intersecting drivers. Thus, for example, climate change may reduce resource access
by reducing effective rainfall (or increasing its variability) and so affect grass/browse
Development at the margins 15
FIGURE 1.2 Four scenarios for the future of pastoralism (adapted from
production and surface water access (Ericksen et al., this book). Resource access may
also be affected by ‘land-grabbing’ where particularly important ‘key resources’ are
removed for other uses, including private enclosures, irrigated agriculture, game
parks and so on (Tache, this book; Galaty, this book). Market access, in turn, may
be affected by disease outbreaks, preventing access to particular markets, especially
across borders. The quality of roads, holding grounds and port infrastructure may
also affect market access, as well as patterns of demand from urbanizing centres
affected in turn by changing consumption patterns (Catley and Aklilu, this book).
Conﬂict – long-running rebellion, large-scale raiding and disorganized banditry –
may affect both resource and market access (Goldsmith, this book).
Over time for a particular place, we can use Figure 1.2 to trace the changes in
livelihoods. What is clear is that, even if we go back 50 or even 100 years, not
everyone was involved in what is labelled ‘traditional’ or ‘pure pastoralism’. While
the anthropological accounts perhaps focused on the dominant (male) occupations
of the majority (Evans-Pritchard, 1940; Lewis, 1988), pastoralism has always been
much more complex. For example, the long-term engagement of pastoralism with
agriculture, including irrigated agriculture, is well documented (Sandford, this
book), as is the differential participation in markets, including across national borders
(Dietz, 1993; McPeak and Little, 2006). Taking the example of Somalia as a country
long-associated with pastoralism, it also has the longest coastline of any country in
Africa, and from the 1830s Somalis were travelling overseas to ﬁnd work and send
money home to relatives (Geshekter, 1993). Due to links with Arab traders and
merchants, Somalis regularly travelled to the Gulf States in the colonial period,
and were employed as sailors and other workers. Pilgrimages to Islamic centres also
16 Catley et al.
helped to ensure that Somalis were not isolated from news and experiences from
other countries. Rather than describing a nation of nomadic herders, the International
Labour Organization characterized Somali families as multi-occupational, multi-
national production units whereby a family grazing their livestock on the Ethiopian
border could, via the clan system, receive support from relatives abroad (Geshekter,
1993). These remittances were estimated at US$825 million per year, or around 60
per cent of GDP in 2004 (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2006) although some reports
value remittances at up to US$1 billion (Lindley, 2005).
Pastoral systems have long exhibited a boom and bust cycle (Dahl and Hjort,
1976). However, such dynamics are even more important today, and the scenarios,
and associated livelihood options, are both more constrained and more differen-
tiated. As the chapters in this book show, the past dominant livelihood practice
characterized as ‘traditional mobile pastoralism’ is increasingly rare. While in
pastoralist discourse there is a vision of such a lifestyle, and it remains wrapped up
in constructions of identity, the options of regular mobility and reliance on livestock
for subsistence and limited exchange are constrained. Of course, in some more
remote areas, where market access is poor and options of commercialization are
limited, and where resources are still relatively plentiful, this scenario remains
important, now and into the future. Cases might include the various societies within
the ‘Karamoja Cluster’ of north-western Kenya, north-eastern Uganda, and the far
south-eastern corner of South Sudan, as well as neighbouring groups in the Omo
River Delta of southern Ethiopia. But, overall, these are the exceptions, rather than
the rule. In other areas, a combination of factors, all with historical precedents, but
now with greater force, inﬂuence and impact, are shaping pastoral livelihood options
For example, the phenomenon of ‘land grabs’, discussed by Babiker, Galaty, Letai
and Lind, and Nunow in this book, has increased in intensity in recent years. A
combination of crises – of food, fuel and ﬁnance – has driven speculative investment
in land. The land that new investors want is invariably the best watered and the most
valuable, as their projects focus on irrigated agriculture, for food, fuel and other
commercial cash crops such as sugar cane (Borras et al., 2010, 2012). In Ethiopia,
for example, the government has committed up to three million hectares of land to
1300 foreign investors with licenses for commercial farms (Graham et al., 2009,
p44; Galaty, this book; Lavers, 2012). In Kenya, a range of domestic and foreign
investors have targeted the Tana Delta, the largest wetland in the country, and a
vital drought-grazing reserve for pastoralists from across northern and eastern Kenya
(Nunow, this book). And such investments are not only for agriculture or biofuels,
but also for tourism, a burgeoning and highly proﬁtable industry in Kenya, as Letai
and Lind (this book) discuss in reference to the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya, for
example. External investors may be a combination of local elites, including pastoral-
ists and foreign nationals, operating with the support of national governments, who
see a vision of a green, irrigated land or a wild, natural space in what they regard as
barren, idle drylands. At a smaller scale, range enclosures, where individuals fence
off areas of rangeland for private use, have grown dramatically, as fodder becomes
Development at the margins 17
scarcer and more valuable. This has resulted in the disruption of traditional, common
property-based range management practices, as described by Tache (this book) for
Such land grabs – small and large – remove ‘key resources’ from pastoral
production systems (Scoones, 1991; Oba, this book). Even if they remove only a
fraction of the overall rangeland area, the removal of key resource patches, such as
riparian strips, wetlands and hilltops, undermines the functionality of the whole
system, increasing risk and vulnerability, as Babiker (this book) explains in his
assessment of the impacts of the grabbing of seasonal grazing lands in Gedaref state
Another factor that has affected future pathways is the changing nature of conﬂict
in pastoral areas. Armed violence is a historical condition of many pastoral societies,
and localized disputes over water and grazing are altogether normal features of
most pastoral production systems. However, far from being skirmishes of little
consequence in distant peripheries, pastoral conﬂicts in the Horn today are closely
entwined with the dynamics of wider political and economic contexts. Further, as
Goldsmith (this book) explains, the future of pastoral conﬂicts in the region will
closely mirror the transitional dynamics overtaking all but the most isolated corners
of the region. The closer incorporation of pastoral areas into national and regional
economies, the shifting calculus of power in the wake of national political change
and the concomitant emergence of new actors in these areas, as well as the spread
of small arms and light weapons linked to conflicts in the region (Gray, 2000;
Mirzeler and Young, 2000; Pike, 2004; Mkutu, 2008), have all changed the timbre
of conﬂict and violence in the pastoral margins.
Forms of conﬂict vary across the region. Conﬂict in the Ogaden region of eastern
Ethiopia is subsumed in a long-running insurrection by various armed factions as
well as counter-insurgency operations by the Ethiopian military (Markakis, 1994,
2011; Lyons, 2008). Conﬂict in Isiolo, an emerging regional hub in northern Kenya,
pits members of several ethnic groups against each other against a backdrop of a
booming local economy and political-administrative transition under Kenya’s new
constitution (Amani Papers, 2010; Salesa, 2011). In Karamoja in north-eastern
Uganda, the state has played a critical role in the latest phase of armed violence
through a disarmament operation by the Ugandan People’s Defence Forces,
which has involved confining livestock belonging to disarmed communities in
the shadow of military barracks where they are assumed to be secure (Stites et al.,
2007). However, the picture of pastoral conﬂict in the region is not one of ever-
escalating violence. There are examples of effective stabilization and peace-building
efforts that build on customary institutions. The government that has developed in
Somaliland is a mix of traditional and modern, and this mix helps to explain the
relative stability of an entire ‘pastoral state’ (Bradbury, 2008). Elsewhere, the
transitional dynamics shaping pastoral conﬂicts in the Horn favour innovation and
reform that promotes the incorporation of minorities and marginal areas, which
might reduce armed violence in the future (Goldsmith, this book; Scott-Villiers
et al., 2011).
18 Catley et al.
The growth of the livestock trade and the opening up and consolidation of a
series of important trade routes building on centuries of trading and exchange across
the region, is a further driver of change. As already discussed, the growth in demand
for meat from rapidly urbanizing centres in the region, and increasingly wealthy,
oil-rich regions such as the Middle East, has helped the formation of strong trade
routes. These mirror older routes in some cases, but others are new. In 2009,
importing countries for pastoral livestock from the Horn included Egypt, Libya,
Chad, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and
Mauritius (Aklilu and Catley, 2009, this book).
One consequence of a growth in commercial trade is that a number of livelihood
opportunities open up. As several chapters in this book show, pastoralists are taking
full advantage of closer incorporation into national and regional economies to move
livestock and goods across long-standing geopolitical, ecological and land-use
boundaries. This expanding trade is having multiplier effects, promoting diversiﬁca-
tion pathways in the drylands, with increasing demands for trekking and transport
of livestock to fattening lots, sale yards and abattoirs; high value fodder to fatten
livestock for sale; and milk to supply towns where increasing numbers of pastoralists
are moving to engage in trade, marketing and related enterprises (Fratkin, this book).
As Livingstone and Ruhindi (this book) explain, there are gendered dimensions of
such expanding forms of economic life, with women taking on many of the newly
important value added activities.
The net result is that there is a greater spread of livelihood pathways across the
diagram in Figure 1.2. While in the past, the majority concentrated on traditional,
mobile forms of livestock-keeping, with some specializing in supplying larger
markets, others diversifying into enterprises associated with keeping herds, and many
dropping out, today there is even greater differentiation. In particular, as Catley and
Aklilu show (this book), there is a growing gap between those who are able to proﬁt
from the growing opportunities of commercialization and those who cannot, and
so are unable to stay in the traditional pastoral system. These people must exit to
other livelihood activities in the area, or in increasing numbers become reliant
on aid agency support, sometimes in camps, or in the constant movement out of
pastoral areas to towns. For others, exit means movement out of the country into
the diaspora. While data on these processes is difficult to come by, estimates of
population growth and poverty levels in pastoral areas (Catley and Aklilu, this book)
are consistent with estimates of increasing urban populations, both within and
outside pastoral areas of the Horn (Anon., 2010), as the poorest move out of pas-
toralism. Stephen Sandford argues persuasively that there are ‘too many people and
too few livestock’ in pastoral areas, and that the prospects are bleak.12 He argues that
the value of growing trade and the opportunities for diversiﬁcation are too small to
sustain the growing number of people. The result is a growing pattern of differen-
tiation: some moving up, others moving out. Catley and Aklilu (this book) thus
explain the trends in high-export pastoral areas of Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, less
in terms of the demise of pastoralism in the Horn, more as an expected transfer of
livestock from smaller to larger herds – a process of classic class formation – as
Development at the margins 19
commercialization advances. Forms of mobile pastoralism will continue, they argue,
for those who are able to commercialize while others will seek options elsewhere,
as labourers, entrepreneurs and service providers; a process in common with changes
in pastoralism in other parts of the world (Steinfeld et al., 2010) and agricultural
development in general (Bryceson et al., 2000).
What is certainly clear is that this process of differentiation – the creation of a
relatively elite commercial class within pastoral societies – is occurring at a rapid
pace in some areas. The main herd owners may often be absent, employing labour
or loaning out animals through social networks (Little, 1985a). This process absorbs
labour to some extent, creating livelihoods for those unable to socially reproduce
on the basis of traditional modes of production, such as through contracted herding,
being enlisted as labour on farms owned by pastoral elites, or trekking/transporting
livestock to distant private ranches and sale-yards. With this, we see the expansion
and entrenchment of new pastoral elites, who are well-connected economically and
politically with the centre, as a result, often losing their connections with the
The implications of this rapid process of socio-economic differentiation are
evident in the erosion of customary safety nets, as Lind and Letai (this book) explain
in the case of the Laikipia Maasai. Nunow (this book) similarly describes the loss of
cooperative herding arrangements in the Tana Delta in Kenya. He explains that,
whereas in the past wealthier and poorer herders would combine their herds and
hire labour to move these to distant grazing, and would be compensated in kind
with an animal belonging to a better-off herder, wealthier herders are now backing
out of such arrangements and paying in cash hired herders to move livestock being
reared for the market. The implication is that poorer herders are losing out, unable
to afford to pay cash to hired herders.
In the past such processes of extreme differentiation were not so evident in pastoral
areas. A tradition of sharing and equity was linked to a ‘moral economy’ reinforced
by cultural and religious mores of inclusion and preventing destitution, embedded in
a strong lineage and clan-based social fabric (Broch-Due, 1990; Storas, 1991; Waller,
1999). There were of course elites, but they often represented positions created
through clan and lineage connections, religious afﬁliation and age, rather than the
harsher dynamics of class formation in a commercializing economy under pressure.
This of course has implications for rural politics. Clan elders may or may not be
coincident with the new economic elites. Traders, brokers, transporters may be the
‘big men’ today and, while negotiating their position with traditional elites, they
may have other routes to access power and resources via alliances with the central
state. Operating outside the local moral economy, they may also have fewer
obligations and reduced qualms about exploitative labour and market practices, and
less commitment to others who drop through any safety net once provided.
It is in this context that aid agencies, NGOs and governments must struggle to
provide ‘social protection’. However, as Catley and Aklilu (this book) indicate,
safety net programmes may be fundamentally ﬂawed in high export pastoral areas if
the objectives include either returning substantial numbers of destitute herders back
20 Catley et al.
to pastoralism, or if the expectation is that many people can ﬁnd alternative liveli-
hoods in these areas. Although livestock commercialization does provide some new
employment opportunities and there are also economic spaces for alternative
livelihoods to develop, the demand far exceeds the supply. Similarly, the level of
assets provided by safety nets and similar programmes may meet some immediate
food security needs (rather like food aid), but in terms of herd re-building are
insigniﬁcant (Catley and Napier, 2010). In addition, as the gap between poorer and
richer households widens, larger herds are needed to enter into and stay in the
commercialized system. Still, Devereux and Tibbo (this book) suggest that in
pastoral areas there is a role for other types of ‘social protection’, which they use
more broadly to refer to social insurance, livelihood support, employment guaran-
tees and conﬂict resolution.
Some development programmes focus on ‘livelihood diversiﬁcation’, attempting
to create alternative livelihoods to help people diversify out of pastoralism. But the
design of these programmes often fails to understand the intimate economic and
cultural connections between diversiﬁed livelihoods and the core pastoral economy.
Many people have the ambition of returning to pastoralism, and will use town-based
livelihoods to accumulate animals, which may be herded by relatives out on the
range. The small towns that are scattered across the pastoral areas are, as we have
already noted, growing fast. This is driven by the pastoral economy locally and often
complemented by diaspora investments in these places – involving not only real
estate and business development, but also, crucially, investments in livestock (Horst,
2004; Lindley, 2007, 2009). Such small towns offer numerous opportunities for
small-scale entrepreneurs, as in the camel milk trade described by Abdullahi et al.
(this book). Such opportunities are especially important for women who are able to
gain independent sources of income (Ahmed, 1999; Hodgson, 2000; Livingstone
and Ruhindi, this book). The connections between economic activities are thus
essential, and the interaction between the four quadrants in Figure 1.2 is important
to highlight, both for individual people at a particular moment, but also across time.
The future of pastoralism?
The central proposition of this book is that by making the margins the centre of our
thinking, a different view of future pathways emerges. A perspective centred on ‘the
margins’ unmasks the continuous innovation, adaptive practices, complex gover-
nance arrangements and entrepreneurial dynamism of these areas. This is not to say
that there is no role for development supported by outside actors, or no need to
improve livelihoods and human development for the vast majority of herders; far
from it. But it does mean that the forms and styles of intervention need to be very
different indeed, and result in a more effective negotiation and accommodation
between the (multiple) centres and the diverse peripheries, in the margins of the
As we have seen, the pastoral drylands of the Horn of Africa are simultaneously
sites of accumulating wealth and downward spirals of destitution and displacement.
Development at the margins 21
They are places of increasing specialization in commercial livestock production
as well as foci for entrepreneurial diversification. They are places where social
and technological innovation is constantly happening, but more often than not
undetected by official development agencies. They are places where change of
various types is always unfolding, increasingly in connection to the broader dynamics
of political and economic transition that are sweeping the region. They are today
places of sometimes extreme contrasts and stark differentiation. They are places full
of hope, yet with pockets of real desperation and despair, as the famine crisis in
southern Somalia in 2011–12 makes clear. The contradictions and complexities of
multiple, competing pathways of change make these places difﬁcult to understand,
especially with the mindsets, perceptions and framings of the development elite from
the metropolitan centres, both north and south.
What then needs to happen? How can the hope and optimism, the dynamic
entrepreneurialism and ingenious innovation be capitalized on, spread and
multiplied? And how can the crises, failures and cycles of destitution and human
misery be avoided? The challenges are conceptual and practical. Conceptually, as
emphasized throughout this book, we need to change the way we view the pastoral
areas of the Horn. This requires some very fundamental ‘ﬂips’ in the way problems
are framed, and solutions envisaged. Table 1.1 provides contrasting views of a
number of important development challenges, as seen from ‘the centre’ and ‘the
margins’; shifting from ‘seeing like a development agency’ to ‘seeing like a pas-
toralist’. Of course the world does not exist in bipolar opposites, and shades of grey
always represent the complex reality in between. But as a challenge to normative
perspectives of mainstream development, Table 1.1 offers some contrasts for debate.
Critically, it means changing the way we think about development, not as a singular
pathway to be introduced or pushed by states in the region and their aid partners,
but rather as a plural set of pathways unfolding on multiple fronts in the margins,
driven by the wider dynamics of transition and a diversity of actors, both men and
women: livestock keepers of all types, market traders, foreign and domestic investors,
local entrepreneurs, rural middlemen, customary leaders, armed agents and youth,
among others. But such plural pathways are also thoroughly shaped by pastoral
innovation, ingenuity and aspiration. Thus, by consciously moving our gaze from
the centre to the margins the world begins to look different.
Practically, there are a number of steps that aid agencies and government
departments can take. A first step is to work with and through existing policy
frameworks that support entrepreneurialism and innovation in pastoral areas, and
which suggest moves towards a different conﬁguration of markets and governance.
In particular, as already mentioned, the AU policy framework on pastoralism
provides a progressive vision of development pathways in pastoral areas, and can
be built on by efforts to develop complementary policies – and crucially, resulting
resource allocations – through regional economic bodies and national governments.
Development actors can buttress these efforts by helping to shape strategies for very
different pastoral contexts in ways that resonate with the core ideas of the AU
TABLE 1.1 Contrasting visions of development at the margins
Issue View from the centre (‘seeing like a development agency’) View from the margins (‘seeing like a pastoralist’)
Mobility Pre-sedentarization, nomadism as a stage in the process Mobility as essential for modern livelihoods – of livestock, people,
of civilization. labour, ﬁnance.
Climate and Pastoralists as villains and victims: environmental Responding to non-equilbrium environments and adaptation to
environmental degradation needs to be curtailed, and pastoralists are in climate variability as a way of life.
change need of support for climate adaptation.
Markets Uneconomic, weak, thin, informal, backward, in need of Vibrant commercial trade, cross-border, linked into regional/
modern facilities and upgraded value chains, and so global markets, constrained by state. Informality as a strength.
Agriculture The future, a route to settlement and civilization, and A temporary stop-gap, but linked to pastoralism, especially if based
more proﬁtable return. on ﬂexible locally controlled small-scale crop production.
Irrigation A sound investment, a proﬁtable enterprise, especially if A risky investment that undermines the core economic opportunity
large-scale and linked to infrastructure development of (livestock production), especially if externally owned and controlled
the region. and large-scale. A land grab, not a land investment.
Technology Backward, primitive, requiring modernization (range Appropriate technology, mixing old (mobile pastoralism) with the
management, breeding, fences, abattoirs and so on). new (mobile phones, Internet etc.).
Services Simple to supply, but difﬁcult, resistant customers Huge demand for health care and schooling, but requires new forms
unwilling to take up education and health services. of service delivery compatible with mobile livelihoods.
Diversiﬁcation A way out of pastoralism; a coping strategy. As a complement to pastoralism, adding value, gaining business
opportunities, a route ‘back in’ to livestock-keeping through
investment of new income.
Social protection Aid programmes and safety nets, externally designed and Focused on mutual support networks and informal interactions,
imposed, difﬁcult to get out once in the net. culturally rooted and highly dynamic, movement in and out of
Small towns Sites of destitution, dropping out; in need of Commercial hubs, foci for growth and private investment,
‘development’ (services and infrastructure). including from diaspora networks.
Borders The edge of the nation, to be controlled and protected. The centre of extended livelihood and market networks.
Conﬂict Destructive, violent and in need managing; external peace Linked to local peace initiatives, rebuilding clan and ethnic
building efforts through disarmament and ‘development’. identities and promoting and improving the inclusion and
representation of pastoralists in national political fora.
Identity Tribes, the ‘other’, not us. In need of development, Trans-national linking clans and groups across nations, into the
civilization, incorporation into the nation. diaspora; diverse citizenships.
State Fragile, weak, collapsed, failed. New networked forms of governance, linking local organization
(clans) and wider polities beyond the state.
Class Homogenous, tribal. Highly differentiated, different socio-economic groups.
Gender Regressive, anti-women. Women as key innovators and agents of diversiﬁcation, promoting
peace by building a network of contacts across social and ecological
borders through trade and exchange.
Youth Dangerous, idle, impoverished – caught up in banditry Important connectors to newly important economic activities,
and raiding, and potential recruits into extremist groups. exploiting new political spaces to negotiate and contest better terms
for pastoral societies in national debate.
24 Catley et al.
A second step is to gear organizations to work over the long-term in the margins.
To shift the vision from the centre to the margins will require more people spending
more time in places such as Gode, Garsen and Gambella. Our knowledge and
understanding of the dynamics shaping development at the margins is constrained
by the fact that so many agencies have their staff concentrated in the region’s political
and commercial centres. Many organizations with national offices make their
decisions based on the limited and sometimes poor quality information availed by
field staff in regional towns or consultants who visit for rapid assessments. For
development organizations seeking to shift to the margins, this means creating new
partnerships with local civil society in these areas, such as customary authorities,
church missions, mosque committees and trade-based groups. Partnerships need to
be less concerned with ‘implementation’ of preconceived plans and more focused
on ﬁnding workable ways of ‘entrusting’ local actors to identify problems, oppor-
tunities and ways of working on these.
A third step is that development actors need to support more long-term analysis
and learning. Under conditions of dynamic uncertainty, adaptive responses, experi-
mentation, piloting and above all research and learning are critical. Yet research
effort, and the resulting evidence base, is limited, due to insecurity, the difﬁculties
of working in such environments and the relative lack of funding. Most donor/
NGO-supported assessments are localized and provide only a snapshot of a very
complex reality, and many extract unreliable information, without building relations
of trust with local communities that allow researchers and development practitioners
to gain ‘a view from the margins’. Development actors need to reinvest in sustained,
high quality participatory analysis with communities which, when done well,
incorporates a differentiated analysis by gender and wealth group and thereby begins
to probe the key issues of social difference; moving beyond a uniform view of
pastoralism to an appreciation of diversity and difference. This change would also
beneﬁt from wider use of participatory approaches for reviewing and assessing the
impact of projects (Catley et al., 2008), especially when impact assessment is linked
to reshaping organizational or government policies.
A fourth step must be an acceptance that many of the issues that remain challenges
at the margins are political. While adopting policies, changing resource allocations,
shifting staff locations, building local partnerships and improving research and
learning processes through participatory approaches are all important, in the end a
rethinking of development at the margins will require some fairly fundamental
changes in power and politics. This requires a renegotiation of the relationships
between the central state – and the associated international development apparatus
– and the margins. Given the long histories of conﬂict, secession and wider distrust
that exist, how can this be possible? Surely the very vibrancy of life at the margins
is based on the ‘art of not being governed’, escaping the disciplining strictures of state
control? And will not an accommodation with the central state likely result in
capture, incorporation and exploitation? These are all certainly risks. But maybe the
centre now needs the margins more than before. There is a growing acceptance of
the importance of the livestock trade as a source of national economic growth, with
Abbink, J. (1997) ‘The shrinking cultural and political space of East African pastoral societies’,
Nordic Journal of African Studies, vol 6, no 1, pp1–15.
Abbink, J. (2006) ‘Discomfiture of democracy? The 2005 election crisis in Ethiopia and its
aftermath’, African Affairs, vol 105, no 409, pp173–199.
Abbo, H. (2005) Suggestions on the Grazing Line and Pastoral Migration Routes, Gedaref State
Pastoralists Union, Gedaref [in Arabic].
Abdelkarim, A. (1986) ‘Wage labourers in the fragmented labour market of the Gezira, Sudan’,
Africa, vol 56, no 1, pp54–70.
Abdullahi, A.M. (1993) ‘Economic evaluation of pastoral production systems in Africa: An
analysis of pastoral farming households in Central Somalia’, in M.P.O. Baumann , J. Janzen
and H.J. Schwartz (eds) Pastoral Production in Central Somalia, Deutsche Gessellschaft fur
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn, pp129–148.
Abdulsamad, F. (2011) ‘Somali investment in Kenya’, Chatham House Africa Programme
Briefing Paper, The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Abdurahman, O.S. and Bornstein, S. (1991) ‘Diseases of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in
Somalia and prospects for better health,’ Nomadic Peoples, vol 29, pp104–112.
Abebe, D. , Cullis, A. , Catley, A. , Aklilu, Y. , Mekonnen, G. and Ghebrechirstos, Y. (2008)
‘Livelihoods impact and benefit-cost estimation of a commercial de-stocking relief intervention in
Moyale district, southern Ethiopia’, Disasters, vol 32, no 2, pp167–189.
Abebe, M.H. , Oba, G. , Angassa, A. and Weladji, R.B. (2006) ‘The role of area enclosures and
fallow age in the restoration of plant diversity in northern Ethiopia’, African Journal of Ecology,
vol 44, pp507–514.
Abel, N.O.J. (1993) ‘Reducing cattle numbers of southern African communal range: Is it worth
it?’, in R.H. Behnke , I. Scoones and C. Kerven (eds) Range Ecology at Disequilibrium: New
Models of Natural Variability and Pastoral Adaptation in African Savannas, Overseas
Development Institute, London.
Abel, N.O.J. (1997) ‘Mis-measurement of the productivity and sustainability of African
communal rangelands: A case study and some principles from Botswana’, Ecological
Economics, vol 23, no 2, pp113–133.
Abu Sin, M. (1998) ‘Sudan’, in C.R. Lane (ed.) Custodians of the Commons: Pastoral Land
Tenure in East and West Africa, Earthscan, London, pp120–149.
Abule, A. , Snyman, H.A. and Smit, G.N. (2005) ‘Comparisons of pastoralists’ perceptions about
rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia’, Journal of Environmental
Management, vol 75, no 1, pp21–35.
ACDI-VOCA (2006) Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative Livestock Marketing Project: Second
Quarter Report (January–March 2006), submitted to USAID Ethiopia.
Adams, W.M. (1992) Wasting the Rain: Rivers, People and Planning in Africa, Earthscan,
Adams, W.M. and Anderson, D.M. (1988) ‘Irrigation before development: Indigenous and
induced change in agricultural water management in East Africa’, African Affairs, vol 87, no 34,
Adano, W.R. and Witsenburg, K. (2004) ‘Surviving pastoral decline: Pastoral sedentarization,
natural resource management, and livelihood diversification in Marsabit District, Northern
Kenya’, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Amsterdam.
Adano, W.R. and Witsenburg, K. (2005) ‘Once nomads settle: Assessing the process, motives
and welfare changes of settlements on Mount Marsabit’, in E. Fratkin and E.A. Roth (eds) As
Pastoralists Settle, Springer Publishing Company, New York.
Admassu, B. (2002) ‘Primary animal healthcare in Ethiopia: The experience so far’, in K. Sones
and A. Catley (eds) Primary Animal Healthcare in the 21st Century: Shaping the Rules, Policies
and Institutions, proceedings of an international conference held in Mombasa, Kenya, 15–18
October 2002, Mombasa, Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, Nairobi.
Adoko, J. and Levine, S. (2007) Land Transactions in Land Under Customary Tenure in Teso:
Customary Land Law and Vulnerability of Land Rights in Eastern Uganda, Land and Equity
Movement in Uganda, Kampala.
Adriansen, H. (2006). ‘Continuity and change in pastoral livelihoods of Senegalese Fulani’,
Agriculture and Human Values, vol 23, no 2, pp215–229.
Afar Regional State (2002) Revised Constitution of Afar Regional State, Semera.
Afar Regional State (2008) The Afar Regional State Pastoral Lands Administration and Use
Afar Regional State (2009) Dinkara, the Afar Regional State Pastoral Lands Administration and
Use Proclamation, Semara.
Afar Regional State (2011a) Dinkara, the Afar Regional State Pastoral Lands Administration
and Use Regulation, Semara.
Afar Regional State (2011b) Dinkara, the Afar Regional State Environmental Protection, Land
Administration and Use Proclamation, Semera.
African Development Bank (2010) Eastern Africa: Regional Integration Strategy Paper,
2011–2015, East Africa Regional Department, Addis Ababa, September 2011.
African Union (2010) Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africa, Department for Rural
Economy and Agriculture, Africa Union, Addis Ababa.
Ahmed, A.G.M. (1987) ‘National ambivalence and external hegemony: The negligence of
pastoral nomads in the Sudan’, in M.A. Mohamed Salih (ed) Agrarian Change in Central
Rainlands, Sudan: A Socio-Economic Analysis, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, pp129–148.
Ahmed, A.G.M. (2001) ‘Livelihood and resource competition, Sudan’, in M.A. Salih , T. Dietz
and A.G.M. Ahmed (eds) African Pastoralism: Conflict, Institutions and Government, Pluto
Press, in association with OSSREA, London.
Ahmed, A.G.M. (2009) ‘Transforming pastoralism: A case study of the Rufa’a Al-Hoi ethnic
group in the Blue Nile state of Sudan’, Nomadic Peoples, vol 13, no 1, pp113–133.
Ahmed, A. , Azeze, A. , Babiker, M. and Tsegaye, D. (2002) ‘Post-drought recovery strategies
among the pastoral households in the Horn of Africa: A review’, Development Research Report
Series no. 3, OSSREA, Addis Ababa.
Ahmed, S. (1999) ‘Islam and development: Opportunities and constraints for Somali women’,
Gender and Development, vol 7, no 1, pp69–72.
Aklilu, Y. (2002) An Audit of the Livestock Marketing Status in Kenya, Ethiopia and Sudan,
African Union/Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, Nairobi.
Aklilu, Y. (2004) Initial Assessment of the Dairy Marketing Groups in Marsabit, Kenya, Feinstein
International Center, Tufts University, Medford.
Aklilu, Y. and Catley, A. (2009) ‘Livestock exports from pastoralist areas: An analysis of benefits
by pastoral wealth group’, a report for the IGAD/FAO Livestock Policy Initiative, Feinstein
International Centre, Tufts University, Addis Ababa,
accessed 7 December 2011.
Aklilu, Y. and Catley, A. (2010) Mind the Gap: Commercialization, Livelihoods and Wealth
Disparity in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia, Feinstein International Centre, Tufts University, Addis
gap.pdf?version=1&modificationDate=1299863254000, accessed 18 November 2011.
Aklilu, Y. and Catley, A. (2011) Shifting Sands: The Commercialization of Camels in Mid-altitude
Ethiopia and Beyond, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Addis Ababa.
Aklilu, Y. and Wekesa, M. (2002) ‘Drought, livestock and livelihoods: Lessons from the
1999–2001 emergency response in the pastoral sector in Kenya’, HPN Network Paper, ODI,
Al-Najim, M.N. (1991) ‘Changes in the species composition of pastoral herds in the Bay Region
of Somalia,’ Pastoral Development Network Paper 31b, Overseas Development Institute,
ALRMP (Arid Lands Resource Management Project) (2001) Food Security Assessment of
Mandera Pastoralists with Comparison to Riverine Populations, Mandera Assessment Report,
www.feg-consulting.com/resource/reports/manderaKenya2001.pdf, accessed 28 November
Amani Papers (2010) ‘Conflict dynamics in Isiolo, Samburu East, and Marsabit South Districts
of Kenya’, Amani Papers, vol 1 no 3, UNDP Kenya.
Ame, A. (2002) ‘The paradox of sharecropping in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia’, paper
submitted to the 12th International Annual Conference on the Ethiopian Economy.
Amede, T. , Descheemaeker, K. , Mapedza, E. , Peden, D. , van Breugel, P. , Awulachew, S.
and Haileslassie, A. (2011) ‘Livestock-water productivity in the Nile Basin: Solutions for
emerging challenges’ in A. Melesse (ed.) Nile River Basin: Hydrology, Climate and Water Use,
Anderson, D.M. (1999) ‘Rehabilitation, resettlement and restocking: Ideology and practice in
pastoralist development’, in D.M. Anderson and V. Broch-Due The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty
and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, James Currey Publishers, Oxford, Ohio University Press,
Athens, OH, pp240–256.
Anderson, D.M. and Broch-Due, V. (1999) The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in
Eastern Africa, James Currey Publishers, Oxford, Ohio University Press, Athens, OH.
Anderson, D.M. and Johnson, D. (eds) (1988) The Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from
Northeast African History, Lester Crook Academic Publishing, London.
Anderson, J. and O’Dowd, L. (1999) ‘Borders, border region and territoriality: Contradictory
meanings, changing significance’, Regional Studies, vol 33, no 7, pp593–604.
Anderson, P.M.L. and Hoffman, M.T. (2011) ‘Grazing response in the vegetation communities of
the Kamiesberg, South Africa: Adopting a plant functional type approach’, Journal of Arid
Environments, vol 75, no 3, pp255–264.
Angassa, A. and Oba, G. (2007) ‘Relating long term rainfall variability to cattle population
dynamics in communal rangelands and a government ranch in southern Ethiopia’, Agricultural
Systems, vol 94, no 3, pp715–725.
Angassa, A. and Oba, G. (2008) ‘Herder perceptions on impacts of range enclosures, crop
farming, fire ban and bush encroachment on the rangelands of Borana, Southern Ethiopia’,
Human Ecology, vol 36, no 2, pp201–215.
Anon. (2009) ‘Policy brief: Climate-related vulnerability and adaptive-capacity in Ethiopia’s
Borana and Somali communities’, CARE International and Save the Children UK,
www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=1240, accessed 18 November 2011 .
Anon . (2010) Pastoralism Demographics, Settlement and Service Provision in the Horn and
East Africa: Transformation and Opportunity, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas
Development Institute, London, www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3301.pdf, accessed 7
Appadurai, A. (2003) ‘Sovereignty without territoriality: Notes for a post-national geography’, in
S. Low and D. Zuniga (eds) The Anthropology of Space and Place: Locating Culture, Blackwell,
Malden, MA, pp337–349.
Armbrust, W. (2011) ‘The revolution against neoliberalism’, Jaddaliya, 13 March,
www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/717/the-revolution-against-neoliberalism-, accessed 23
Asefa, D.T. , Oba, G. , Weladji, R.B. and Colman, J.E. (2003) ‘An assessment of restoration of
biodiversity in degraded high mountain grazing lands in Northern Ethiopia’, Land Degradation
and Development, vol 14, pp25–38.
Asfaw, A. (2011) ‘Agriculture ministry’s promise of more despite shortcomings: Ministry leases
reclaimed land to investors; secures fertilizer; expand horticulture, fruits, vegetables’, Fortune,
vol 11, no 568, p30.
Asiwaju, A.I. and Nugent, P. (1996) ‘Introduction: The paradox of African boundaries’, in A.I.
Asiwaju and P. Nugent (eds) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities, Pinter,
Asner, G.P. , Elmore, A.J. , Olander, L.P. , Martin, R.E. , Harris, A.T. (2004) ‘Grazing systems,
ecosystem responses, and global change’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol
Awulachew, S.B. , Yilma, A.D. , Loulseged, M. , Loiskandl, W. , Ayana, M. and Alamirew, T.
(2007) Water Resources and Irrigation Development in Ethiopia, International Water
Management Institute, Working Paper 123, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Ayele, Gebre-Mariam (2005) The Critical Issue of Land Ownership: Violent Conflict Between
Abdalla Tolomogge and Awlihan in Godey Zone, Somali Region of Ethiopia, Working Paper 2,
Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) Bern: NCCR North–South.
Babiker, M. (2005) ‘Sudan: Country case study’, paper presented to the UNDP workshop on
‘Equitable Access to Land and Water Resources: Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods in the Arab
States Region’, 28–30 November 2005, Beirut, Lebanon,
http://arabstates.undp.org/contents/file/Sudan.doc, accessed 16 November 2011.
Babiker, M. (2007) ‘Resource conflict in Gedaref State, eastern Sudan: A time-bomb in the
absence of effective land-use planning’, in P. Goldsmith (ed.) Fighting for Inclusion: Conflicts
Among Pastoralists in Eastern Africa and the Horn, Development Policy Management Forum,
Addis Ababa, pp92–114.
Babiker, M. and Abdel-Gadir, M. Al-Amin (1999) ‘Area development scheme, central Butana:
Environmental capacity building’, UNDP, Khartoum.
Barker, P. (1981) ‘Tent schools of the Qashqa’i: A paradox of local initiative and state control’, in
M.E. Bonine , and N. Keddie (eds) Modern Iran, The Dialectics of Continuity and Change, State
University of York Press, Albany.
Barnes, C. and Hassan, H. (2007) The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu’s Islamic Courts, Africa
Programme Briefing Paper no 07/02, Chatham House, London.
Barth, F. (1961) Nomads of South Persia: The Basseri Tribe of the Khamseh Confederacy,
Little, Brown and Company, Boston.
Barth, F. (2000) ‘Boundaries and connections’, in A. Cohen (ed.) Signifying Identities:
Anthropological Perspectives on Boundaries and Contested Values, Routledge, London,
Bassett, T.J. and Turner, M.D. (2007) ‘Sudden shift or migratory drift? FulBe herd movements to
the Sudano-guinea region of West Africa’, Human Ecology, vol 35, no 1, pp33–49.
Bassi, M. (1997) ‘Returnees in Moyale District, Southern Ethiopia: New means for an old
interethnic game’, in R. Hogg (ed.) Pastoralists, Ethnicity and the State in Ethiopia, Haan,
Bassi, M. (2005) Decisions in the Shade: Political and Juridical Processes among the Oromo-
Borana, The Red Sea Press Inc., Trenton.
Bassi, M. and Tache, B. (2011) ‘The community conserved landscape of the Borana Oromo,
Ethiopia: Opportunities and problems’, Management of Environment Quality, vol 22, no 2,
Baud, M. and Van Schendel, W. (1997) ‘Toward a comparative history of borderlands’, Journal
of World History, vol 8, no 2, pp211–242.
Bauer, K. (2009) ‘On the politics and the possibilities of participatory mapping and GIS: Using
spatial technologies to study common property and land use change among pastoralists in
central Tibet’, Cultural Geographies, vol 16, no 2, pp229–252.
Baxter, P. (ed) (1991) When the Grass is Gone: Development Interventions in African Arid
Lands, Scandinavian Institute for African Studies, Uppsala.
Bayart, J.-F. (1993) The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly, Longman, New York.
Bayart, J.-F. , Ellis, R. and Hibou, B. (1999) The Criminalization of the State in Africa, James
Behnke, R.H. (1985a) ‘Measuring the benefits of subsistence versus commercial livestock
production in Africa’, Agricultural Systems, vol 16, no 2, pp109–135.
Behnke, R.H. (1985b) ‘Open range management and property rights in pastoral Africa: A case
study of spontaneous range enclosures in South Darfur, Sudan’, Pastoral Development Network
Paper, 20f, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Behnke, R.H. (1987) ‘Cattle accumulation and the commercialization of the traditional livestock
industry in Botswana’, Agricultural Systems, vol 24, pp1–29.
Behnke, R.H. (1988) ‘Range enclosures in central Somalia’, Pastoral Development Network
Paper 25b, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Behnke, R.H. (2008) ‘The drivers of fragmentation in arid and semi-arid landscapes’, in K.A.
Galvin , R.S. Reid , R.H. Behnke and N.T. Hobbs (eds) Fragmentation in Semi-Arid and Arid
Landscapes: Consequences for Human and Natural Systems, Springer, Dordrecht, The
Behnke, R. and Kerven, C. (2011) ‘Replacing pastoralism with irrigated agriculture in the Awash
Valley, north-eastern Ethiopia: Counting the costs’, paper presented at the International
Conference on the Future of Pastoralism, 21–23 March 2011, organized by the Future
Agricultures Consortium at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex and the
Feinstein International Center of Tufts University.
Behnke, R. and Muthami, D. (2011) The Contribution of Livestock to the Kenyan Economy,
IGAD LPI Working Paper no 03–11, IGAD Livestock Policy Initiative, Intergovernmental
Authority for Development, Djibouti.
Behnke, R.H. and Scoones, I. (1992) Rethinking Range Ecology: Implications for Rangeland
Management in Africa, Environment Working Paper 53, World Bank, Washington DC.
Behnke, R.H. , Scoones, I. and Kerven, C. (eds) (1993) Range Ecology at Disequilibrium: New
Models of Natural Variability and Pastoral Adaptation in African Savannas, Overseas
Development Institute, London.
Behnke, R.H. , Devereux, S. , Teshome, A. , Wekesa, M. and White, R. (2007a) ‘Extending the
productive safety net programme into pastoral areas: Pilot activities’, Programme Proposal,
Food Security Coordination Bureau and the Pastoralist Task Force, Addis Ababa.
Behnke, R. , Mogaka, M. and Barrow, E. (2007b) Kenya’s Drylands — Wastelands or an
Undervalued National Economic Resource, IUCN, Nairobi.
Behnke, R.H. , Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E. , Turner, M.D. and Stammler, F. (2011) ‘Pastoral
migration: Mobile systems of livestock husbandry’, in E.J. Milner-Gulland , J.M. Fryxell , and
A.R.E. Sinclair (eds) Animal Migration: A Synthesis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Bekele, G. and Abera, T. (2008) Livelihoods-based Drought Response in Pastoralist Areas of
Ethiopia, impact assessment of Livestock Feed Supplementation, Feinstein International
Center, Tufts University with Save the Children USA and United States Agency for International
Development, Addis Ababa.
Berhanu, W. and Colman, D. (2007) ‘Farming in the Borana rangelands of southern Ethiopia:
The prospects for viable transition to agro-pastoralism’ Eastern African Social Science Review,
vol XXIII, no 3, pp79–101.
Bernal, V. (1997) ‘Colonial moral economy and the discipline of development: The Gezira
scheme and “modern” Sudan’, Cultural Anthropology, vol 12, no 4, pp447–479.
Berry, S. (1993) No Condition is Permanent: The Social Dynamics of Agrarian Change in Sub-
Saharan Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.
Berry, S. (2009) ‘Property, authority and citizenship: Land claims, politics and the dynamics of
social division in West Africa’, Development and Change, vol 40, no 1, pp23–45.
Beshir, M. , El-Hillo, M. and El-Tayeb, W. (2005) Resource-Based Conflicts and Mechanisms of
Conflict Resolution in North Kordofan, Gedaref and Blue Nile States, Sudanese Environmental
Conservation Society, Khartoum.
Beyene, F. (2010) ‘Interclan cooperation in a risky pastoral ecology: Some lessons from eastern
Ethiopia’, Human Ecology, vol 38, no 4, pp555–565.
Birch, I. , Cavanna, S. , Abkula, D. and Hujale, D. (2010) Towards Education for Nomads:
Community Perspectives in Kenya, International Institute for Environment and Development,
Blench, R. (2001) ‘You Can’t Go Home Again’: Pastoralism in the New Millennium, Overseas
Development Institute, London.
Blowfield, M. (2005) ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: Reinventing the meaning of
development?’ International Affairs, vol 81, no 3, pp515–524.
Blowfield, M. and Frynas, J. (2005) ‘Setting new agendas: Critical perspectives on Corporate
Social Responsibility in the developing world’ International Affairs, vol 81, no 3, pp499–513.
Bogale, A. and Korf, B. (2009) ‘Resource entitlement and mobility of pastoralists in the Yerer
and Daketa valleys, Eastern Ethiopia’, Human Ecology, vol 37, no 4, pp453–462.
Bollig, M. (1992) ‘East Pokot camel husbandry,’ Nomadic Peoples, vol 31, pp34–50.
Borras Jr. S.M. , McMichael, P. and Scoones, I. (2010) ‘The politics of biofuels, land and
agrarian change: Editors’ introduction’, Journal of Peasant Studies, vol 37, no 4, pp575–592.
Borras, J. , Hall, R. , Scoones, I. , White, B. and Wolford, W. (2012) ‘The new enclosures:
Critical perspectives on corporate land deals’, Journal of Peasant Studies (forthcoming, May).
Bradbury, M. (2008) Becoming Somaliland, Progressio, London.
Bradbury, M. and Kleinman, M. (2010) Winning Hearts and Minds? Examining the Relationship
between Aid and Security in Kenya, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Medford,
Breman, H. and de Wit, C. (1983) ‘Rangeland productivity and exploitation in the Sahel’,
Science, vol 221, pp1341–1347.
Broch-Due, V. (1990) ‘Livestock speak louder than sweet words: Changing property and gender
relations among the Turkana’, in P.T.W. Baxter and R. Hogg (eds) Property, Poverty and
People: Changing Rights in Property and Problems of Pastoral Development, Department of
Social Anthropology and the International Development Centre, Manchester.
Brockington, D. (2001) ‘Women’s income and the livelihood strategies of dispossessed
pastoralists near the Mkomazi game reserve, Tanzania’, Human Ecology, vol 29, no 3,
Brocklesby, M.A. , Hobley, M. and Scott-Villiers, P. (2010) Raising Voice — Securing a
Livelihood: The Role of Diverse Voices in Developing Secure Livelihoods in Pastoralist Areas in
Ethiopia, IDS Working Paper, no 340, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Brouwer, C. , Goffeau, A. and Heibloem, M. (1985) Irrigation Water Management: Training
Manual No. 1 — Introduction to Irrigation, FAO, www.fao.org/docrep/R4082E/R4082E00.htm,
accessed 30 October 2011.
Brückner, G.K. (2011) ‘Managing the risks of disease transmission through trade: A
commodities-based approach?’, Scientific and Technical Review of the Office International des
Epizooties, vol 30, no 1, pp289–296.
Bryceson, D. , Kay, C. and Mooij, J. (2000) Disappearing Peasantries? Rural Labour in Africa,
Asia and Latin America, Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
Buchanan-Smith, M. and Lind, J. (2005) ‘Armed violence and poverty in northern Kenya: A case
study for the armed violence and poverty initiative’, Centre for International Cooperation and
Security, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford.
Bujra, A. (2005) ‘Liberal democracy and the emergence of a constitutionally failed state’, in A.
Bujra (ed.) Democratic Transition in Kenya: The Struggle from Liberal to Social Democracy,
African Centre for Economic Growth and the Development Management Policy Forum, Nairobi.
Calkins, S. (2009) ‘Transformed livelihoods in the lower Atbara area: Pastoral Rashâyda
response to crisis’, Nomadic Peoples, vol 13, no 1, pp45–68.
Campbell, D. , Luckert, M. , Doré, D. , Mukamuri, B. and Gambiza, J. (2000) ‘Economic
comparisons of livestock production in communal grazing lands in Zimbabwe’, Ecological
Economics, vol 33, pp413–438.
Carr-Hill, R. and Peart, E. (2005) The Education of Nomadic Peoples in East Africa: Djibouti,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, review of the relevant literature, UNESCO-IIEP,
Paris and Tunis.
Carrier, N. (2011) ‘Reviving Yaaku: Identity and indigeneity in northern Kenya’, African Studies,
vol 70, no 2, pp246–263.
Casciarri, B. and Ahmed, A.G.M. (2009) ‘Pastoralists under pressure in present-day Sudan: An
introduction’, Nomadic Peoples, vol 13, no 1, pp10–22.
Catley, A. and Iyasu, A. (2010) ‘Moving up or moving out? A rapid livelihoods and conflict
analysis in Mieso-Mulu woreda, Shinile Zone, Somali Region, Ethiopia’, Feinstein International
Centre, Tufts University Addis Ababa and Mercy Corps, Addis Ababa,
https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=38963623, accessed 18
Catley, A. and Leyland, T. (2001) ‘Community participation and the delivery of veterinary
services in Africa’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol 49, pp95–113.
Catley, A. and Mohammed, A.A. (1995) ‘Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Sanaag Region,
Somaliland: Notes on local descriptions of livestock diseases and parasites,’ Nomadic Peoples,
vol 36/37, pp3–16.
Catley, A. and Napier, A. (2010) Rapid Review of the Cash-for-Work and Natural Resource
Management Components of the RAIN Project, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University,
Catley, A. , Burns, J. , Abebe, D. and Suji, O. (2008) Participatory Impact Assessment: A Guide
for Practitioners, Feinstein International Center, Medford.
Chabal, P. and Daloz, J.-P. (1999) Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument, James
Chambers, R. and Conway, G.R. (1992) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical
Consequences for the 21st Century, Discussion Paper 296, Institute of Development Studies,
Cheung, W. , Senay, G. and Singh, A. (2008) ‘Trends and spatial distribution of annual and
seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia’, International Journal of Climatology, vol 28, pp1723–1724.
Chirchir, R. and Kidd, S. (2011) ‘Scoping study for a “single registry” MIS for Kenya’s social
protection programmes’, Development Pathways, Nairobi.
Christy, J.R. , Norris, W.B. and McNider, R. (2009) ‘Surface temperature variations in East
Africa and possible causes’, Journal of Climate, vol 22, no 12, pp3342–3356.
Chronic Poverty Research Centre (2008) Understanding Chronic Poverty and Vulnerability
Issues in Karamoja Region: A Desk Study, Manchester University CPRC Report.
Clapham, C. (1996) ‘Boundary and territory in the Horn of Africa’, in P. Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju
(eds) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities, Pinter, London, pp237–250.
Clapham, C. (1999) ‘Boundaries and states in the new African order’, in D. Bach (ed.)
Regionalisation in Africa: Integration and Disintegration, James Currey, Oxford.
Coalition for International Justice (2006) Soil and Oil: Dirty Business in Sudan, Coalition for
International Justice, Washington DC.
Coppock, D.L. (1994) The Borana Plateau of Southern Ethiopia: Synthesis of Pastoral
Research, Development and Change, 1980–91, International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA),
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Coppolillo, P. (2000) ‘The landscape ecology of pastoral herding: Spatial analysis of land use
and livestock production in East Africa’, Human Ecology, vol 28, no 4, pp527–560.
Cossins, N.J. (1983) ‘Where the grass is greener: Bringing the answer closer to home’, Tcheffa
Valley Study Summary Paper, Joint Ethiopian Pastoral Systems Study: Research Report no 1,
International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) Study for Rangelands Development Project,
Cossins, N.J. and Upton, M. (1988) ‘Options for improvement of the Borana Pastoral System’,
Agricultural Systems, vol 27, no 4, pp251–278.
Cotula, L. (2010) Why it Makes More Sense to Invest in Farmers Than in Farmland, IIED
Opinion, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Cotula, L. and Leonard, R. (eds) (2010) Alternatives to Land Acquisitions: Agricultural
Investment and Collaborative Business Models, IIED/SDC/IFAD/CTV,
Cotula, L. and Vermeulen, S. (2009) ‘“Land grabs” in Africa: Can the deals work for
development?’, IIED Policy Briefings, International Institute for Environment and Development,
Cronk, L. (2004) From Mukogodo to Maasai: Ethnicity and Cultural Change in Kenya, Westview
Press, Boulder, CO.
Crosskey, A. and Ahmed Ismail, A.-F. (2009) ‘Cross-border pilot livelihoods profiles. pastoral
areas coordination, analysis and policy support project’, Feinstein International Center, Tufts
University, Addis Ababa.
Dahl, G. and Hjort, A. (1976) Having Herds: Pastoral Herd Growth and Household Economy,
Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, Stockholm University Press, Stockholm.
Davies, J. (2004) ‘The role of livestock in Afar pastoral livelihoods: Capitalisation,
commoditisation and obligation’, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Agricultural and Food Economics,
University of Reading, UK.
Davies, J. and Nori, M. (2008) ‘Managing and mitigating climate change through pastoralism’,
Policy Matters, no 16, pp127–162.
De Haan, C. (1994) An Overview of the World Bank’s Involvement in Pastoral Development,
ODI Pastoral Development Network Paper, no 36b, www.odi.org.uk/pdn/papers/36b.pdf,
accessed 7 December 2011 .
De Haan, C. , Steinfeld, H. and Blackburn, H.W. (1997) Livestock Environment Interactions:
Finding a Balance, report of a study coordinated by FAO, USAID and the World Bank, Food and
Agriculture Organization, Rome.
De Haan, C. , Schillhorn van Veen, T. , Brandenburg, B. , Gauthier, J. , Le Gall, F. , Mearns, R.
and Siméon, M. (2001) Livestock Development: Implications for Rural Poverty, the
Environment, and Global Food Security, World Bank, Washington DC.
De Jode, H. (ed.) (2010) Modern and Mobile: The Future of Livestock Production in Africa’s
Drylands, IIED and SOS Sahel, London.
De Matteis, A. (2006) Market Functioning in Turkana District, Kenya, Oxfam Kenya, Nairobi.
De Waal, A. (1989) Famines that Kill: Darfur 1984–85, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Dean, M. and Hindess, B. (eds) (1998) Governing Australia: Studies in Rationalities of
Government, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.
Delgado, C. , Rosegrant, M. , Steinfeld, H. , Ehui, S. and Courbois, C. (1999) Livestock to 2020:
The Next Food Revolution, Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper, no 28,
IFPRI/FAO/ILRI (International Food Policy Research Institute/Food and Agriculture
Organization/International Livestock Research Institute), Washington DC.
Delmet, C. (2005) ‘The native Administration system in eastern Sudan: From its liquidation to its
revival’, in C. Miller (ed) Land, Ethnicity and Political Legitimacy in Eastern Sudan,
CEDEJ/DSRC, Cairo/Khartoum, pp144–171.
Demberel and Penn, H. (2006) ‘Education and pastoralism in Mongolia’, in C. Dyer (ed.) The
Education of Nomadic Peoples: Issues, Provision and Prospects, Berghahn Books, New York
Deng, L.B. (2002) ‘Confronting Civil War: A Comparative Study of Household Assets
Management in Southern Sudan’, IDS Discussion Paper, no 381, Institute of Development
Deng, L. (2007) ‘Increased rural vulnerability in the era of globalisation: Conflict and famine in
Sudan during the 1990s’, in S. Devereux (ed.) The New Famines, Routledge, London.
Desanker, P. and Magadza, C. (2001) ‘Africa’, in IPCC Climate Change 2001. Working Group II:
Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, UNEP and WMO, New York.
Deshmukh, I. (1984) ‘A common relationship between precipitation and grassland peak biomass
for East and Southern Africa’, African Journal of Ecology, no 22, pp181–186.
Dessalegn, R. (1984) Agrarian Reform in Ethiopia, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Stockholm.
Desta, A. (1996) ‘Large-scale agricultural development and survival issues among pastoralists
in the Awash valley’, paper presented at Conference on Pastoralism in Ethiopia, 4–6 Feb 1993 ,
Ministry of Agriculture, and IIED, Addis Ababa.
Desta, S. (1999) ‘Diversification of livestock assets for risk management in the Borana pastoral
system of southern Ethiopian rangelands’, Utah State University, Logan.
Desta, S. and Coppock, D.L. (2002) ‘Cattle population dynamics in the southern Ethiopian
rangelands, 1980–97’, Journal of Range Management, vol 55, no 5, pp439–451.
Desta, S. and Coppock, D.L. (2004) ‘Pastoralism under pressure: Tracking system change in
southern Ethiopia’, Human Ecology, vol 32, no 4, pp465–486.
Desta, S. , Berhanu, W. , Gebru, G. and Amosha, D. (2008) Pastoral Dropout Study in Selected
Woredas of Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, CARE/USAID, Addis Ababa.
Desta, S. , Gebru, G. , Tezera, S. and Coppock, D.L. (2006) ‘Linking pastoralists and exporters
in a livestock marketing chain: Recent experiences from Ethiopia’, in P. Little and J. McPeak
(eds) Pastoral Livestock Marketing in Eastern Africa: Research and Policy Challenges, ITDG
Publications, Bourton on Dunsmore, pp109–128.
Desta, Z.H. and Oba, G. (2004) ‘Feed scarcity and livestock mortality in Enset-mixed farming
systems in the Bale highlands southern Ethiopia’, Outlook on Agriculture, vol 33, no 4,
Devereux, S. (2006) Vulnerable Livelihoods in Somali Region, Ethiopia, IDS Research Report,
no 57, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Devereux, S. (2010) ‘Better marginalised than incorporated? Pastoralist livelihoods in Somali
Region, Ethiopia’, European Journal of Development Research, vol 22, no 5, pp678–695.
Devereux, S. and Sabates-Wheeler, R. (2004) Transformative Social Protection, IDS Working
Paper 232, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Devereux, S. and Vincent, K. (2010) ‘Using technology to deliver social protection: Exploring
opportunities and risks’, Development in Practice, vol 20, no 3, pp367–379.
DFID (Department for International Development) (2004) Disaster Risk Reduction: A
Development Concern: A Scoping Study on Links between Disaster Risk Reduction, Poverty
and Development, DFID, London.
Diener, A.C. and Hagen, J. (2009) Borderlines and Borderlands: Political Oddities at the Edge
of the Nation-State, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Plymouth.
Dietz, T. (1993) ‘The state, the market and the decline of pastoralism: Challenging some myths,
with evidence from West Pokot in Kenya and Uganda’, in J. Markakis (ed.) Conflict and the
Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa, MacMillan in association with the Institute of Social
Dietz, T. , Nunow, A.A. , Roba, A.W. and Zaal, F. (2001) ‘Pastoral commercialization: On caloric
terms of trade and related issues’, in M. Salih , T. Dietz and A.G. Mohamed , African
Pastoralism, Conflict, Institutions and Government, Pluto Press, London, pp194–234.
Dirie, M.F. and Abdurahman, O. (2003) ‘Observations on little known diseases of camels
(Camelus dromedarius) in the Horn of Africa’, Scientific and Technical Review of the Office
International des Epizooties, vol 22, no 3, pp1043–1049.
Doherty, R.M. , Sitch, S. , Smith, B. , Lewis, S.L. and Thornton, P.K. (2010) ‘Implications of
future climate and atmospheric CO2 content for regional biogeochemistry, biogeography and
ecosystem services across East Africa’, Global Change Biology, no 16, pp617–640.
Donham, D. (1986) ‘Old Abyssinia and the new Ethiopian empire: Themes in social history’, in
D. Donham and W. James (eds) The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia: Essays in History
and Social Anthropology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Donham, D.L. and James, W. (1986) The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia: Essays in
History and Social Anthropology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Doornbos, M. , Cliffe, L. , Ahmed, A.G.M. and Markakis, J. (eds) (1992) Beyond Conflict in the
Horn: Prospects for Peace, Recovery and Development in Ethiopia, Somalia and the Sudan,
James Currey, London.
Doti, T. (2005) ‘Rural ties and urban migration opportunities among Borana labour migrants to
Nairobi, Kenya’, Masters Thesis, Department of International Environment and Development
Studies (Noragric), Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås.
Duflo, E. (2005) Gender Equality and Development, MIT, http://econ-www.mit.edu/files/799,
accessed on 30 November 2011.
Durali, S. (2008) ‘The Middle East invests in Sudanese agriculture’, Americans for Informed
Democracy, 10 July, www.aidemocracy.org/students/the-middle-east-invests-in-sudan/,
accessed 17 _May _2010 .
Dyer, C. (ed) (2006) The Education of Nomadic Peoples: Current Issues, Future Prospects,
Berghahn Books, Oxford.
East Sudan Conference (2009) Gedaref State Profile. Source: http://www.kuwait-
&lang=English, accessed on 9 March 2011 .
Ebei, P.A. , Oba, G. and Akuja, T. (2008) ‘Long-term impacts of droughts on pastoral production
and trends in poverty in north-western Kenya: An evaluation of 14-year drought early warning
data series’, in J. M. Sánchez (ed.) Droughts: Causes, Effects and Predictions, NOVA Science
Publishers, Inc., New York.
Economist Intelligence Unit (2006) ‘Somali country report, November 2006’, The Economist
Intelligence Unit, London.
Edward, P. and Tallontire, A. (2009) ‘Business and development — towards re-politicisation?’,
Journal of International Development, vol 21, pp819–833.
Ekuam, D. (2009) Livestock Identification, Traceability and Tracking: Its Role in Enhancing
Human Security, Disease Control and Livestock Marketing in IGAD Region, CEWARN and the
Institute for Security Studies, Nairobi.
El Shakry, O. (2011) ‘Egypt’s three revolutions: The force of history behind this popular
uprising’, Jadilliya, February 6, www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/569/egypts-three-
revolutions_the-force-of-history-behi, accessed 23 November 2011 .
El-Faki, A.-R. (2005) The Problem of Land Use: The Issue and the Vision, Ministry of
Agriculture, Animal Resources and Irrigation in collaboration with Dinder National Park Project,
HCENR, Gedaref [in Arabic].
Elhadary, Y.A.E. (2010) ‘Challenges facing land tenure system in relation to pastoral livelihood
security in Gedaref State, Eastern Sudan’, Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, vol 3,
no 9, pp208–218.
El-Hassan, A.M. (1981) ‘The environmental consequences of open grazing in the central
Butana, Sudan’, Monograph No.1. Institute of Environmental Studies, Khartoum.
Ellis, J. and Galvin, K. (1994) ‘Climate patterns and land-use practices in the dry zones of
Africa’, BioScience, vol 44, no 5, pp340–349.
Ellis, J.E. and Swift, D.M. (1988) ‘Stability of African pastoral ecosystems: Alternate paradigms
and implications for development’, Journal of Range Management, vol 41, pp450–459.
El-Tayeb, Galal El-Din (ed.) (1985) Gedaref District Study Final Report, Institute of
Environmental Study, Khartoum.
El-Tayeb, Galal El-Din and Lewandowski, A. (1983) ‘Environmental degradation in Gedaref
District’, Sudan Environment, vol 3, no 1, pp3–6.
Ensminger, J. (1992) Making a Market: The Institutional Transformation of an African Society,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Ensminger, J. and Rutten, A. (1991) ‘The political economy of changing property rights:
Dismantling a pastoral commons’, American Ethnologist, vol 18, no 4, pp683–688.
Ericksen, P. , Thornton, P. , Notenbaert, A. , Cramer, L. and Herrero, M. (2011) ‘Mapping
hotspots of vulnerability to climate change’, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and
Challenge Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).
Eriksen, S. and Lind, J. (2009) ‘Adaptation as a political process: Adjusting to drought and
conflict in Kenya’s drylands’, Environmental Management, vol 43, no 5, pp817–835.
European Civil Society (2009) Foreign Land Grabbing in Africa, Monitoring report, FIAN
ATT75756EN.pdf, accessed on 1 March 2012 .
Evans-Pritchard, E.E. (1940) The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political
Institutions of a Nilotic People, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Evans-Pritchard, E.E. (1949) The Sanusi of Cyrenaica, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Fabusoro, E. (2009) ‘Use of collective action for land accessibility among settled Fulani
agropastoralists in southwest Nigeria’, Sustainable Science, vol 4, no 2, pp199–213.
Facius, J.L. (2008) ‘Water scarcity in Tanzania — conflict or cooperation? An analysis of the
relationship between institutions and local water conflict and cooperation’, Masters thesis at
International Development Studies, Roskilde University,
http://rudar.ruc.dk/bitstream/1800/3293/1/Thesis%20final.pdf, accessed 10 August 2011 .
FAO (1997) Irrigation in the Near East Region in Figures, FAO, Rome.
FAO Aquastat (Eritrea) (2005) Eritrea country database,
www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/eritrea/index.stm, accessed on 1 December 2011 .
FAO Aquastat (Somalia) (2005) Somalia country database,
www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/somalia/index.stm, accessed on 1 December 2011 .
FAO Aquastat (Kenya) (2006) Kenya country database,
www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/kenya/index.stm, accessed on 1 December 2011 .
Farah, K.O. , Nyariki, D.M. , Noor, A.A. , Ngugi, R.K. and Musimba, N.K. (2001) ‘The socio-
economic and ecological impacts of small-scale irrigation schemes on pastoralists and drylands
in Northern Kenya’, Journal of Social Sciences, vol 7, no 4, pp267–274.
FDRE (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia) (2003) Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
(PRSP), Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Addis Ababa.
FDRE (2005a) Federal Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation No. 456/2005, Ministry
of Finance and Economic Development, Addis Ababa.
FDRE (2005b) Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty, Ministry of
Finance and Economic Development, Addis Ababa.
FDRE (2010) Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) 2011–2015: Strategic Plans of the
Federal Government, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Addis Ababa.
Ferguson, J. (2006) Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order, Duke University
Press, Durham and London.
Feyissa, D. and Hoehne, M. (2008) ‘Resourcing state borders and borderlands in the Horn of
Africa’, Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology Working Papers, no 107.
Feyissa, D. and Hoehne, M.V. (2010) Borders and Borderlands as Resources in the Horn of
Africa, James Currey, Rochester, NY.
Fleisher, M.L. (2000) Kuria Cattle Raiders: Violence and Vigilantism on the Tanzania/Kenya
Frontier, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Flintan, F. (2007) ‘Sharing of past experiences’, in A. Ridgewell and F. Flintan (eds) Gender and
Pastoralism: Volume II: Income Generation Development, Savings and Credit in Ethiopia, SOS
Sahel, Addis Ababa.
Flintan, F. (2008) Women’s Empowerment in Pastoral Societies, September, IUCN/WISP,
Flintan, F. (2010) ‘Sitting at the table: How can pastoral women most benefit from land tenure
reforms in Ethiopia?’, Journal of East Africa Studies, vol 4, no 1, pp153–178.
Flintan, F. (2011) ‘Broken Lands: Broken Lives?’ Causes, processes and impacts of land
fragmentation in the rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, Report for the Regional
Learning and Advocacy Project (REGLAP), Oxfam GB.
Fratkin, E. (1991) Surviving Drought and Development: Ariaal Pastoralists of Northem Kenya,
Westview Press, Boulder.
Fratkin, E. (1992) ‘Drought and development in Marsabit District’, Disasters, vol 16, no 2,
Fratkin, E. (1998) Ariaal Pastoralists of Kenya: Surviving Drought and Development in Africa’s
Arid Lands, Allyn and Bacon, Boston.
Fratkin, E. (2004) Ariaal Pastoralists of Northern Kenya, second edition, Allyn and Bacon,
Needham Heights, MA.
Fratkin, E. and Roth, E.A. (1990) ‘Drought and economic differentiation among Ariaal
pastoralists of Kenya’, Human Ecology, vol 18, no 4, pp385–402.
Fratkin, E. and Roth, E.A. (eds) (2005) As Pastoralists Settle: Social, Health, and Economic
Consequences of Pastoral Sedentarization in Marsabit District, Kenya, Springer Publishing Co.,
Fratkin, E. and Smith, K. (1995) ‘Women’s changing economic roles with pastoral
sedentarization: Varying strategies in alternative Rendille communities’, Human Ecology, vol 23,
no 4, pp433–454.
Fratkin, E. , Roth, E.A. and Nathan, M.A. (2004) ‘Pastoral sedentarization and its effects on
children’s diet, health, and growth among Rendille of northern Kenya’, Human Ecology, vol 32,
no 5, pp531–559.
Friis, C. and Reenberg, A. (2010) Land Grab in Africa: Emerging Land System Drivers in a
Teleconnected World, GLP Report, no 1, GLP-IPO, Copenhagen.
Frynas, J. (2006) ‘Corporate Social Responsibility in emerging economies: Introduction’, Journal
of Corporate Citizenship, vol 24, pp16–19.
Fujita, M. , Roth, E.A. , Nathan, M.A. , and Fratkin, E. (2004) ‘Sedentism, seasonality and
economic status: A multivariate analysis of maternal dietary and health statuses between
pastoral and agricultural Ariaal and Rendille communities in northern Kenya’, American Journal
of Physical Anthropology, vol 123, no 3, pp277–291.
Fukui, K. and Markakis, J. (1994) Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of Africa, James Currey,
Funk, C. , Dettinger, M.D. , Michaelsen, J.C. , Verdin, J.P. , Brown, M.E. , Barlow M. and Hoell,
A. (2008) ‘Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security
but could be mitigated by agricultural development’, Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of America, vol 105, no 32, pp11081–11086.
Galaty, J. (1992) ‘“This land is yours”: Social and economic factors in the privatization,
subdivision and sale of Maasai ranches’, Nomadic Peoples, no 30, pp26–40.
Galaty, J. (1993) ‘Maasai expansion and the new East African pastoralism’, in T. Spear and R.
Waller (eds) Being Maasai: Ethnicity and Identity in East Africa, James Currey, London,
Galaty, J. (2002) ‘How visual figures speak: Narrative inventions of “The Pastoralist”’ in R.
Gordon and C. Kratz (eds) Special Issue, East Africa, Persistent Popular Images of Pastoralists,
Visual Anthropology, vol 15, no 3–4, pp299–319.
Galaty, J. (in press) ‘Modern mobility: Transformations in pastoralist tenure and territoriality in
East Africa’, in G. Schlee and A. Khazanov (eds) Conditions of Pastoralist Mobility, Berghahn
Galaty, J. , D. Aronson , P. Salzman and A. Chouinard (eds) (1981) The Future of Pastoral
Peoples, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
Galaty, J. and Johnson, D. (1990) The World of Pastoralism, Guildford Press, New York.
Galvin, K. , Coppock, D.L. , and Leslie, P.W. (1994) ‘Diet, nutrition, and the pastoral strategy’, in
E. Fratkin , K. Galvin , and E.A. Roth (eds) African Pastoralist Systems, Lynne Rienner
Galvin, K. , Reid, R. , Behnke, R. , and Thompson Hobbs, N. (eds) (2008) Fragmentation in
Semi-Arid and Arid Landscapes: Consequences for Human and Natural Systems, Springer,
Gamaledin, M. (1993) ‘The decline of Afar pastoralism’, in J. Markakis (ed.) Conflict and the
Decline of Pastoralism in the Horn of Africa, Institute of Social Studies, Macmillan Press, UK,
Gebre, A. and Kassa, G. (2009) ‘The effects of development projects on the mid-Awash Valley’,
in A. Pankhurst and F. Pignet (eds) Moving People in Ethiopia: Development, Displacement and
the State, James Currey, London, pp66–80.
Gebre-Egziabher, Tegegne and Mulat Demeke (2004) Small Businesses in Small Towns of the
Eastern Amhara Region: Nature and Economic Performance. Madison, WI: BASIS CRSP.
Gedi, A.A. (2005) ‘Herder-farmer conflicts in the Dawa-Ganale River Basin area: The case of
intra-clan conflict among the Degodia Somali of Dollo Ado District in the Somali Regional State
of Ethiopia: Governance and Conflict Transformation’, Working Paper 1, NCCR North–South,
Gedi, A. , Salah, O. , Ndambo, C. , Mohamed, A.M. , Ali, A.M. , Kabaka, W. and Farah, A.M.
(2008) ‘Garissa livestock market: A treasure for meeting the Millenium Development Goals in a
pastoral based millenium municipality’, presentation to the Regional Pastoralism and Livestock
Policy Training, Nomads Palace Hotel, Garissa, Kenya 22–26 September 2008, Common
Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Lusaka.
Geshekter, C.L. (1993) ‘Somali maritime history and regional sub-cultures: A neglected theme
of the Somali crisis’, paper presented at the First Conference of the European Association of
Somali Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Getachew, A. (2004) ‘Determinants of wage labor participation among the Afar pastoralists: the
case of Amibara district’, M.A. thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Getachew, K.N. (2001) Among the Pastoral Afar in Ethiopia: Tradition, Continuity and Socio-
Economic Change, International Books in association with OSSREA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Getahun, T. and Belay, K. (2002) ‘Camel husbandry practices in eastern Ethiopia: The case of
Jijiga and Shinile Zones,’ Nomadic Peoples, vol 6, no 1, pp158–179.
Ghebremariam, B.H. (2006) Community Spate Irrigation in Bada (Eritrea),
www.spateirrigation.org/pdf/badacasestudyspateirrigation.pdf, accessed 22 February 2011 .
Ghebremariam, B.H. and van Steenbergen, F. (2007) ‘Agricultural water management in
ephemeral rivers: Community management in spate irrigation in Eritrea’, Africa Water Journal,
vol 1, no 1, pp51–68.
Giannini, A. , Biasutti, M. , Held, I. and Sobel, A. (2008) ‘A global perspective on African
climate’, Climatic Change, vol 90, no 4, pp359–383.
Girma, M.M. and Awulachew, S.B. (2007) Irrigation Practices in Ethiopia: Characteristics of
Selected Irrigation Schemes, Working Paper 124, International Water Management Institute,
Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Goldsmith, P. (2008) ‘Bigger brains or larger herds? Beyond the narrow focus on livestock
markets in the North’, Policy: The Journal of the Institute of Economic Affairs, November:
Goldsmith, P. (2010) ‘Kenyan real estate and the “mystery” of Somali capital’, The East African,
Goldsmith, P. (2011) The Mombasa Republican Council: A Conflict Assessment, Pact Kenya,
Goldsmith, P. with Ahmed, H. and Babiker, M. (2009) Fighting for Inclusion: Conflicts among
Pastoralists in Eastern Africa and the Horn, Development Management Policy Forum, Nairobi.
Gomes, N. (2006) Access to Water, Pastoral Resource Management and Pastoralists’
Livelihoods: Lessons Learned from Water Development in Selected Areas of Eastern Africa
(Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia), FAO, Rome.
Graham, A. , Aubry, S. , Kunnemann, R. and Suárez, S.M. (2009) The Impact of Europe’s
Policies and Practices on African Agriculture and Food Security, Land Grab study, FIAN, CSO
Monitoring 2009–2010, ‘Advancing African Agriculture’.
Gray, S.J. (2000) ‘A memory of loss: Ecological politics, local history, and the evolution of
Karimojong violence’, Human Organization, vol 59, no 4, pp401–418.
Gray, S. , Sundal, M. , Wiebusc, B. , Little, M.A. , Leslie, P.W. , and Pike, I.L. (2003) ‘Cattle
raiding, cultural survival, and adaptability of East African pastoralists’, Current Anthropology, vol
Greenhalgh, P. and Orchard, J. (2005) Establishing Quality Control and Certification Systems of
Agricultural Export Products in Ethiopia, Volume 2: Commodity Profiles, NRI Consultancy report
for JICA, Chatham.
Grono, N. (2011) ‘What are some of the challenges for conflict prevention and resolution over
the next two decades?’, oral presentation, conference on ‘Global Conflict — Future Trends and
Challenges towards 2030’, Wilton Park, UK.
GSM Association (2008) ‘The GSMA Development Fund Top 20: Research on the Economic
and Social Impact of Mobile Communications in Developing Countries’, London.
Gundel, J. (2006) The Predicament of the Oday: The Role of Traditional Structures in Security,
Rights, Law and Development in Somalia, Danish Refugee Council/Oxfam Novib, Nairobi.
Hagmann, T. and Mulugeta, A. (2008) ‘Pastoral conflicts and state-building in the Ethiopian
lowlands’, Afrika Spectrum, vol 43, no 1, pp19–37.
Hagmann, T. and Peclard, D. (eds) (2011) Negotiating Statehood: Dynamics of Power and
Domination in Africa, Wiley Blackwell, London.
Hagos, F. , Makombe, G. , Namara, R.E. and Awulachew, S.B. (2009) ‘Importance of irrigated
agriculture to the Ethiopian economy: Capturing the direct net benefits of irrigation’, Research
Report, no 128, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Hamann, R. (2007) ‘Is corporate citizenship making a difference?’ Journal of Corporate
Citizenship, vol 28, pp15–29.
Hampshire, K. (2006) ‘Flexibility in domestic organization and seasonal migration among the
Fulani of northern Burkina Faso’, Africa, vol 76, no 3, pp402–426.
Harbeson, J.W. (1978) ‘Territorial and development politics in the Horn of Africa: The Afar of the
Awash valley’, African Affairs, vol 77, no 309, pp479–498.
Harvey, P. and Lind, J. (2005) Dependency and Humanitarian Relief: A Critical Analysis, HPG
Report 19, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Hary, I. , Schwartz, H.J. , Pielert, V.H.C. and Mosler, C. (1996) ‘Land degradation in African
pastoral systems and the destocking controversy’, Ecological Modelling, vol 86, no 2–3,
Healy, S. , Cramer, C. , Styan, D. and Leonard, D. (2009) The Economics of Conflict and
Integration in the Horn of Africa, summary record of a half-day workshop, Chatham House,
Heath, B. (2001) ‘The feasibility of establishing cow calf camps on private ranches as a drought
mitigation measure’, report for the Natural Resources Institute, StockWatch, Nairobi.
Heffernan, C. and Rushton, J. (1999) Restocking: A Critical Evaluation,
accessed 4 December 2011 .
Hein, L. (2006) ‘The impact of grazing and rainfall variability on the dynamics of a Sahelian
rangeland’, Journal of Arid Environments, vol 64, no 3, pp488–504.
Helland, J. (1982) ‘Social organization and water control among the Borana’, Development and
Change, vol 13, pp329–258.
HelpAge International (2011) Strengthening State-citizen Relations in Fragile Contexts: The
Role of Cash Transfers, Help Age International, London.
Hendershot, C. (1965) Report on the Tribal Schools of Fars Province: White Tents in the
Mountains, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC.
Hendrickson, D. , Armon, J. and Mearns, R. (1998) ‘The changing nature of conflict and famine
vulnerability: The case of livestock raising in Turkana, Kenya’, Disasters, vol 22, no 3,
Henry, S. , Piché, V. , Ouedraago, D. and Lambin, E.F. (2004) ‘Descriptive analysis of the
individual migratory pathways according to environmental typologies’, Population and
Environment, vol 25, no 5, pp397–422.
Herbst, J. (2000) States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control,
Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Herren, U. (1990a) The Commercial Sale of Milk from Pastoral Herds in the Mogadishu
Hinterland of Somalia, Pastoral Development Network Paper, no 30a, Overseas Development
Herren, U. (1990b) ‘Socio-economic stratification and small-stock production in Mukogodo
Division, Kenya’, Research in Economic Anthropology, vol 12, pp114–148.
Herren, U. (1991) ‘“Droughts have different tails”: Response to crises in Mukogodo Division,
north central Kenya, 1950s–1980s’, Disasters, vol 15, no 2, pp93–107.
Herren, U.J. (1993) ‘Cash from camel milk: The impact of commercial camel milk sales on
Garre and Galljacel camel pastoralism in southern Somalia’, in A. Hjort af Ornäs (ed) The Multi-
Purpose Camel: Interdisciplinary Studies on Pastoral Production in Somalia, Department of
Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Uppsala, pp57–74.
Herrero, M. , Ringler, C. , van de Steeg, J. , Thornton, P. , Zuo, T. , Bryan, E. , Omolo, A. , Koo,
J. , and Notenbaert, A. (2010) ‘Kenya: Climate variability and climate change and their impacts
on the agricultural sector’, Report submitted to the World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Herskovits, M. (1926) ‘The cattle complex in east Africa’, American Anthropologist, vol 28, no 1,
Hesse, C. and MacGregor, J. (2006) Pastoralism: Drylands’ Invisible Asset, Issue Paper, no
142, Drylands Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Hill, A. G. (1985) Population, Health, and Nutrition in the Sahel: Issues in the Welfare of
Selected West African Communities, KPI, London.
Hodgson, D. (2000) Rethinking Pastoralism in Africa: Gender, Culture and the Myth of the
Patriarchal Pastoralist, James Curry Publishers, Oxford, Kampala, Nairobi, Athens, OH.
Hodgson, D. (2001) Once Intrepid Warriors: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Cultural Politics of
Maasai Development, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Hodgson, D. (2011) Being Maasai, Becoming Indigenous: Postcolonial Politics in a Neoliberal
World, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Hogg, R. (1983) ‘Irrigation, agriculture and pastoral development: A lesson from Kenya’,
Development and Change, vol 14, pp577–591.
Hogg, R. (1985) Re-Stocking Pastoralists in Kenya: A Strategy for Relief and Rehabilitation,
Pastoral Development Network Paper 19c, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Hogg, R. (1986) ‘The new pastoralism: Poverty and dependency in Northern Kenya’, Africa, vol
56, no 3 pp319–333.
Hogg, R. (1987) ‘Settlement, pastoralism and the commons: The ideology and practice of
irrigation development in Northern Kenya’, in D. Anderson and R. Grove (eds) Conservation in
Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hogg, R. (1988) ‘Changing perceptions of pastoral development: A case study from Turkana
District, Kenya’, in D.W. Brokensha and P.D. Little (eds) Anthropology of Development and
Change in East Africa, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp183–199.
Hogg, R. (1992) ‘Should pastoralism continue as a way of life?’, Disasters, vol 16, no 2,
Homan, S. , Rischkowsky, B. , Steinback, J. , Kirk, M. and Mathias, E. (2008) ‘Towards
endogenous livestock development: Borana pastoralists’ responses to environmental and
institutional changes’, Human Ecology, vol 36, no 4, pp503–520.
Homewood, K. (2008) Ecology of African Pastoralist Societies, James Currey, Oxford.
Homewood, K. and Rodgers, W. (1991) Maasailand Ecology, Cambridge University Press,
Homewood, K. , Kristjanson, P. and Trench, P. (eds) (2009) Staying Maasai? Livelihoods,
Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands, Springer, New York.
Horst, C.M.A. (2004) ‘Money and mobility: Transnational livelihood strategies of the Somali
diaspora’, Global Migration Perspectives, no 9, Global Commission on International Migration
Howell, J. and Lind, J. (2009) Counter-Terrorism, Aid and Civil Society: Before and After the
War on Terror, Palgrave MacMillan, London.
Hoyle, S. (1977) ‘The Khashm el Girba Agricultural Scheme: An example of an attempt to settle
nomads’, in P. O’Keefe and P. Wisner (eds) Land Use and Development, International African
Institute, London, pp116–131.
HPG (2009a) Demographic Trends, Settlement Patterns and Service Provision in Pastoralism:
Transformation and Opportunity, HPG Synthesis Paper: Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas
Development Institute, London.
HPG (2009b) Getting it Right: Understanding Livelihoods to Reduce the Vulnerability of Pastoral
Communities, HPG Synthesis Paper, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development
HPG (2009c) Pastoralism and Climate Change: Enabling Adaptive Capacity, , HPG Synthesis
Paper Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Hughes, L. (2006) Moving the Maasai: A Colonial Misadventure, Palgrave MacMillan,
Huho, J.M. , Ngaira, J.K.W. and Ogindo, H.O. (2011) ‘Living with drought: The case of the
Maasai pastoralists of northern Kenya’, Educational Research, vol 2, no 1, pp779–789.
Hulme, M. , Doherty, R. , Ngara, T. , New, M. and Lister, D. (2001) ‘African climate change:
1900–2100’, Climate Research, vol 17, no 2, pp145–168.
Hundie, B. and Padmanabhan, M. (2008) ‘The transformation of the commons: Coercive and
non-coercive ways’, in E. Mwangi , H. Markelova and R. Meinzen-Dick (eds) Collective and
Property Rights for Poverty Reduction: Lessons from a Global Research Project, IFPRI,
Hunt, J.A. (1951) A General Survey of the Somaliland Protectorate 1944–1950, Crown Agents,
ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) (2005) Regional Livestock Study in the
Greater Horn of Africa, ICRC.
IK News (2006) ‘Sleeping sickness in Uganda: Fighting the epidemic’, IK News, no 17
www.ikinvest.com/upload/IKNEWS.pdf, accessed 10 December 2011.
Illius, A.W. and O’Connor, T.G. (1999) ‘On the relevance of non-equilibrium concepts to arid
and semi-arid grazing systems’, Ecological Applications, vol 9, no 3, pp798–813.
ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) (2010) ‘An assessment of the response to the
2008–2009 drought in Kenya’, a report to the European Union delegation to the Republic of
Kenya, International Livestock Research InstituteInternational Livestock Research Institute,
ILRI (2011a) ‘Massive livestock deaths in drought-ravaged Horn of Africa increase conflicts and
close schools’, http://ilriclippings.wordpress.com/2011/07/05/massive-livestock-deaths-in-
drought-ravaged-horn-of-africa-increase-conflicts-and-close-schools/, accessed on 4 December
ILRI (2011b) ‘Pastoralists in Drought-Stricken Northern Kenya Receive Insurance Payouts for
Massive Livestock Losses’, www.ilri.org/ilrinews/index.php/archives/7310, accessed on 21
Imperial Ethiopian Government (1955) Revised Constitution of Ethiopia, Imperial Ethiopian
Government, Addis Ababa.
Imperial Ethiopian Government (1960) Civil Code of Ethiopia, Imperial Ethiopian Government,
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2011) ‘Missing the point in the Horn:
Pastoralism is the answer, not the question’, 30 August,
www.iucn.org/fr/propos/union/secretariat/bureaux/paco/?uNewsID=8085, accessed 2 December
Jackson, E. (2011) The Role of Education in Livelihoods in the Somali Region of Ethiopia,
Feinstein International Center, Addis Ababa
+Somali+Region+of+Ethiopia, accessed 27 November 2011 .
Jahnke, H. (1982) Livestock Production Systems and Livestock Development in Tropical Africa,
Kieler Wissenschaftsverlag, Kiel.
James, W. (2007) War and Survival in Sudan’s Frontierlands: Voices from the Blue Nile, Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
James, W. , Donham, D.L. , Kurimoto, E. and Triulzi, A. (2002) Remapping Ethiopia: Socialism
and After, James Currey, Oxford.
Jenkins, R. (2005) ‘Globalization, Corporate Social Responsibility and poverty’, International
Affairs, vol 81, no 3, pp525–540.
Joekes, S. and Pointing, J. (1991) Women in Pastoral Societies in East and West Africa,
Dryland Issues Paper no 28, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Johnson, C. , Jones R. , Paasi, A. , Amoore, L. , Mountz, A. , Salter, M. and Rumford, C. (2011)
‘Rethinking “the border” in border studies’, Political Geography, vol 30, pp61–69.
Johnson, D. (1993) ‘Nomadism and desertification in Africa and the Middle East’, GeoJournal,
vol 31, pp 51–66.
Johnson, D. (2003) Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars, James Currey, New York.
Johnson, D. and Anderson, D. (eds) (1988) The Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from
Northeast African History, Lester Crook Academic Publishing, London.
Jok, J.M. and Hutchinson, S. (1999) ‘Sudan’s prolonged second civil war and the militarization
of Nuer and Dinka ethnic identities’, African Studies Review, vol 42, no 2, pp124–145.
Jones, P. and Thornton, P. (2009) ‘Croppers to livestock keepers: Livelihood transitions to 2050
in Africa due to climate change’, Environmental Science and Policy, vol 12, no 4, pp427–437.
Jones, P. , Thornton, P. and Heinke, J. (2009) ‘Generating characteristic daily weather data
using downscaled climate model data from the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment’, unpublished report,
d_Climate_Model_Data_Jones_Thornton_Heinke_2009.pdf, accessed 16 November 2011.
Kamara, A.B. , Swallow, B. and Kirk, M. (2004) ‘Policies, interventions and institutional change
in pastoral resource management in Borana, Southern Ethiopia’, Development Policy Review,
vol 22, no 4, pp381–403.
Kaplan, R. (2009) ‘Pakistan’s fatal shore’, The Atlantic Monthly, May 2009.
Karwitha, C. (2009) ‘A drought assessment in Il Ngwesi Group Ranch’, Northern Rangelands
Kassahun, A. , Snyman, H.A. and Smit, G.N. (2008) ‘Impact of rangeland degradation on the
pastoral production systems, livelihoods and perceptions of the Somali pastoralists in Eastern
Ethiopia’, Journal of Arid Environments, vol 72, pp1265–1281.
Keenan, J. (2007) ‘The banana theory of terrorism: Alternative truths and the collapse of the
“second” (Saharan) front on the war on terror’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, vol 25,
Kenya Institute of Education (2002) Primary Education Syllabus, 2 volumes, Ministry of
Kenya, Republic of (1991) In the Resident Magistrate’s Court at Narok, Civil Case No. 15 of
1991, Nguruman Ltd. Versus Shompole Group Ranch. Ruling by G.N. Omdongi , Resident
Magistrate, 29 November 1991.
Kenya, Republic of (2006) Odupoi Ole Kawuet, First Petitioner, and five others (Suing on their
own behalf and on behalf of all members of the Shompole and Ol Kiramatian Land Group
Ranches) Versus the Attorney-General and 14 other Respondents (including Hermus Philipus
Steyn), Petition No. 625, in the High Court at Nairobi.
Kenya, Republic of (2007) Republic Versus The Resident Magistrate Narok and Shompole
Group Ranch, with Nguruman Ltd. In the High Court of Kenya at Nairobi, Misc. Civil Application
No. 930 of 1991.
Kenya, Republic of (2009) Civil Application, no 930 of 1991, Judgment 2 December.
Kerven, C. (1992) Customary Commerce: A Historical Reassessment of Pastoral Livestock
Marketing in Africa, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Khalif, Z.K. (2010) ‘Pastoral transformation: Shifta-war, livelihood, and gender perspectives
among the Waso Borana in Northern Kenya’, Ph.D. thesis of Norwegian University of Life
Khan, A.R. (2004) ‘Agriculture, development and poverty reduction in Sudan: An analysis of
performance, policy and possibilities’, a paper prepared for the UNDP project on
‘Macroeconomic policies for poverty reduction in Sudan’, United Nations Development
Kipuri, N. and Ridgewell, A. (2008) A Double Bind: The Exclusion of Pastoralist Women in the
East and Horn of Africa, Minority Rights Group International, London.
Kitalyi, A. , Mtenga, L. , Morton, J. , McLeod, A. Thornton, P. , Dorward, A. and Saadullah, M.
(2005) ‘Why keep livestock if you are poor?’ in E. Owen , A. Kitalyi , N. Jayasuriya and T. Smith
(eds) Livestock and Wealth Creation: Improving the Husbandry of Animals Kept by Resource-
Poor People in Developing Countries, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp13–27.
Klepp, K.-I. , Biswalo, P.M. and Talle, A. (1995) Young People at Risk: Fighting Aids in Northern
Tanzania, Scandinavian University Press, Oslo.
Kloos, H. (1982) ‘Development, drought, and famine in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia’, African
Studies Review, vol 25, no 4, pp21–48.
Kloos, H. , DeSole, G. and Aklilu, L. (1981) ‘Intestinal parasitism in semi nomadic pastoralists
and subsistence farmers in and around irrigation schemes in the Awash Valley, Ethiopia, with
special emphasis on ecological and cultural associations’, Social Science & Medicine. Part B:
Medical Anthropology, vol 15, no 4, pp457–469.
Kloos, H. and Legesse, W. (eds) (2010) Water Resources Management in Ethiopia: Implications
for the Nile Basin, Cambria Press, Amherst, New York.
Kraaij, T. and Milton, S.J. (2006) ‘Vegetation changes (1995–2004) in semi-arid karoo
shrubland, South Africa: Effects of rainfall, wild herbivores and change in land use’, Journal of
Arid Environments, vol 64, no 1, pp174–192.
Krätli, S. (2001) Education Provision to Nomadic Pastoralists, IDS Working Paper 126, Institute
of Development Studies, Brighton.
Krätli, S. (2009) ABEK (Alternative Basic Education for Karamoja) Strategic Review. Final report
to Save the Children in Uganda (October 2009), Save the Children in Uganda, Kampala.
Krätli, S. with Dyer, C. (2006) ‘Education and development for nomads: The issues and the
evidence’ in C. Dyer (ed) The Education of Nomadic Peoples. Current Issues, Future Prospects,
Berghahn Books, New York and Oxford.
Krätli, S. and Dyer, C. (2009) Mobile Pastoralists and Education: Strategic Options, Education
for Nomads, Working Paper 1, International Institute for Environment and Development,
Krätli, S. and Schareika, N. (2010) ‘Living off uncertainty: The intelligent animal production of
dryland pastoralists’, European Journal of Development Research, vol 22, pp605–622.
Krätli, S. and Swift, J. (1999) Understanding and Managing Pastoral Conflict in Kenya: A
Literature Review, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Kurimoto, E. and Simonse, S. (eds) (1998) Conflict, Age and Power in North East Africa, James
LaFranchi, H. (2011) ‘US to aid groups: Feed the starving, even if Al Qaeda gets collateral
benefits’, Christian Science Monitor, 2 August, www.csmonitor.com/USA/Foreign-
wS2, accessed 7 December 2011 .
Lamprey, H. (1975) ‘Report on the desert encroachment reconnaissance in Northern Sudan 21
October to 10 November’, UNESCO/UNEP, Desertification Bulletin, no 17, pp1–7.
Lamprey, H. (1983) ‘Pastoralism yesterday and today: The overgrazing problem’, in F. Bourlière
(ed) Tropical Savannas. Ecosystems of the World, vol 13, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.,
Large, D. (2008) ‘Beyond “dragon in the bush”: The study of China-Africa relations’, African
Affairs, vol 107, no 426, pp45–61.
Lavers, T. (2012) ‘“Land grab” as development strategy? The political economy of agricultural
investment in Ethiopia’, Journal of Peasant Studies, vol 39, pp105–132.
Le Houérou, H. (1989) ‘The grazing land ecosystems of the African Sahel’, Ecological Studies,
vol 75, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Legesse, A. (1973) Gada: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society, Free Press, New
LEGS (2009) Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards, LEGS and Practical Action
Publishing, Rugby, www.livestock-emergency.net, accessed 7 December 2011.
Lengoiboni, M. , Van der Malen, P. and Bregt, A.K. (2011) ‘Pastoralism within cadastral system:
Seasonal instructions and access agreements between pastoralists and non-pastoralists’,
Journal Arid Environments, doi:1016/j.jaridenv.2010.12.011.
Leonard, D. (2009) Recreating Political Order: The Somali Systems Today, IDS Working Paper,
no 316, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Leslie, P.W. and Fry, P.H. (1989) ‘Extreme seasonality of births among nomadic Turkana
pastoralists’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol 79, no 1, pp103–115.
Lesnoff, M. (2007) ‘DynMod: A tool for demographic projections of ruminants under tropical
conditions’, User’s Manual, 29 pages, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi,
Lesorogol, C. (2008) Contesting the Commons: Privatizing Pastoral Lands in Kenya, University
of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Lewis, I.M. (1961) A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics among the
Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, Oxford University Press for the International African
Lewis, I.M. (ed) (1983) Nationalism and Self-determination in the Horn of Africa, Ithaca Press,
Lewis, I.M. (1988) A Modern History of Somalia, Westview Press, Boulder.
Lewis, M.P. (ed) (2009) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, sixteenth edition, SIL
International, Dallas, Texas.
Lind, J. (Forthcoming, 2012) ‘Manufacturing peace in “no man’s land”: Livestock, conflict and
access to resources in the Karimojong Cluster of Kenya and Uganda’, in H. Young and L.
Goldman (eds) Strengthening Post-Conflict Peace-Building through Natural Resource
Management, Volume 4: Livelihoods, Earthscan, Routledge, Abingdon.
Lind, J. and Howell, J. (2010) ‘Counter-terrorism, the politics of fear and civil society responses
in Kenya’, Development and Change, vol 41, no 2, pp335–353.
Lindley, A. (2005) ‘Somalia country study’, a part of the report on Informal Remittance Systems
in Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries (Ref: RO2CS008) for the Department of
International Development UK, European Community’s Poverty Reduction Effectiveness
Programme, and Deloitte & Touche, ESRC Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University
Lindley, A. (2007) Remittances in Fragile Settings: A Somali Case Study, Working Paper. no 27,
Households in Conflict Network, Sussex University, Brighton.
Lindley, A. (2009) ‘Between dirty money and development capital: Somali money transfer
infrastructure under global scrutiny’, African Affairs, vol 108, no 433, pp519–539.
Lister, S. (2004) The Processes and Dynamics of Pastoralist Representation in Ethiopia, IDS
Working Paper, no 220, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Little, M. and Leslie, P. (1999) Turkana Herders of the Dry Savanna: Ecology and Biobehavioral
Response of Nomads to an Uncertain Environment, Oxford University Press, New York.
Little, P.D. (1983) ‘Livestock-grain connection in northern Kenya’, Rural Africana, no 15–16,
Little, P.D. (1985a) ‘Absentee herd owners and part-time pastoralists: The political economy of
resource use in northern Kenya’, Human Ecology, vol 13, pp131–151.
Little, P.D. (1985b) ‘Social differentiation and pastoralist sedentarization in northern Kenya’,
Africa, vol 55, no 3, pp243–261.
Little, P.D. (1989) The Dairy Commodity System of the Kismayo Region, Somalia: Rural and
Urban Dimensions, Institute for Development Anthropology, Binghamton, NY.
Little, P.D. (1992) The Elusive Granary: Herder, Farmer, and State in Northern Kenya,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Little, P.D. (1994) ‘Maidens and milk markets: The sociology of dairy marketing in southern
Somalia’, in E. Fratkin , K. Galvin , and E. Roth (eds) African Pastoralist Systems, Lynne
Rienner, Boulder, pp165–184.
Little, P.D. (1996) ‘Conflictive trade, contested identity: The effects of export markets on
pastoralists of southern Somalia’, African Studies Review, vol 39, no 1, pp25–54.
Little, P.D. (2002) ‘The global dimensions of cross-border trade in the Somalia Borderlands’ in
A.G.M. Ahmed (ed) Globalisation, Democracy, and Development in Africa: Future Prospects,
OSSREA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Little, P.D. (2003) Somalia: Economy Without State, James Currey, Oxford, UK, Indiana
University Press, Bloomington, IN.
Little, P.D. (2005) ‘Pastoralism in a stateless environment: The case of the southern Somali
borderlands’, Geography Research Forum, no 25 (December Issue), pp128–147.
Little, P.D. (2006) ‘Working across borders: Methodological and policy challenges of cross-
border livestock trade in the Horn of Africa’, in J. McPeak and P.D. Little (eds) Pastoral
Livestock Marketing in Eastern Africa: Research and Policy Challenges, ITDG Publications,
Little, P.D. (2007) ‘Unofficial cross-border trade in East Africa’, workshop on ‘Staple Food Trade
and Market Policy Options for Promoting Development in Eastern and Southern Africa’, UN
Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1–2 March.
Little, P.D. (2009) ‘Income diversification among pastoralists: Lessons for policy-makers’, Policy
Brief no. 3, COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa), CAADP,
rief%203%20(2).pdf, accessed on 1 December 2011.
Little, P.D. and Mahmoud, H.A. (2005) Cross-Border Cattle Trade along the Somalia/Kenya and
Ethiopia/Kenya Borderlands, Research Brief 05-03-PARIMA, Global Livestock Collaborative
Research Support Program, University of California-Davis.
Little, P.D. , Smith, K. , Cellarius, B.A. , Coppock, D.L. and Barrett, C.B. (2001) ‘Avoiding
disaster: Diversification and risk management among East African herders’, Development and
Change, vol 32, no 3, pp401–433.
Little, P.D. , McPeak, J. , Barrett, C. and Kristjanson, P. (2008) ‘Challenging orthodoxies:
Understanding poverty in pastoral areas of East Africa’, Development and Change, vol 39, no 4,
Little, P.D. , Aboud, A. and Lenachuru, C. (2009) ‘Can formal education reduce risks for
drought-prone pastoralists? A case study from Baringo District, Kenya’, Human Organization
68, no 2, pp154–165.
LIU (Livelihoods Information Unit) (2008) ‘Livelihood profile Oromia Region, Ethiopia —
Southern pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihood zones’, Livelihoods Integration Unit, Addis
Lochhead, D. and Musoke, R.A. (2010) ‘Evaluation of the Building Sustainable Peace and
Development in Karamoja Project’, Final Report, Government of Uganda/UNDP.
Lockheed, M. , Jamison, D. and Lau, L. (1980) ‘Farmer education and farm efficiency: A
survey’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol 29, no 1, pp37–76.
Lotira Arasio, R. (2004) ‘Rebuilding herds by reinforcing Gargar/Irb among the Somali
pastoralists of Kenya’, evaluation of experimental restocking in Wajir and Mandera Districts of
Kenya, African Union Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, Nairobi and Feinstein
International Center, Tufts University, Medford.
Luckham, R. and Bekele, D. (1984) ‘Foreign powers and militarism in the Horn of Africa: Part II’,
Review of African Political Economy, vol 31, pp7–28.
Lugo, A. (1997) ‘Reflections on border theory, culture, and the nation’, in S. Michaelsen and
D.E. Johnson (eds) Border Theory: The Limits of Cultural Politics, University of Minnesota
Lybbert, T.J. , Barrett, C.B. , Desta, S. , Coppock, D.L. (2004) ‘Stochastic wealth dynamics and
risk management among a poor population’, The Economic Journal, vol 114, no 498,
Lyons, T. (2008) ‘Ethiopia’s convergence of crises’, Current History, vol 107, no 708,
MAADE (1997/2005) Operational Budget for 1998 , Middle Awash Agricultural
Development Enterprise, Melka Sedi, Afar Region, Ethiopia.
Mace, R. (1993) ‘Transitions between cultivation and pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa’,
Current Anthropology, vol 34, no 4, pp363–382.
Mahmoud, H.A. (2006) ‘Innovations in pastoral livestock marketing: The emergence and the
role of “Somali cattle-traders-cum-ranchers” in Kenya’, in J.G. McPeak and P.D. Little (eds)
Pastoral Livestock Marketing in Eastern Africa: Research and Policy Changes, IT Publication,
Warwickshire, UK, pp129–144.
Mahmoud, H.A. (2008) ‘Risky trade, resilient traders: Trust and livestock marketing in northern
Kenya’, Africa: The Journal of the International African Institute, vol 78, no 4, pp561–581.
Mahmoud, H.A. (2009) ‘Conflicts and pastoral livelihoods in the Kenya-Ethiopia-Somalia
borderlands’, in P. Goldsmith (ed.) Fighting for Inclusion: Conflicts among Pastoralists in
Eastern Africa and the Horn, Development Management Policy Forum, Nairobi, pp53–78.
Mahmoud, H. A. (2010) Livestock Trade in the Kenyan, Somalia and Ethiopian Borderlands,
Briefing Paper, 2010/02, Chatham House, London.
Maimbo, S.M. (2006) ‘Remittances and economic development in Somalia: An overview’, Social
Development Papers, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, no 38, The World Bank,
Maina, K. and Maalim, A. (2011) ‘Kenya: Suspected Al Shabaab terror squad named’ Nairobi
Star, 8 March.
Markakis, J. (1994) ‘Ethnic conflict and the state in the Horn of Africa’ in K. Fukui and J.
Markakis (eds) Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of Africa, James Currey, London.
Markakis, J. (2003) ‘Anatomy of a conflict: Afar and Ise Ethiopia’, Review of African Political
Economy, vol 96, pp445–453.
Markakis, J. (2004) Pastoralism on the Margin, Minority Rights Group, London.
Markakis, J. (2011) Ethiopia: The Last Two Frontiers, James Currey, Woodbridge.
MAS (1991) Amibara Irrigation Project II: Pastoralist and Forestry Development Studies, Report
to WRDA Volumes I and II, Macdonald Agricultural Services Ltd, Cambridge.
Mattli, W. (1999) The Logic of Regional Integration: Europe and Beyond, Cambridge University
May, A. and McCabe, J.T. (2004) ‘City work in a time of AIDS: Maasai labor migration in
Tanzania’, Africa Today, vol 51, no 2, pp3–32.
Mayunga, A. (2009) ‘Villagers want agreement with Grumeti game investor revoked’, The
Citizen (Dar es Salaam), Tanzania, 22 August.
McCabe, J.T. (2003) ‘Sustainability and livelihood diversification among the Maasai of northern
Tanzania’, Human Organization, vol 62, no 1, pp100–111.
McCabe, J.T. (2004) Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies: Turkana Ecology, Politics, and Raiding in
a Disequilibrium System, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
McCabe, J.T. , Leslie, P.W. and Deluca, L. (2010) ‘Adopting cultivation to remain pastoralists:
The diversification of Maasai livelihoods in Northern Tanzania’, Human Ecology, vol 28,
McCord, A. (2005) ‘Win-win or lose-lose? An examination of the use of public works as a social
protection instrument in situations of chronic poverty’, paper presented at the conference on
Social Protection for Chronic Poverty, University of Manchester, 23–24 February.
McHugh, M.J. (2006) ‘Impact of South Pacific circulation variability on east African rainfall’,
International Journal of Climatology, vol 26, no 4, pp505–521.
McPeak, J.G. (2005) ‘Individual and collective rationality in pastoral production: Evidence from
northern Kenya’, Human Ecology, vol 33, no 2, pp171–197.
McPeak, J.G. (2006) ‘Livestock marketing in Marsabit District, Kenya, over the past fifty years’,
in J.G. McPeak and P.D. Little (eds) Pastoral Livestock Marketing in East Africa: Research and
Policy Challenges, Intermediate Technology Publications, Rugby.
McPeak, J.B. and Barrett, C.B. (2001) ‘Differential risk exposure and stochastic poverty traps
among East African pastoralists’, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol 83, no 3,
McPeak, J. and Little, P.D. (2005) ‘Cursed if you do, cursed if you don’t: The contradictory
processes of pastoral sedentarization in northern Kenya’, in E. Fratkin , and E.A. Roth (eds) As
Pastoralists Settle, Springer Publishing Company, New York.
McPeak, J. and Little, P.D. (eds) (2006) Pastoral Livestock Marketing in Eastern Africa:
Research and Policy Challenges, ITDG Publications, London.
McPeak, J. , Little, P.D. and Demment, M. (2006) ‘Conclusion: The policy implications and
future research needs’, in P. Little and J. McPeak (eds) Pastoral Livestock Marketing in Eastern
Africa: Research and Policy Challenges, ITDG Publications, Bourton on Dumsmore,
McPeak, J.G. , Little, P.D. and Doss, C.R. (2011) Risk and Social Change in an African Rural
Economy: Livelihoods in Pastoralist Communities, Taylor and Francis, London.
McVeigh, T. (2011) ‘Charity president says aid groups are misleading the public on Somalia.’
The Guardian. 3 September 2011, www.guardian.co.uk/global-
development/2011/sep/03/charity-aid-groups-misleading-somalia?INTCMP=SRCH, accessed 7
MDNKOAL (Ministry for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands) (2010a) Getting
to the Hardest to Reach: A Strategy to Provide Education to Nomadic Communities in Kenya
through Distance Learning, Minister of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid
Lands (Office of the Prime Minister) and Education for Nomads programme, Nairobi
http://pubs.iied.org/G02742.html, accessed 22 November 2011.
MDNKOAL (2010b) Education for Nomads PHASE 2, Manual. Nomadic Radio Education Trials,
written by Jeremy Swift and Saverio Krätli for the Ministry of State for the Development of
Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands, International Institute for Environment and Development,
Meehl, G.A. , Stocker, T.F. , Collins, W.D. , Friedlingstein, P. , Gaye, A.T. , Gregory, J.M. ,
Kitoh, A. , Knutti, R. , Murphy, J.M. , Noda, A. , Raper, S.C.B. , Watterson, I.G. , Weaver, A.J.
and Zhao, Z.-C. (2007) ‘Global climate projections’, in S. Solomon , D. Qin , M. Manning , Z.
Chen , M. Marquis , K.B. Averyt , M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds) Climate Change 2007: The
Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and
Menkhaus, K. (2007) ‘The crisis in Somalia: Tragedy in five acts’, African Affairs, vol 106, no
Menkhaus, K. (2008) ‘The rise of a mediated state in northern Kenya: The Wajir story and its
implications for state-building’, Afrika Focus, vol 11, no 2, pp23–38.
Metahara Sugar Factory (2008) Financial Statement of 2007/08, Metahara.
Milanovic, B. (2008) ‘Qat expenditures in Yemen and Djibouti: An empirical analysis’, World
Bank and Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington DC, USA, Journal of
African Economies, vol 17, no 5, pp661–687.
Minear, L. (2001) ‘Pastoralist community harmonization in the Karamoja cluster: Taking it to the
next level’, Feinstein International Famine Center, Tufts University, Medford.
Mirzeler, M. and Young, C. (2000) ‘Pastoral politics in the northeast periphery in Uganda: AK-47
as change agent’, Journal of Modern African Studies, vol 38, no 3, pp407–429.
Mkutu, K. (2007) ‘Small arms and light weapons among pastoral groups in the Kenya-Uganda
border area’, African Affairs, vol 106, no 422, pp47–70.
Mkutu, K. (2009) Guns and Governance in the Rift Valley: Pastoralist Conflict and Small Arms,
James Currey, Oxford.
MOESTK (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology) (2005) A Policy Framework for
Education, Training and Research, Sessional Paper, No. 1, Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology, Republic of Kenya, Nairobi.
MOESTK (2007) Kenya Vision 2030, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic
of Kenya, Nairobi.
MOESTK (2008a) Education Statistics Booklet, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology,
Republic of Kenya, Nairobi.
MOESTK (2008b) Policy Framework for Nomadic Education in Kenya, draft of July 2008,
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and UNICEF, Republic of Kenya, Nairobi.
MOESTK (2008c) Report on the Policy Framework for Nomadic Education in Kenya, Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology and UNICEF, Republic of Kenya, Nairobi.
MOESTK (2009) Education Facts and Figures: Update 1st October 2009, Ministry of Education,
MOESTK (2010) Policy Framework for Nomadic Education in Kenya, Ministry of Education,
Republic of Kenya, Nairobi.
Mohammed, Y.A. (2008) Islamic Relief Kenya Irrigation Projects in Mandera: Lessons Learned,
www.ochaonline.un.org/OchaLinkClick.aspx?link=ocha&docId, accessed 25 October 2011.
Monod, T. (ed) (1975) Pastoralism in Tropical Africa, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Moritz, M. (2006) ‘Changing contexts and dynamics of farmer-herder conflicts across West
Africa’, Canadian Journal of African Studies, vol 40, no 1, pp1–40.
Moritz, M. (2008) ‘Competing paradigms in pastoral development from the far north of
Cameroon’, World Development, vol 36, no 11, pp2243–2254.
Moritz, M. (2010) ‘Crop-livestock interactions in agricultural and pastoral systems in West
Africa’, Agriculture and Human Values, vol 27, no 2, pp119–128.
Morton, J. (2005) Legislators and Livestock: A Comparative Analysis of Pastoralist
Parliamentary Groups in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, Final Report for the NRI/PENHA
Research Project on Pastoralist Parliamentary Groups.
Morton, J. (2006) ‘Pastoralist coping strategies and emergency livestock market intervention’ in
P. Little and J. McPeak (eds) Pastoral Livestock Marketing in Eastern Africa: Research and
Policy Challenges, ITDG Publications, Bourton on Dumsmore, pp227–246.
Morton, J. (2008) DFID’s Current and Potential Engagement with Pastoralism: A Scoping Study,
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich.
Morton, J. (2010a) The Innovation Trajectory of Sleeping Sickness Control in Uganda:
Research Knowledge in its Context, Research Into Use Discussion Paper No.8, East Malling.
Morton, J. (2010b) ‘Why should governmentality matter for the study of pastoral development?’,
Nomadic Peoples, vol 14, no 1, pp6–30.
Morton, J. and Meadows, N. (2001) Pastoralism and Sustainable Livelihoods: An Emerging
Agenda, NRI Policy Series 11, Chatham, UK.
Mutai, C.C. and Ward, M.N. (2000) ‘East African rainfall and the tropical circulation/convection
on intraseasonal to interannual timescales’, Journal of Climate, vol 13, no 22, pp3915–3939.
Mwangi, E. (2007) Socioeconomic Change and Land Use in Africa: The Transformation of
Property Rights in Maasailand, Palgrave MacMillan, New York.
Nathan, M.A. , Roth, E.A. , Fratkin, E. , Wiseman, D. and Harris, J. (2005) ‘Health and morbidity
among Rendille pastoralist children: Effects of sedentarization’, in E. Fratkin and E.A. Roth
(eds) As Pastoralists Settle, Springer Publishing Company, New York.
National Assembly (2010) Official Report for 1 Thursday July 2010, Question No.057: Revival of
Rapsu/Kinna/Malka-Daka/Gafarsa Irrigation Schemes.
NCSP (National Council for Strategic Planning) (2007) The Five-Year Plan (2007–2011),
National Council for Strategic Planning, Khartoum,
http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Sudan/Sudan_five_year_plan.pdf, accessed 7 August
New Agriculturalist (2011) Stamping out Sleeping Sickness in Uganda, www.new-
ag.info/en/focus/focusItem.php?a=2259, accessed 10 December 2011.
Newman, D. (2006) ‘The lines that continue to separate us: Borders in our “borderless” world’,
Progress in Human Geography, vol 30, no 2, pp143–161.
Ngigi, S.N. (2002a) ‘Preliminary evaluation of irrigation development in Kenya’, in H.G. Blank ,
C.M. Mutero and H. Murray-Rust (eds) The Changing Face of Irrigation in Kenya: Opportunities
for Anticipating Change in Eastern and Southern Africa, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp93–111.
Ngigi, S.N. (2002b) ‘Review of irrigation development in Kenya’, in H.G. Blank , C.M. Mutero
and H. Murray-Rust (eds) The Changing Face of Irrigation in Kenya: Opportunities for
Anticipating Change in Eastern and Southern Africa, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp35–54.
Niamir-Fuller, M. (1999) Managing Mobility in African Rangelands: The Legitimisation of
Transhumance, Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
Nicholson, S.E. (2001) ‘Climatic and environmental change in African during the last two
centuries’, Climate Research, vol 17, no 2, pp123–144.
Nicol, A. (2000) ‘Contested margins: Water resources, decentralisation and the state in the
Awash valley, Ethiopia, 1985–1998’, Ph.D. thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London.
Njoroge to Attorney General (2003) legal correspondence.
Njoroge to Kamau (2003) legal correspondence.
Nkedianye, D. , Ogutu, J.O. , Said, M.Y. , Herrero, M. , Kifugo, S.C. , Reid, R.S. , de Leeuw, J. ,
Dickson, K.S. and Van Gardingen, P. (2011) ‘Pastoral mobility: A blessing or a curse? The
impact of the 2005–06 drought on livestock mortality in Maasailand’, Pastoralism, vol 1, pp1–17.
Nori, M. , Switzer, J. and Crawford, A. (2005) Herding on the Brink: Towards a Global Survey of
Pastoral Communities and Conflict, International Institute for Environment and Development,
Nugent, P. (2002) Smugglers, Secessionists and Loyal Citizens on the Ghana-Togo Frontier,
Ohio University Press, Athens.
Nyangaga, J. , Gebremedhin, B. , Baker, D. , Lukuyu, B. , Ounga, T. and Randolph, T.F. (2009)
‘Irrigated fodder supports peri-urban livestock and livelihoods in the Mandera Triangle’,
Regional symposium on livestock marketing in the Horn of Africa, conference paper, ILRI,
O’Connor, T.G. (1994) ‘Composition and population responses of an African savanna grassland
to rainfall and grazing’, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol 31, pp155–171.
Oba, G. (2001) ‘The effects of multiple droughts on cattle in Obbu, Northern Kenya’, Journal of
Arid Environments, vol 49, no 2, pp375–386.
Oba, G. and Kaitira, L.M. (2006) ‘Herder knowledge of landscape assessments in arid
rangelands in northern Tanzania’, Journal of Arid Environments, vol 66, no 1, pp168–186.
Oba, G. , Stenseth, N.C. and Lusigi, W. (2000a) ‘New perspectives on sustainable grazing
management in arid zones of sub-Saharan Africa’, BioScience, vol 50, pp35–51.
Oba, G. , Post, E. , Stenseth, N.C. and Lusigi, W. (2000b) ‘Role of small ruminants in arid zone
environments: A review of research perspectives’, Annals of Arid Zone, vol 39, pp305–332.
Oba, G. , Vetaas, O.R. and Stenseth, N.C. (2001a) ‘Relationships between biomass and plant
species richness in arid zone grazing lands’, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol 38, pp836–845.
Oba, G. , Post, E. and Stenseth, N.C. (2001b) ‘Sub-Saharan desertification and productivity are
linked to hemispheric climate variability’, Global Change Biology, vol 7, no 3, pp241–246.
Oba, G. , Stenseth, N.C. , and Weladji, R.B. (2002) ‘Impact of shifting agriculture on a floodplain
woodland regeneration in dryland Kenya’, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol 90, no 2,
Oba, G. , Weladji, R.B. , Lusigi, W.J. , and Stenseth, N.C. (2003) ‘Scale-dependent effects of
grazing on rangeland degradation in Northern Kenya: A test of equilibrium and non-equilibrium
hypothesis’, Land Degradation & Development, vol 14, no 1, pp83–94.
Oba, G. , Sjaastad, E. and Roba, H.G. (2008a) ‘Framework for participatory assessments and
implementation of global environmental conventions at the community level’, Land Degradation
& Development, vol 19, pp65–76.
Oba, G. , Byakagaba, P. , and Angassa, A. (2008b) ‘Participatory monitoring of biodiversity in
East African grazing lands’, Land Degradation & Development, vol 19, pp636–648.
ODI (2010) ‘Pastoralism demographics, settlement and service provision in the Horn and East
Africa: Transformation and opportunities’, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development
OECD-FAO (2011) Agricultural Outlook 2011–2020, FAO, Rome.
Orindi, V. , Nyong, A. and Herrero, M. (2007) ‘Pastoral livelihood adaptation to drought and
institutional interventions in Kenya’, Human Development Report Office, Occasional Paper, no
54, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, USA.
Osman, E.I. (2009) ‘The Funj region pastoral FulBe: From “exit” to “voice”’, Nomadic Peoples,
vol 13, no 1, pp92–112.
Ottaway, M. (1982) Soviet and American Influence in the Horn of Africa, Praeger, New York.
Pankhurst, R. and Johnson, D.H. (1988) ‘The great drought and famine of 1888–92 in northeast
Africa’, in D. Anderson , and D.L. Johnson (eds) The Ecology of Survival: Case Studies from
North-East Africa History, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pp47–70.
Pankhurst, A. and Piguet, F. (eds) (2004) People, Space and the State: Migration, Resettlement
and Displacement in Ethiopia, proceedings of the workshop held by the Ethiopian Society of
Sociologists, Social workers and Anthropologists and The United Nations Emergencies Unit for
Ethiopia, 28–30 January 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Pantuliano, S. and Pavanello, S. (2009) ‘Taking drought into account: Addressing chronic
vulnerability among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa’, HPG Policy Brief 35, Overseas
Development Institute, London.
Pantuliano, S. and Wekesa, M. (2008) ‘Improving drought response in pastoral areas of
Ethiopia’, Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Pavanello, S. (2009) ‘Pastoralists’ vulnerability in the Horn of Africa: Exploring political
marginalisation, donors’ policies and cross-border issues — Literature review’, Humanitarian
Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Pedersen, J. and Benjaminsen, T.A. (2008) ‘One leg or two? Food security and pastoralism in
the Northern Sahel’, Human Ecology, vol 36, no 1, pp43–57.
Pickup, G. (1995) ‘A simple model for predicting herbage production from rainfall in rangelands
and its calibration using remotely-sensed-data’, Journal of Arid Environments, vol 30,
Pike, I.L. (2004) ‘The biosocial consequences of life on the run: A case study of Turkana of
Kenya’, Human Organization, vol 63, no 2, pp221–235.
PLI Policy Project (2010a) Impact Assessment of the ACDI/VOCA Livestock Markets in
Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Addis Ababa.
PLI Policy Project (2010b) Impact Assessment of Small-Scale Pump Irrigation in the Somali
Region of Ethiopia, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Addis Ababa.
PR Newswire (2011) ‘Grumeti Reserves and Paul Tudor Jones partner with Singita to expand
eco-tourism in Tanzania’, 5 May, www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=170095,
accessed 2 December 2011.
Prieto-Carrón, M. , Lund-Thomsen, P. , Chan, A. , Muro, A. and Bhushan, C. (2006) ‘Critical
perspectives on CSR and development: What we know, what we don’t know, and what we need
to know’, International Affairs, vol 82, no 5, pp977–987.
PMAC (Provisional Military Administrative Council) of Ethiopia (1975) Proclamation to Provide
Public Ownership of Rural Land, no 31/1975.
Quan, J. (2000) ‘Land tenure, economic growth and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa’, in C.
Toulmin and J. Quan (eds) Evolving Land Rights, Policy and Tenure in Africa, DIFC/IIED/NRI,
Randall, D.A. , Wood, R.A. , Bony, S. , Colman, R. , Fichefet, T. , Fyfe, J. , Kattsov, V. , Pitman,
A. , Shukla, J. , Srinivasan, J. , Stouffer, R.J. , Sumi, A. and Taylor, K.E. (2007) ‘Climate Models
and Their Evaluation’, in S. Solomon , D. Qin , M. Manning , Z. Chen , M. Marquis , K.B. Averyt ,
M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution
of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.
Randall, S. (1996) ‘Whose reality? Local perceptions of fertility versus demographic analysis’,
Population Studies, vol 50, no 2, pp221–234.
Randall, S. (2005) ‘The demographic consequences of conflict, exile and repatriation: A case
study of Malian Tuareg’, European Journal of Population, vol 21, no 2–3, pp291–320.
Randall, S. (2008) ‘African pastoralist demography’, in K. Homewood (ed.) Ecology of African
Pastoralist Societies, James Currey Ltd, Oxford, pp199–226.
Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Republic of Kenya (2005) ‘Garissa district strategic plan 2005–2010 for implementation of the
national population policy’, Nairobi Government Printing Office.
Rettberg, S. (2010) ‘Contested narratives of pastoral vulnerability and risk in Ethiopia’s Afar
Region’, Pastoralism, vol 1, no 2, pp248–273.
Reusse, E. (1982) ‘Somalia’s nomadic livestock economy: Its response to profitable export
opportunity’, World Animal Review, vol 43, pp2–11.
Roba, H.G. (2010) ‘Pastoralists’ mobility in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia: Adaptation to
spatial and temporal resource variability and risk management strategies’, consultancy report
for Codaid and European Commission, Nairobi.
Roba, H.G. and Oba, G. (2008) ‘Integration of herder knowledge and ecological methods for
land degradation assessment around sedentary settlements in a sub-humid zone in Northern
Kenya’, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, vol 15, no 3,
Roba, H.G. and Oba, G. (2009) ‘Community participatory landscape classification and
biodiversity assessment and monitoring grazing land in northern Kenya’, Journal of
Environmental Management, vol 90, no 2, pp673–682.
Robb, J. (2007) Brave New World: the Next Stage of Terrorism and the End of Globalization,
John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.
Robbins, P. (1998) ‘Nomadization in Rajasthan, India: Migration, institution, and economy’,
Human Ecology, vol 26, no 1, pp87–112.
Robinson, L.W. and Berkes, F. (2010) ‘Applying resilience thinking to questions of policy for
pastoralist systems: Lessons from the Gabra of northern Kenya’, Human Ecology, vol 38, no 3,
Roe, E. (1994) Narrative Policy Analysis: Theory and Practice, Duke University Press, Durham.
Roesler, M. and Wendl, T. (eds) (1999) Frontiers and Borderlands: Anthropological
Perspectives, Peter Lang, Frankfurt and New York.
Ronfeldt, D. and Arquilla, J. (2001) Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and
Militancy, RAND, Washington DC.
Roth, E.A. (1994) ‘Demographic systems: Two East African examples’ in E. Fratkin , K. Galvin ,
and E.A. Roth (eds) African Pastoralist Systems, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder.
Roth, E.A. , Ngugi, E.N. and Fujita, M. (2009) ‘HIV/AIDS risk and worry in northern Kenya’,
Health, Risk & Society, vol 11, no 1, pp231–239.
Rutherford, M.C. and Powrie, L.W. (2010) ‘Severely degraded rangeland: implications for plant
diversity from a case study in succulent karoo, South Africa’, Journal of Arid Environments, vol
74, no 6, pp692–701.
Rutledge, D. and Roble, A. (2010) ‘The infrastructure of migration and the migration regime:
Human rights, race, and the Somali struggle to flee violence’, Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary
Global Contexts, vol 3, no 2, pp153–178.
Ruttan, V. (1982) ‘Cultural endowments and economic development: What can we learn from
anthropology?’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol 36, no 3, supplement.
Rutten, M. (1992) Selling Wealth to Buy Poverty: The Process of the Individualization of Land
Ownership among the Maasai Pastoralists of Kajiado District, Kenya, 1890–1990, Verlag für
Sabates-Wheeler, R. and Devereux, S. (2010) ‘Cash transfers and high food prices: Explaining
outcomes on Ethiopia’s productive safety net programme’, Food Policy, vol 35, no 4,
Said, A. (1992) ‘Resource use conflicts between pastoralism and irrigation development in the
Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia’, MSc thesis, Noragric, Agricultural University of Norway.
Salem-Murdock, M. (1989) Arabs and Nubians in New Halfa: A Study of Settlement and
Irrigation, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.
Salesa, H. (2011) ‘Isiolo MPs accuse state of laxity over security’, Nairobi Star, 25 October.
Salih, M.A.M. (1995) ‘Pastoralist migration to small towns in Africa’, in J. Baker and T.A. Aina
(eds) The Migration Experience in Africa, Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala,
Samatar, A.I. (2004) ‘Ethiopian Federalism: Autonomy versus control in the Somali region’,
Third World Quarterly, vol 25, no 6, pp1131–1154.
Samatar, A.I. (2007) ‘Somalia’s post-conflict economy: A political economy approach’, Bildhaan:
An International Journal of Somali Studies, vol 7, pp126–168.
Samuels, M.I. , Allsopp, N. , and Hoffman, T. (2008) ‘Mobility patterns of livestock keepers in
semi-arid communal rangelands of Namaqualand, South Africa’, Nomadic Peoples, vol 12, no 1,
Sandford, S. (1983) Management of Pastoral Development in the Third World, John Wiley and
Sandford, S. (2006) Too Many People, Too Few Livestock: The Crisis Affecting Pastoralists in
the Greater Horn of Africa, www.future-agricultures.org/pdffiles/, accessed on 1 December
Sandford, S. and Scoones, I. (2006) ‘Opportunistic and conservative pastoral strategies: Some
economic arguments’, Ecological Economics, vol 58, no 1, pp1–6.
Saperstein, A. and Farmer, E. (2006) Livestock Value Chain Analysis Report for Afar and
Northern Somali Regions of Ethiopia, report by ACDI-VOCA for USAID Pastoralist Livelihoods
Initiative, Addis Ababa.
Sato, S. (1997) ‘How the East African pastoral nomads, especially the Rendille, respond to the
encroaching market economy’, African Studies Monographs, vol 18, no 3–4, pp121–135.
Schlee, G. (1989) Identities on the Move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya, Gideon
S. Were Press, Nairobi.
Schlee, G. (2003) ‘Redrawing the map of the Horn: The politics of difference’, Africa, vol 73, no
Schlee, G. and Watson, E.E. (2009) Changing Identifications and Alliances in North-East Africa:
Sudan, Uganda and the Ethiopia-Sudan Borderlands, Berghahn Books, Oxford.
Scholte, P. and Babiker, M. (2005) ‘Terminal evaluation for the conservation, management of
habitat, species and sustainable community use of biodiversity in Dinder National Park,
SUD/98/G41’, report to UNDP-GEF, Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources,
Scholte, P. , Kari, S. , Moritz, M. and Prins, H. (2006) ‘Pastoralist responses to floodplain
rehabilitation in North Cameroon’, Human Ecology, vol 34, no 1, pp27–51.
Schreck, C.J. and Semazzi, F.H.M. (2004) ‘Variability of the recent climate of eastern Africa’,
International Journal of Climatology, vol 24, no 6, pp681–701.
Scoones, I. (1991) ‘Wetlands in drylands: Key resources for agriculture and pastoral production
in Africa’, Ambio, vol 20, no 8, pp366–371.
Scoones, I. (ed) (1995a) Living with Uncertainty: New Directions in Pastoral Development in
Africa, IT Publications, London.
Scoones, I. (1995b) ‘Exploiting heterogeneity: Habitat use by cattle in dryland Zimbabwe’,
Journal of Arid Environments, vol 29, pp221–237.
Scoones, I. (1998) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis, IDS Working
Paper 72, University of Sussex.
Scoones, I. (2004) ‘Climate change and the challenge of non-equilibrium thinking’, IDS Bulletin,
vol 35, no 3, pp114–119.
Scoones, I. (2007) ‘Sustainability’, Development in Practice, vol 17, no 4–5, pp589–596.
Scoones, I. and Adwera, A. (2009) Pastoral Innovation Systems: Perspectives from Ethiopia
and Kenya, Occasional Paper no 1, Future Agricultures Consortium, Brighton.
Scoones, I. and Graham, O. (1994) ‘New directions for pastoral development in Africa’,
Development in Practice, vol 4, no 3, pp188–198.
Scoones, I. and Wolmer, W. (2006) Livestock, Disease, Trade and Markets: Policy Choices for
the Livestock Sector in Africa, IDS Working Paper, no 269, Institute of Development Studies,
Scoones, I. , Bishi, A. , Mapitse, N. , Moerane, R. , Penrith, M.-L. , Sibanda, R. , Thomson, G.
and Wolmer, W. (2010) ‘Foot-and-mouth disease and market access: Challenges for the beef
industry in southern Africa’, Pastoralism, vol 1, no 2, pp135–164.
Scott, J.C. (1976) The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast
Asia, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Scott, J.C. (1998) Seeing like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition
have Failed, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Scott, J.C. (2009) The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast
Asia, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Scott-Villiers, P. (2005) ‘A bitter-sweet crop in Kenya’, in A. Scott-Villiers , Rain, Prosperity and
Peace: The Global Pastoralist Meeting, Turmi, Ethiopia 2005, Institute of Development Studies,
Scott-Villiers, P. , Ungiti, H.B. , Kiyana, D. , Kullu, M. , Orto, T. , Reidy, E. and Sora, A. (2011)
The Long Conversation: Customary Approaches to Peace Management in Southern Ethiopia
and Northern Kenya, Working Paper 022, Future Agricultures Consortium, Institute of
Development Studies, Brighton.
Scudder, T. (1991) ‘The need and justification for maintaining transboundary flood regimes: The
Africa case’, Natural Resources Journal, vol 31, no 1, pp75–107.
Scudder, T. (2006) The Future of Large Dams: Dealing with Social, Environmental, Institutional
and Political Costs, Earthscan, London.
SCUK (Save the Children UK) (2005) Livelihoods Baselines, Somali Region, Save the Children
UK, Addis Ababa.
SCUK (2007) Vulnerability and Dependency in 4 Livelihood Zones of North Eastern Province,
Kenya, Assessment using the Household Economy Approach (HEA), September 2007,
1/HEA%20North%20Eastern%20Kenya%202007.pdf, accessed 2 December 2011.
SCUK and DPPC (2008) Livelihoods and Vulnerabilities: An Understanding of Livelihoods in
Somali Regional State, Ethiopia (updated version), Save the Children UK, Addis Ababa.
SCUK, DPPB and Partners (2002) An HEA Baseline of the Dawa-Ganale Riverine Food
Economy Zone in Liban Administrative Zone, Somali Region, Ethiopia.
Sellen, D. (2000) ‘Seasonal ecology and nutritional status of women and children in a
Tanzanian pastoral community’, American Journal of Human Biology, vol 12, no 6, pp758–781.
Shahshahani, S. (1995) ‘Tribal schools of Iran: Sedentarization through education’, Nomadic
Peoples, no 36–37, pp145–156.
Shazali, S. (1988) South Kassala Nomadic Survey, CARE-Sudan, Khartoum.
Shazali, S. and Abdel, G.M.A. (1999) ‘Pastoral land tenure and agricultural expansion: Sudan
and the Horn of Africa’, Drylands Programme Issue Paper, no 85, International Institute for
Environment and Development, London.
Sheik-Mohamed, A. and Velema, J.P. (1999) ‘Where health care has no access: The nomadic
populations of sub-Saharan Africa’, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol 4, no 10,
Shepherd, A.W. (1983) ‘Capitalist agriculture in the Sudan dura prairies’, Development and
Change, vol 14, no 2, pp297–321.
Shide, A. (2005) ‘“Conflict is everyday business”: Changing nature of local conflict in federal
Ethiopia: the case study of Ma’eso district’, Master thesis, Institute of Development Studies,
Shivji, I. (1998) Not yet Democracy: Reforming Land Tenure in Tanzania, International Institute
for Environment and Development, London.
Sieff, D.F. (1997) ‘Herding strategies of the Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania: Is household labor
a limiting factor?’, Human Ecology, vol 25, no 4, pp519–544.
Simpkin, S.P. (1996) ‘The effects of breed and management on milk yields of camels in Kenya’,
Ph.D. dissertation, University of Newcastle.
Sinclair, A.R.E. and Fryxell, J.M. (1985) ‘The Sahel of Africa: Ecology of a disaster’, Canadian
Journal of Zoology, vol 63, pp987–994.
Smith, A. (1992) Pastoralism in Africa: Origins and Development Ecology, Hurst, London.
Smith, K. (1998) ‘Sedentarization and market integration: New opportunities for Rendille and
Ariaal women of northern Kenya’, Human Organization, vol 57, no 4, pp459–468.
Smith, K. (1999) ‘The farming alternative: Changing age and gender roles among sedentarized
Rendille and Ariaal’, Nomadic Peoples, (New Series) vol 3, no 2, pp131–146.
Solomon, A. , Workalemahu, A. , Jabbar, M.A. , Ahmed, M.M. and Hurrissa, B. (2003) Livestock
Marketing in Ethiopia: A Review of Structure, Performance and Development Initiatives, Socio-
Economics and Policy Research Working Paper 52, International Livestock Research Institute,
Somaliland Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture and Industry (2010) Yearly Report 1st January
2010 to 31 December 2010, Somaliland Chamber of Commerce, Agriculture and Industry,
Sörbö, G. (1991) ‘Systems of pastoral and agricultural production in eastern Sudan’, in G.M.
Craig (ed) The Agriculture of the Sudan, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp214–229.
Soussana J.-F. , Graux, A.-I. , Tubiello, F.N. (2010) ‘Improving the use of modelling for
projections of climate change impacts on crops and pastures’, Journal of Experimental Botany,
vol 61, no 8, pp2217–2228.
Spear, T. (1997) Mountain Farmers: Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in
Arusha and Meru, James Currey Publishers, London.
Spencer, P. (1973) Nomads in Alliance, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Spencer, P. (1998) The Pastoral Continuum: The Marginalization of Tradition in East Africa,
Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Stave, J. , Oba, G. and Stenseth, N.C. (2001) ‘Temporal changes in woody-plant use and the
ekwar indigenous tree management system along the Turkwel River, Kenya’, Environmental
Conservation, vol 28, pp150–159.
Stave, J. , Oba, G. , Stenseth, N.C. and Nordal, I. (2005) ‘Environmental gradients in the
Turkwel River forest, Kenya: Hypotheses on dam-induced vegetation change’, Forest Ecology &
Management, vol 212, no 1–3, pp184–198.
Stave, J. , Oba, G. , Nordal, I. and Stenseth, N.C. (2007) ‘The traditional ecological knowledge
of a riverine forest in Turkana, Kenya: Implications for research and management’, Biodiversity
Conservation, vol 16, pp1471–1489.
Steiner-Khamsi, G. and Stolpe, I. (2005) ‘Non-traveling “best practices” for a traveling
population: The case of nomadic education in Mongolia’, European Educational Research
Journal, vol 4, no 1, pp22–35.
Steinfeld, H. , Mooney, H.A. and Schneider, F. (eds) (2010) Livestock in a Changing
Landscape, Volume 1: Drivers, Consequences, and Responses, Island Press with the Scientific
Committee on Problems of the Environment, Washington, DC.
Stenning, D. (1959) Savanna Nomads: A Study of the WoDaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western
Bornu Province, Northern Region, Nigeria, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Stites, E. , Akabwai, D. , Mazurana, D. and Ateyo, P. (2007) Angering Akuj: Survival and
Suffering in Karamoja, Feinstein International Center, Medford, Massachusetts.
Storas, F. (1991) ‘Cattle complex or begging complex: Livestock transaction and the
construction of Turkana society’, in R. Gronhaug , G. Haaland and G. Henriksen (eds) The
Ecology of Choice and Symbol: Essays in Honour of Frederik Barth, Alma Mater Forlang As,
Sudan Tribune (2009) ‘Minister of Agriculture sells components of Sudan’s Gezira Scheme to
members of the NCP ruling party’, Sudan Tribune, 17 May,
www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article31424, accessed 13 June 2009.
Sugule, J. and Walker, R. (1998) ‘Changing pastoralism in the Ethiopian Somali National
Regional State (Region 5)’, South East Rangelands Project (SERP), United Nations
Development Programme Emergency Unit for Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
Sullivan, S. and Rohde, R. (2002) ‘On non-equilibrium in arid and semi-arid grazing systems’,
Journal of Biogeography, vol 29, no 12, pp1595–1618.
Swift, J. (1986) ‘The economics of production and exchange in West African pastoral societies’,
in M.J. Adamu and A.H.M. Kirk-Greene (eds) Pastoralists of the West African Savanna,
Manchester University Press, Manchester.
Swift, J. (1989) ‘Planning against drought and famine in Turkana: A district famine contingency
plan’, in T. Downing , K. Gitu , and C. Kamau (eds) Coping with Drought in Kenya: National and
Local Strategies, Lynne Rienner, Boulder.
Swift, J. , Barton, D. and Morton, J. (2002) ‘Drought management for pastoral livelihoods —
Policy Guidelines for Kenya’, www.nri.org/projects/pastoralism/kenyapolicy.pdf, accessed 12
Tache, B. (2000) ‘Individualising the commons: Changing resource tenure among the Boorana
Oromo of southern Ethiopia’, M.A. Thesis, School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University.
Tache, B. (2008) ‘Pastoralism under stress: Resources, institutions and poverty among the
Borana Oromo of southern Ethiopia’, Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås.
Tache, B. (2009) ‘Pastoral land use planning and resource management in Southern Oromia:
An integrated landscape approach’, final report submitted to SOS Sahel Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
Tache, B. (2010) ‘Participatory impacts assessment of drought reserve areas in Guji and
Borana Zones, Oromia region’, report prepared for Save the Children USA, March 2010, Addis
Tache, B. and Oba, G. (2009) ‘Policy-driven inter-ethnic conflicts in Southern Ethiopia’, Review
of African Political Economy, vol 36, no 121, pp409–426.
Tache, B. and Oba, G. (2010) ‘Is poverty driving Borana herders in southern Ethiopia to crop
cultivation?’, Human Ecology, vol 38, no 1, pp639–649.
Talle, A. (1988) ‘Women at a loss: Changes in Maasai pastoralism and their effects on gender
relations’, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, no 19, Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Stockholm, Stockholm.
Talle, A. (1999) ‘Pastoralists at the border: Maasai poverty and the development discourse in
Tanzania’, in D.M. Anderson and V. Broch-Due (eds) The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and
Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, James Currey Publishers, Oxford.
TNRF (Tanzania Natural Resource Forum) (2011) Integrating Pastoralist Livelihoods and
Wildlife Conservation: Options for Land Use and Conflict Resolution in Loliondo Division,
Ngorongoro District, Tanzania Natural Resource Forum.
Tefera, S. , Dlamini, B.J. and Dlamini, A.M. (2010) ‘Changes in soil characteristics and grass
layer condition in relation to land management systems in semi-arid savannas of Swaziland’,
Journal of Arid Environments, vol 74, no 6, pp675–684.
Terer, T. , Ndiritu, G.G. , and Gichuki, N.N. (2004) ‘Socio-economic values and traditional
strategies of managing wetland resources in lower Tana River, Kenya’, Hydrobiologia, vol 527,
The Economist (2009) ‘Buying farmland abroad: Outsourcing’s third wave’, 21 May,
www.economist.com/node/13692889, accessed 11 July 2009.
Thomson, G.R. , Tambi, E.N. , Hargreaves, S.K. , Leyland, T.J. , Catley, A.P. , van ‘t Klooster,
G.G. and Penrith, M.L. (2004) ‘International trade in livestock and livestock products: The need
for a commodity-based approach’, Veterinary Record, vol 155, no 14, pp429–433.
Thomson, G.R. , Leyland, T.J. and Donaldson, A.I. (2009) ‘Deboned beef — an example of a
commodity for which specific standards could be developed to ensure an appropriate level of
protection for international trade’, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol 56, no 1–2,
Thornton, P.K. and Herrero, M. (2010) The Inter-Linkages Between Rapid Growth in Livestock
Production, Climate Change, and the Impacts on Water Resources, Land Use, and
Deforestation, background paper for the 2010 World Development Report, Policy Research
Working Paper 5178, The World Bank, Washington, US.
Thornton, P. , van de Steeg, J. , Notenbaert, A. and Herrero, M. (2009) ‘The impacts of climate
change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: A review of what we know
and what we need to know’, Agricultural Systems, vol 101, no 3, pp113–127.
Thornton, P.K. , Jones, P.G. , Ericksen, P.J. and Challinor, A.J. (2010) ‘Agriculture and food
systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a four-plus degree world’, Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society A, vol 369, no 1934, pp117–136.
Thurston, A. (2011) ‘Welcome to Azania/Jubaland: The world’s newest pseudostate’,
ate, accessed 27 November 2011.
Tilly, C. (1992) Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 990–1992, Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Tolossa, F. (2011) ‘Land grab in Africa: The case of Ethiopia’, A speech delivered at the
Commonwealth Club of California, http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2011/03/03/land-grab-in-
africa-the-case-of-ethiopia?blog=15, accessed 2 December 2011.
Tooley, J. , Dixon, P. , Stanfield, J. (2008) ‘Impact of free primary education in Kenya: A case
study of private schools in Kibera’, Educational Management, Administration & Leadership, vol
36, no 4, pp449–469.
Toulmin, C. (2009) Climate Change in Africa, Zed Books, London.
Toulmin, C. and Gue’ye, B. (2003) ‘Transformations in West African agriculture and family farms
IIED’, Issue Paper 123, http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/9309IIED.pdf accessed 22 November 2011.
Tsing, A.L. (1993) In the Realm of the Diamond Queen: Marginality in an out-of-way Place,
Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Turner, M.D. (1999) ‘Labor process and the environment: The effects of labor availability and
compensation on the quality of herding in the Sahel’, Human Ecology, vol 27, no 2, pp267–296.
Turner, M. D. (2011) ‘The new pastoral development paradigm: Engaging the realities of
property institutions and livestock mobility in dry land Africa’, Society and Natural Resources,
vol 24, no 5, pp469–484.
Turton, D. (2006) Ethnic Federalism: The Ethiopian Experience in Comparative Perspective,
James Currey, Oxford.
UCRT (Ujamaa Community Resource Team) (2010) Participatory Land Use Planning as a Tool
for Community Empowerment in Northern Tanzania, IIED (with Fred Nelson, Malisaili
Initiatives), Gatekeeper, no 147.
Umar, A. (1997) ‘Resource Utilisation, Conflict and Insecurity in Pastoral Areas of Kenya’, a
paper for the USAID Organised Seminar on Conflict Resolution in the Horn of Africa, Kenya
Pastoral Forum, Nairobi.
Umar, A. , with Baluch, B. (2007) Risk Taking for a Living: Trade and Marketing in the Somali
Region, Ethiopia, UN-OCHA/Pastoral Communication Initiative Project, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
UNDP (2006) Share the Land or Part the Nation: The Pastoral Land Tenure System in Sudan.
United Nations Development Programme, Khartoum [Authors: Salahel Din El Shazli , Team
Leader; Farah Hassan Adam ; Imadel Din Bashier Adam ].
UNEP (2007) Sudan: Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment, United Nations Environment
UNESCO (2009) EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009: Overcoming Inequality: Why Governance
Matters, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
UNESCO (2010) EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010: Reaching the Marginalized, Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
UNFPA (2011) ‘Dadaab population swells as hungry and weary families arrive from Somalia’, 5
August 2011, www.unfpa.org/public/home/news/pid/8123, accessed 17 November 2011.
UNICEF (2007) Nomadic Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Eastern and Southern Africa
Regional Office (ESARO).
UNOCHA-PCI (2007) The Future of Pastoralism in Ethiopia, UNOCHA - Pastoralists
Communications Initiative, Addis Ababa.
Unruh, J.D. (1990) ‘Integration of transhumant pastoralism and irrigated agriculture in semiarid
East Africa’, Human Ecology, 18, pp223–246.
Unruh, J.D. (2005) ‘Changing conflict resolution institutions in the Ethiopian pastoral commons:
The role of armed confrontation in rule-making’, GeoJournal, vol 64, no 3, pp225–237.
USAID (2008) Enhanced Livelihoods in Pastoral Areas, CAADP Pillar 3 Early Action
ELPA_RFA_Support_Documents, accessed 4 December 2011.
USAID (2010) Impact Assessment of Small Scale Pump Irrigation in the Somali Region of
Ethiopia, USAID, Feinstein International Centre, Tufts University.
Van den Boogaard, R. (2006) Experiences of Targeting Resource Transfers and Interventions
to Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Communities: Horn of Africa and Ethiopia, Save the Children UK
and Save the Children USA, Addis Ababa.
Van Steenbergen, F. , Lawrence, P. , Haile, A.M. , Salman, M. and Faurès, J.-M. (2010)
‘Guidelines on spate irrigation’, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 65, FAO, Rome.
Varlet, H. and Massoumian, J. (1975) ‘Education for tribal populations in Iran’, Prospects vol 5,
no 2, pp275–281.
Vatin, F. (1996) Le Lait et la Raison Marchande, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, Rennes.
Verdin, J. , Funk, C. , Senay, G. and Choularton, R. (2005) ‘Climate science and famine early
warning’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol 360, no 1463, pp2155–2168.
Vetter, S. (2005) ‘Rangelands at equilibrium and non-equilibrium: Recent developments in the
debate’, Journal of Arid Environments, vol 62, pp321–341.
Vidal, J. (2010) ‘Billionaires and mega-corporations behind immense land grab in Africa’, Mail &
Guardian, 11 March.
Von Benda-Beckmann, F. , von Benda-Beckmann, K. and Wiber, M. (eds) (2006) Changing
Properties of Property, Oxford, Berghahn Books.
Waller, R. (1988) ‘Emutai: Crisis and response in Maasailand 1883–1902’, in D. Johnson and D.
Anderson (eds) The Ecology of Survival, Lester Crook Academic Publishing, London.
Waller, R.D. (1999) ‘Pastoral poverty in historical perspective’, in D.M. Anderson and V. Broch-
Due (eds) The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, James Currey,
Washington, R. , New, M. , Rahiz, M. and Karmacharya, J. (2011) ‘Climate change in CCAFS
Regions: recent trends, current projections, crop-climate suitability and prospects for improved
climate model information. Part 2, East Africa’, Working Paper, CGIAR Research Program on
Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), ccafs.cgiar.org.
Waters-Bayer, A. (1988) Dairying by Settled Fulani Women in Central Nigeria: The Role of
Women and Implications for Dairy Development, Wissenschaftsverlag Van Kiel, Kiel.
Waters-Bayer, A. and Bayer, W. (1994) ‘Coming to terms: Interactions between immigrant
Fulani cattle keepers and indigenous farmers in Nigeria’s subhumid zone’, Cahiers d’Études
africaines, vol 34, no 133–135, pp213–229.
Watson, D.J. and van Binsbergen, J. (2008) ‘Livelihood diversification opportunities for
pastoralists in Turkana, Kenya’, ILRI Research Report no 5, International Livestock Research
Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
WCED (1987) Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and
Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wekessa, M. (2005) Terminal Evaluation of the Restocking/Rehabilitation Programme for the
Internally-Displaced Persons in Fik Zone, Somali Region of Ethiopia, Save the Children UK,
Western, D. (1982) ‘The environment and ecology of pastoralists in arid savannas’,
Development and Change, vol 13, pp183–211.
Westoby, M. , Walker, B.H. and Noy-Meir, I. (1989) ‘Opportunistic management for rangelands
not at equilibrium’, Journal of Range Management, vol 42, no 4, pp266–274.
WFP (2009a) Evaluation of Kenya Emergency Operation 10374.0 and Country Programme
10264.0 (2004–2008), www.alnap.org/pool/files/erd-3616-full.pdf, accessed 4 December 2011.
WFP (2009b) ‘Protracted relief and recovery operations approved by correspondence between
the First Regular Session and the Annual Session 2009 — Kenya 10666.0’,
http://one.wfp.org/operations/current_operations/project_docs/200174.pdf, accessed 12
Wilby, R.L. , Troni, J. , Biot, Y. , Tedd, L. , Hewitson, B.C. , Smith, D.M. and Sutton, R.T. (2009)
‘A review of climate risk information for adaptation and development planning’, International
Journal of Climatology, vol 29, pp1193–1215.
William, J. and Tavneet, S. (2011) ‘Mobile Money: The Economics of M-PESA’, Working Paper
16721, www.nber.org/papers/w16721, accessed on 30 November 2011.
Williams, A.P. and Funk, C. (2010) ‘A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward
extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa’, Climate Dynamics,
www.springerlink.com/content/u0352236x6n868n2/, accessed 16 November 2011.
World Bank (2001) Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources,
and Voice, World Bank Policy Research Report, no 21776.
World Bank (2006) Gender Equality as Smart Economics: A World Bank Group Action Plan.
World Bank, Washington, DC.
World Bank (2010) Rising Global Interest in Farmland: Can it Yield Sustainable and Equitable
Benefits? Report of the Agriculture and Rural Development Department, Washington DC.
World Bank Development Indicators (2011) http://databank.worldbank.org/ddp/, accessed 17
You, L. , Ringler, C. , Nelson, G. , Wood-Sichra, U. , Robertson, R. , Wood, S. , Guo, Z. , Zhu,
T. and Sun, Y. (2010) What is the Irrigation Potential for Africa? A Combined Biophysical and
Socioeconomic Approach, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00993, International Food Policy Research
Institute, Washington, DC.
Young, C. (1994) The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective, Yale University Press,
Young, Y. (1999) ‘Along Ethiopia’s western frontier: Gambella and Benishangul in transition’,
The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol 37, no 2, pp321–346.
Young, H. , Osman, A.M. , Aklilu, Y. , Dale, R. , Badri, B. and Fuddle, A.J.A. (2005) Darfur:
Livelihoods under Siege, Feinstein International Famine Center, Tufts University, Medford, MA.
Young, H. , Osman, A.M. , Abusin, A.M. , Asher, M. and Egemi, O. (2009) Livelihoods, Power
and Choice: The Vulnerability of the Northern Rizaygat, Darfur, Sudan, Feinstein International
Center, Tufts University, Medford, MA.
Zaal, F. (1998) Pastoralism in a Global Age, Thela Press, Amsterdam.
Zaal, F. and Dietz, T. (1999) ‘Of markets meat, maize and milk: Pastoral commoditization in
Kenya’, in D. Anderson and V. Broch-Due (eds) (1999) The Poor Are Not Us: Poverty and
Pastoralism in Eastern Africa, James Currey Press, Oxford, pp163–198.
Zoomers, A. (2010) ‘Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: Seven processes driving the
current global land grab’, Journal of Peasant Studies, vol 37, no 2, pp429–447.
Zwaagstra, L. , Sharif, Z. , Wambile, A. , de Leeuw, J. , Johnson, N. , Njuki, J. , Said, M. ,
Ericksen, P. and Herrero, M. (2010) An Assessment of the Response to the 2008–2009 Drought
in Kenya, ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya,
e=3, accessed 16 November 2011little.