Thesis

Nutritional value assessment of black soldier fly larvae reared with organic waste as aquafeed ingredient

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Abstract

Since the suitability of BSFL as animal feed depends on the nutritional composition of their rearing substrate and it is possible to modify the nutrient composition of BSFL by adjusting their rearing substrate. Five experiments were conducted and the main conclusion is listed below: 1.Using 50% Schizochytrium microalgae residue as the substrate increased the amount of DHA in BSF pre-pupae. 2.BSFL decreased the amount of olive pomace waste with retention of lauric acid and protein in their bodies, BSFL and 75% will be the optimal percentage of this waste to use as the cheapest rearing substrate for BSFL. 3.Using bird manure as a substrate for BSFL are better than mammal manure to increase the amount of PUFAs and other chemical compositions of BSF pre-pupae. Using manure made EAAI of BSF pre-pupae satisfying source for fishes and shrimps than fishmeal and soybean meal. 4.The optimal percentage of using quail manure as a substrate for BSFL was 40%. Using 100% quail manure as a feeding media for BSFL decreased the amount of total fat and saturated FAs with accumulating the amount of MUFAs, especially OA and biosynthesize POA of BSF pre-pupae. 5.Applying Se-rich silkworm pupae residue for feeding BSFL raised the amount of ALA by hundred times than using 50% Schizochytrium microalgae residue. Moreover, using Se-rich silkworm pupae increased the amount of protein in BSF pre-pupae, but the Se content kept constant in the body of BSFL. Finally, all the organic wastes evaluated in this study could be used as rearing substrates for BSFL to achieve a sustainable circular economy by replacing the source of protein (fishmeal and soybean meal), source of lipid (fish oil), or both of them. * Innovative points of the study 1.The present study found that the composition of BSFL could be manipulated with the adjustment of the rearing substrate, such as Schizochytrium microalgae residue and Se-rich silkworm pupae residual, which makes it possible to produce high-quality BSFL product intentionally. 2.The present study found that bird manure rather than mammal manure could be a good rearing substrate for BSFL production with better nutritional value.

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The present study was conducted to investigate growth performance, carcass characteristics, short-chain fatty acids, fatty acid composition in abdominal fat, and serum parameters in broiler chickens fed diets containing corn oil, coconut oil, or black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) oil at the level of 50 g per kg of diet during the 30-day-feeding period. A total 450 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to one of 3 dietary groups. Each treatment had 10 replicates with 15 chicks per replicate. Feed conversion ratio was decreased in the coconut and BSFL oil group compared with the corn oil group. Dietary BSFL oil increased ileal weight-to-length ratio at day 30 after hatch. Dietary BSFL oil increased significantly ileal branched-chain fatty acid (P < 0.05) and moderately total short-chain fatty acid in 15-day-old broilers (P = 0.074). At day 30, ileal propionate was highest in the coconut oil group but cecal propionate was highest (P < 0.05) in the BSFL oil group. Fatty acid composition of abdominal fat was affected by dietary fat sources. Especially, chickens fed diets containing coconut oil or BSFL oil had higher contents (P < 0.05) of saturated fatty acid being dominant in lauric and myristic acids compared with those fed on corn oil. On the other hand, the reverse trend was noted (P < 0.05) as to polyunsaturated fatty acids being dominant in corn oil compared with coconut oil and BSFL oil. Coconut oil vs. corn oil significantly increased total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Finally, BSFL oil vs. corn oil significantly increased total antioxidant capacity in chickens. It is concluded that dietary BSFL oil improves feed conversion ratio and increases the incorporation of medium-chain fatty acids into abdominal fat pad and serum antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.
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This study aims to utilise sericulture biowaste, i.e. waste silkworm pupae, for mass production of the predatory stink bug Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff). To achieve this, waste silkworm pupae were frozen and their suitability as a feed to E. furcellata was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The survival, development and biological fitness of the E. furcellata on silkworm pupae were determined and compared with other frozen larvae i.e. Galleria mellonella and Corcyra cephalonica as a feed to the predator. The results indicated that the predator can be successfully mass produced on frozen waste silkworm pupa without any effect on its developmental biology, reproduction and fitness. The optimal production rates and the predation of E. furcellata on silkworm pupae were similar to that on a natural host. It is concluded that the waste silkworm pupae from sericulture industry can be used as a feed/prey for the mass production of the predatory pentatomids.
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An historical overview of the black soldier fly is given and how the appreciation of the insect developed from being harmful to beneficial. The change occurred in 1980, initially for their role in forensic entomology and later when it was realised that the insects can be used both for recycling organic waste streams and for providing nutritious feed for production animals. Now the number of publications on the black soldier fly is increasing exponentially, while more companies focus on its commercial use.
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This study was conducted to investigate if dietary supplementation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus) pulp (BSFP) affects growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis). A total of 270 juvenile mirror carp (13.68 ± 0.02 g) were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments, BSFP0, BSFP25, BSFP50, BSFP75, and BSFP100, in which BSFP was included in the basal diet at 0, 43.7, 87.3, 131, and 174.7 g kg-1, respectively. Then, fish were fed to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Fish growth performance and nutrient utilisation were not different among the five groups (P > 0.05). Increasing BSFP dietary content significantly decreased whole-body lipid content but increased kidney index (P < 0.05). The general relative intestine length was significantly higher in the BSFP100 group than the BSFP0 group (P < 0.05). Increasing BSFP dietary content significantly increased serum catalase activity and decreased malonaldehyde content (P < 0.05). The intestinal villus height, villus area, and muscle layer thickness were significantly lower in the BSFP100 group than the BSFP0 group (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the activity of intestinal trypsin, lipase, and amylase were observed among all groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicated that BSFP at the level below 131 g kg-1 could be added in diet of juvenile mirror carp without any negative effect on growth performance and intestinal health. Dietary BSFP inclusion at low levels decreased the whole body lipid content and increased the antioxidant activity of juvenile mirror carp. Keywords: Black soldier fly pulp (BSFP); Mirror carp; Diet supplementation; Growth; Health.
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Feather pecking is a key welfare challenge in laying hen husbandry. Feeding of live Hermetia illucens larvae could provide a possible solution to reduce feather pecking in hens. This research investigates effects of dispensing live H. illucens larvae to non-beak trimmed older laying hens on production performance, behavior and welfare. Control treatment hens were provided a commercial diet, while larvae treatment hens were provided live H. illucens larvae (using special dispenser) on top of a soy-free diet. Feather condition, production performance and egg quality were measured during the initiation (67 weeks age) and termination (78 weeks age) of the trial. Behavior of birds was monitored using video recording. Feed conversion ratio, body weight gain and egg laying parameters were similar for both treatments. At termination of the trial, larvae-fed hens exhibited better feather condition in comparison to control hens (p = 0.004). Behavioral observations indicated that larvae provision influenced the number of birds on floor during morning and afternoon hours. In conclusion, live H. illucens larvae could successfully replace soy in diets of older laying hens (in combination with local plant proteins). Provisioning of these insects also had a positive effect on the feather condition of laying hens with intact beaks.
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Hermetia illucens is an efficient bioconverter able to grow on various different organic materials, producing larvae, which are a good source of protein and fat with applications in the animal feed and biochemical industries. This fly’s capacity to reduce huge amounts of waste presents an interesting opportunity to establish a circular food economy. In this study, we assessed the suitability of using organic wastes from cricket and locust farming to rear H. illucens. Larvae developed until adult emergence on all the wastes, with a mean survival of over 94%. Cricket waste allowed faster development of heavier larvae than locust waste. Substrate reduction was particularly interesting on cricket waste (<72%), while locust waste was only reduced by 33%. The nutritional composition of the larvae reflected that of the growing substrates with a high protein and fat content. These results demonstrate the potential of using H. illucens to reduce and valorise waste generated when farming various insects through the production of a larval biomass for use as a protein meal in animal feeds or industrial applications.
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Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens; BSFL) can convert organic wastes into a nutrient-rich biomass suitable in animal feed, which could be a way to achieve more sustainable production of food. However, little is known about how the diet fed to BSFL affects their nutritional value, especially their fatty acid composition. In this study, BSFL were fed 11 diets based on four different organic waste sources (mussels, bread, fish and food waste). Fatty acid and proximate composition (dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and ash) were analysed in the diets, in two-week-old larvae and substrate residues. Larval weight, survival and feed conversion were also recorded. The diet was found to affect all parameters investigated. Irrespective of diet, the larval fat consisted mainly of lauric acid and other saturated fatty acids and these were found to be synthesised by the larvae. However, both the fatty acid composition of the substrate, and the larval weight were found to affect the fatty acid profile of the larvae. In general, larvae with a higher weight contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids and a lower percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It was concluded that the possibilities to tailor the fatty acid composition of the BSFL through the diet are limited; thus, the BSFL fat may not be suitable to replace fish oil, but has potential of inclusion in other food, feed and fuel products.
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Probiotic supplements are being used to improve the growth and immune performance of aquaculture species over the last couple of decades. In recent times, black soldier fly (BSF) is considered as one of the promising sources of alternative protein to fishmeal protein in aqua diets. Since the freshwater crayfish, marron (Cherax cainii), a Western Australian’s native and iconic freshwater crayfish species, grows fairly slow under commercial farming environment, this study was aimed to investigate the supplemental effect of BSF and BSF with probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (BSFLP) on overall health and immune performance of marron after 56 days of feeding under laboratory conditions. The post-trial data revealed insignificant influences of any diets on growth performance, however, both BSF and BSFLP based diets significantly improved some hemolymph parameters and gut health of marron. High throughput sequence data revealed that both BSF and BSFLP diets significantly improved the diversity of microbial communities including some beneficial bacteria for crustaceans in the hindgut of marron. Further analysis showed that both BSF and BSFLP diets upregulated the expression of some genes in the gut tissue and haemocytes associated with the innate immune response of marron at 48 h post injection. The up regulation of some immune genes in BSFLP diet group was found significantly linked to OTU abundance for Lactobacillus. The findings of this study could be helpful for improving overall health status of marron.
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Although green innovation and technology is not new, so far very limited information is available regarding the diversified approaches for green technologies and engineering. This book highlights the challenges and opportunities, offering a roadmap for using various approaches in the most cost effective way. The book discusses the interrelationship between a circular economy and green technologies. It presents the dimensions of green innovations and illustrates the challenges of industrialization, especially in terms of material synthesis and utilized processes. It covers the current environmental and health challenges of societies and describes the role of stakeholders in developing sustainable societies and industries. This book provides a line of approach to core and interdisciplinary students, academicians, research scientists, and various industry personnel to present their ideas of green innovations with a common vision of sustainable development of community and industries in mind. Features Discusses the interrelationship between a circular economy and green technologies Presents the dimensions of green innovations Illustrates the challenges of industrialization, especially in terms of material synthesis and utilized processes Covers the current environmental and health challenges of societies Offers the identification and role of stakeholders in the sustainable development of societies and industries
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This book summarizes the fast-growing and current knowledge about selenium interaction with cancer, diabetes, neuro-degeneration, heart disease, muscle disorders, HIV and several more. A special focus will be placed on in-depth knowledge about gene expression, selenoprotein biosynthesis, seleno-metabolism--as well as the molecular pathways, physiological roles, and the molecular action of selenium including interaction with other elements and vitamins or as Se-nanoparticles. The reader will receive the newest information regarding redox status and redox regulatory systems, specifically in relation to different glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin-reductases as well as about cellular bioavailability and cytotoxicity, de-balanced immune response, inflammation or dietary aspects.
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Black Soldier Fly (BSF) meal is considered an alternative, emerging, and sustainable ingredient for aquafeed formulation. However, results on fish physiological responses are still fragmentary and often controversial, and no data are available on the effect of insect meal-based diets on fish reproduction. On this regard, zebrafish, with its relatively short life cycle, represents an ideal experimental model to explore this topic. In this study, female zebrafish were fed for 12 months on a control diet based on fish meal (FM) and fish oil and two experimental diets with full-fat BSF (Hermetia illucens) prepupae meal inclusion, to replace 25% and 50% of FM (BSF25 and BSF50). All diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic, and isoenergetic. The effects of these two experimental diets on female's reproduction were investigated through a multidisciplinary approach, including the evaluation of growth, gonadosomatic index, spawned/fertilized eggs and hatching rate, adult female carcass and fertilized egg fatty acid composition, histological analysis of the ovary, spectroscopic macromolecular composition of class IV oocytes, and expression of genes involved in fish lipid metabolism in the liver. Results showed that while fish were perfectly able to cope with a 25% insect meal dietary inclusion, a 50% inclusion level caused the overexpression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, a general reduction in the number of spawned eggs, and differences in the frequency rate of previtellogenic oocytes, class III, IV, oocytes and postovulatory follicles and atretic oocytes, in the macromolecular composition of class IV oocytes, and in the fatty acid composition of the fertilized eggs, respect to control and 25% group.
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Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) biotreatment has been accepted as an eco-friendly alternative means for organic waste disposal; it can efficiently convert animal manure into biodiesel and biofertilizer. However, information about black soldier flies related to the organic matter transformation of different manures is limited. In this study, chicken manure (CM), pig manure (PM) and cow manure (COM) were treated by black soldier fly larvae for nine days, and the manures without black soldier fly larvae were noted as control. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from the initial and digested manures were studied by UV-vis, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that black soldier fly larvae decomposed the carboxylic, alcohol and aliphatic components in PM and CM, while they increased the carboxylic substances in COM. After black soldier fly digestion, the proteinaceous materials in all manures decreased, while the aromatic polycondensation, molecular weight and polar functional groups of DOM increased. Furthermore, according to analysis of the fluorescence spectra, the simple structural organic matter (5.99 -29.50 %) obviously decomposed and converted into the humic-like substances after black soldier fly digestion. Meanwhile, the humification degree of digested CM and COM (57.07 -63.74 %) are higher than that found in PM (42.45 %).
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The present study investigated the effect of graded levels of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) meal and paste on physical pellet quality, digestibility and utilization of nutrients and growth performances in extruded diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 1260 Atlantic salmon with 34 g of mean initial weight were randomly distributed into 21 fiberglass tanks and fed with one of seven isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets for seven weeks. The experimental diets consisted of a control diet based on fishmeal, soy protein concentrate, corn gluten, faba bean and fish oil (Control-1); three diets with increased levels of full-fat BSFL meal, substituting 6.25% (6.25IM), 12.5% (12.5IM) and 25% (25IM) of the protein content of Control-1; two diets with increased levels of full-fat BSFL paste, substituting 3.7% (3.7IP) and 6.7% (6.7IP) of protein from Control-1 and an extra control diet with 0.88% of formic acid (Control-2). Pellet durability and hardness were overall high for all diets. However, the expansion, sinking velocity and water stability of feed pellets were lower with increased inclusion of BSFL meal and paste. Dietary inclusion of BSFL meal or paste did not affect the feed intake of fish. Further, replacing the protein content of the control diet with up to 12.5% and 6.7% of BSFL meal and paste, respectively, did not compromise fish growth rate or feed conversion ratio, although polynomial contrast analysis showed that increasing BSFL meal level in the diet linearly (p < .05) decreased these parameters. However, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein and lipid, protein efficiency ratio and lipid retention were reduced linearly (p < .05) with increasing inclusion level of BSFL meal. Further, increasing dietary levels of BSFL paste linearly (p < .05) reduced ADC of protein, protein efficiency ratio and phosphorous retention. Despite the decreased ADC of protein, protein retention was not compromised by the inclusion of BSFL meal or paste. Replacement of 25% of dietary protein with BSFL meal decreased (p < .05) growth rate, accompanied by lower (p < .05) ADC and utilization of lipids and protein efficiency ratio. The present study showed that BSFL meal and paste could replace up to 12.5% and 6.7% of dietary protein, respectively, without compromising growth performance in Atlantic salmon.
Article
A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the influences of dietary valine (Val) levels on growth, protein utilisation, immunity, antioxidant status and gut micromorphology of juvenile hybrid groupers. Seven isoenergetic, isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded Val levels (1·21, 1·32, 1·45, 1·58, 1·69, 1·82 and 1·94 %, DM basis). Each experimental diet was hand-fed to triplicate groups of twelve hybrid grouper juveniles. Results showed that weight gain percentage (WG%), protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, and feed efficiency were increased as dietary Val level increased, reaching a peak value at 1·58 % dietary Val. The quadratic regression analysis of WG% against dietary Val levels indicated that the optimum dietary Val requirement for hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 %. Gut micromorphology and expression of growth hormone in pituitary, insulin-like growth factor 1, target of rapamycin and S6 kinase 1 in liver were significantly affected by dietary Val levels. In serum, fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher superoxide dismutase, catalase, lysozyme activities and IgM concentrations than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 in head kidney than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Generally, the optimum dietary Val requirement for maximal growth of hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 % of DM, corresponding to 3·16 % of dietary protein, and dietary Val levels affected growth, protein utilisation, immunity and antioxidant status in hybrid groupers.
Article
Free download at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848620311716?dgcid=author Insects are able to bio-convert organic by-products into a sustainable biomass for aquafeed formulation. Specifically, among several insect species, Hermetia illucens (H) is particularly interesting for its nutritious traits but, unfortunately, the lipidic fraction is poorly represented by polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 and poses some limits in its application in aquafeed formulation. The present study undertook an interdisciplinary approach to explore the effects of three experimental diets containing increasing levels of full-fat H meal (H0 diet based on fishmeal and purified protein-rich vegetable ingredients; H25 and H50 diets containing 25% or 50% of full-fat H meal replacing fishmeal, respectively), on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed over a 98 days experimental period. The expression of genes related to lipid metabolism by RT-qPCR, liver histology, as well as the qualitative traits of fillets and fatty acid (FA) composition were investigated. Interestingly, fads2 gene expression in pyloric caeca increased in fish fed diets containing the highest full-fat H meal inclusion (H50 > H0; p < .05). Liver histological examinations showed normal morphological aspect even though hepatic FA profiles seemed to resemble those of the diets. However, liver docosahexaenoic acid did not significantly differ between the dietary groups and showed a mean value of 11.07 g FA methyl esters/100 g total FA methyl esters. Despite the FA profile of the three diets differed depending on the H meal inclusion level, biometrics, fillet physical traits, total lipids and the overall FA profile were not jeopardised, not even eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The overall results showed that the dietary full-fat H meal inclusion under study did not impair fish fillet quality, guaranteeing its nutritional value. Some effects on lipid metabolism were observed, as suggested by liver, pyloric caeca and mid intestine gene expression and liver FA profile. Future studies on the biological mechanisms behind the macroscopic traits of fish fed unprocessed insects are warmly encouraged.
Article
For successful prawn aquaculture, feeds should be based on readily consumed ingredients that promote survival and optimal growth performance. This pilot study investigates the rearing of juvenile Baltic prawn Palaemon adspersus . Two feeding trials were carried out for 60 days; both incorporated insect meals, the first one in fishmeal‐based diets, whereas the second one in plant meal ones. Insect meals derived from larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM), Hermetia illucens (HI) and Musca domestica (MD) were tested as feed ingredients. This study indicated that the inclusion of HI in fishmeal diets resulted in significantly higher growth performance and survival of the prawns, whereas the MD diet led to similarly high growth performance reducing significantly their survival. Growth performance was not affected by the insect inclusion in the plant‐based diets, but survival was higher in the TM and HI inclusion diets. The inclusion of TM and HI resulted in higher protein and energy content of the prawns’ muscle when incorporated in fishmeal and plant meal diets respectively. No significant differences were observed in the activities of hepatopancreas’ amino acid‐catabolizing enzymes. Concluding, the combinations fishmeal–HI and plant meal–TM can be used for the successful rearing of Baltic prawn.
Article
In the present study, a new biorefinery approach for efficient conversion of chicken manure mixed with rapeseed straw was investigated through anaerobic co-digestion though digestate recycling. The liquid digestate fraction was used for straw pretreatment, while the solid fraction was utilized for rearing the black soldier fly larvae. Anaerobic digestion of raw straw resulted in biomethane yield of 144.2 L kg⁻¹ VS, while the pretreatment enhanced it to 227.6 L kg⁻¹ VS. Co-digestion of the pretreated straw with chicken manure at different ratios of 1:1, 1:3, and 3:1 increased the biomethane yield to 323.5, 349.6, and 262.3 L kg⁻¹ VS, respectively, with higher biomethanation efficiency. Black soldier fly larvae were grown on different ratios of solid digestate/larva (D/L) of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00, where it showed higher growth and faster development by increasing the digestate ratio. In addition, lipid content significantly increased by increasing the digestate ratio, reaching the maximum values of 31.8 dw% at 1.00 D/L. Therefore, the highest fatty acid methyl esters recovery of 301.8 mg g⁻¹ dw was recorded at 1.00 D/L, with pronounced enhanced biodiesel characteristics. The suggested integrated approach using a mixture of liquid digestate pretreated straw to manure at a ratio of 1:3 for dual purpose of biogas and biodiesel production enhanced the gross bioenergy yield by 95.7%, 24.6%, and 38.7% over those of raw rapeseed straw, pretreated straw, or chicken manure, respectively. The present study demonstrates an innovative waste-to-energy route that will have a positive impact on the future of biofuel industry.
Article
Fishmeal (FM) is one of the major protein sources used in fish diets, which was obtained from wild fish catches. Due to the steady decline in fish catches accompanied with the increased demands for aquafeeds, a rapid decrease in the FM availability is much more expected. Alternative protein sources of animal origins, such as dried black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae meal (DBSFLM), may be used as an alternative protein source instead of FM in aquafeeds. Therefore, a feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of FM with DBSFLM on growth performance and body composition of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. A basal diet (45% crude protein) was formulated, where DBSFLM protein replaced 25, 35, or 50% of FM protein. Fish (12.1 ± 0.21 g) were fed one of the tested diets up to apparent satiation thrice a day for 8 weeks. No significant differences were observed in fish growth, feed utilization, and survival (P > 0.05). The DBSFLM inclusion in the diets of European sea bass did not affect its body constituents. Additionally, values of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not significantly influenced by DBSFLM inclusion in fish diets as compared to the FM-control fish. Likewise, no significant changes were observed in counts of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils in DBSFLM-fed fish as compared to the FM-control fish. The DBSFLM inclusion in diets for European sea bass did not affect levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. The simple economic analysis evoked that feed cost decreased with increasing DBSFLM levels in fish diets. The findings of the present study elucidated that the growth performance was not significantly changed by partial replacement of FM protein up to 50% by DBSFLM protein, which reduced the feeding cost by 15.6% as compared with the FM-control diet.
Article
An experiment was conducted with the objectives of determining the coefficient of ileal apparent digestibility (CIAD) and the coefficient of ileal standardized digestibility (CISD) of amino acids (AA) in housefly (HF) and black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae meal by growing pigs. Ten pigs fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum with an average initial body weight of 25.05 kg were housed individually in metabolism cages equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. The pigs were randomly assigned each to one of two diets formulated to contain 976.7 g/kg of HF or BSF as the sole source of nitrogen. A nitrogen-free (N-free) diet was also formulated to estimate the basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of AA. All experimental diets contained 2 g/kg titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. The daily feed allowance was offered in three equal meals that were fed at 0830, 1400 and 1930 h. Each experimental period lasted for 7 days, the initial 4 d for diet acclimation, followed by 3 d for ileal digesta collection and the digesta samples were collected continuously for 12 h. The CIAD of all AA for HF and BSF are more than 0.726 and 0.641, respectively. The values for the CISD of all AA range from 0.870 to 1.608 and from 0.767 to 1.177 for HF and BSF, respectively. Moreover, the values for the CIAD of all AA in HF are greater (P < 0.05) than in BSF. The dispensable AA account for the most proportion of the endogenous fraction and the BEL of proline is the greatest. The values for the CISD of all AA except methionine and cysteine in HF are also greater (P < 0.05) than in BSF. It is concluded that the digestibility of all AA in HF is greater than in BSF in pig.
Article
A 60-day experiment was conducted to examine the effect of fishmeal substitution with black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, haematology, serum biochemistry, and oxidative status of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Four diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (418 g Kg−1 crude protein), isolipidic (95 g Kg−1 crude lipid) and isocaloric (20.14 MJ Kg−1 gross energy). The control diet was formulated using fishmeal (FM) as the principal protein source and was progressively substituted with Hermetia illucens (hereafter referred to as HP) larvae meal at 25%, 50%, and 75%, on equivalent protein basis, corresponding to dietary inclusion level of 57, 115, and 172 g Kg−1, respectively. A total of 180 fingerlings of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was used for the trial and distributed randomly to twelve plastic tanks each containing 15 (4.0 ± 0.01 g/fish) fish. At the end of the trial, the fish fed HP 50% recorded the highest final body weight, weight gain, weight gain percentage, and specific growth rate compared to other groups (p < .05). The nutrient utilization indices such as feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and protein productive value were found to be better in fish fed HP 50% compared with the control but no significant effect (p > .05) was noticed on the feed intake. A significantly higher whole-body protein was recorded in HP 50%, whereas lipid and ash contents showed no variation (p > .05). The blood parameters and differential leucocyte counts were not statistically different; however, serum total protein, globulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total bilirubin differed significantly among the dietary groups (p < .05). The liver function enzyme (AST and ALT) showed that the fish fed HP 50% recorded the lowest value. The results of the oxidative stress biomarker indicate that the fish fed HP-based diet had similar malondialdehyde (MDA) content with the control, but the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities were found to be higher in the control and HP 50%, respectively. Summarily, the results of the current study showed that African catfish can effectively utilize Hermetia illucens up to 172 g Kg−1 (75% FM replacement) without impairing growth, nutrient utilization, antioxidant, and health status of the fish.
Article
Most of the leftovers from agricultural productions and industrial processing of vegetables are currently discarded as waste, augmenting production costs and environmental impacts. Black soldier flies (BSF) are non-pest insects that can grow on various types of organic materials. The larvae initially act as fast and efficient bioconverters, before being further valorized as biomass rich in proteins, fats and chitin. The aim of the present study was to exploit the potential of BSF prepupae reared on vegetable leftovers with high seasonality, and to obtain compounds with high added value and further industrial and agronomic uses such as food/feed, soil improver or fuel. The optimization of BSF rearing substrates based on different leftovers combinations was performed through a Mixture Design approach. Initially, a database was built detailing the availability, seasonality and nutrient composition of the vegetable by-products. According to the seasonal availability of the agri-food leftovers, three main groups were identified: annual, summer and autumn mixtures, in order to promote the exploitation of the highest quantity of leftovers. This approach allowed the obtainment of statistically reliable correlations (R2 > 0.75) between the employed leftovers and the content of lipid and nitrogen compounds (protein and chitin) of the BSF prepupae. In particular, a mixture of vegetable leftovers available in autumn that included legume (25 wt%), cereal (20 wt%) and vegetable (25 wt%) wastes proved to be the best combination in terms of insect growth (-25% development time compared to the control group) and nutritional composition. The chemical composition of the insect biomass allowed the identification of potential applications with high added value, such as food ingredients (protein and fats) or nutraceuticals (chitin). The identification of the optimal parameters to ensure the greatest possible efficiency would promote the scale-up of BSF rearing to an industrial level.
Article
Insect-derived protein and lipid sources are sustainable, alternative ingredients for the feed industry. The present study was conducted to determine the impact of increasing levels of supplemental black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) oil on growth performance and serological and hematological indices in nursery pigs. Newly weaned, 21-day old pigs (n = 192; BW=6.9±0.15 kg) were randomly assigned within sex and BW blocks to 1 of 4 dietary treatments, using 48 pens (4 pigs/pen; 12 replicates/treatment). Treatments consisted of 0, 2, 4, and 6% supplemental BSFL oil (mainly contained C12:0, C18:2, C16:0, C18:1, and C14:0 at 36.9, 17.3, 14.6, 13.1, and 9.8 g/100 g of lipid, respectively), replacing equal amounts of corn oil. Dietary treatments were fed in 3 dietary phases (14, 11, and 15 d for Phase 1 to 3, respectively). Supplementation of BSFL oil linearly increased BW (P ≤ 0.052) on d 14, 21, 25, 33, and 40 (final BW of 27.83, 27.62, 28.84, and 28.44 kg, respectively) and ADG during Phase 1 (P = 0.017), 2 (P = 0.055), and overall (P = 0.048; 523, 518, 548, and 539 g/d). Gain:feed was improved linearly during Phase 1 (P = 0.001) and 2 (P = 0.049), but ADFI was not affected (P > 0.36). Supplemental BSFL oil did not affect (P > 0.18) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, urea N, creatinine, glucose, Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, triglycerides, amylase, lipase, or creatine phosphokinase, but linearly increased (P < 0.001) serum cholesterol. White blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were not affected (P > 0.17) by BSFL oil, but platelet count tended to linearly increase (P = 0.082). All serological and hematological analytical results were within normal expected ranges. In conclusion, BSFL oil is a promising, high energy feed ingredient that can be successfully fed to nursery pigs, while improving their growth performance.
Article
Hermetia illucens L. (the black soldier fly) has received increased attention because of its great potential in converting organic waste into a renewable resource. The prepupae have high proportions of proteins and fats and can serve as feedstuff for livestock and as feedstock for biodiesel production. With the goal to upgrade the conversion of low-value organic wastes into high-value proteins and fat on a large scale, the effects of the feedstuffs food waste, pig manure, chicken manure, and cow dung on the reproductive potential and nutrient composition of H. illucens were evaluated. The intrinsic rate of increase of H. illucens fed food waste (0.1249 d-1) was significantly greater than the rate of those fed pig manure (0.1167 d-1), chicken manure (0.1154 d-1), and cow dung (0.1049 d-1). The ash content of H. illucens fed food waste (30.8 g·kg-1 lyophilized prepupa matter (LPM)) was significantly lower than that of those fed chicken manure (37.6 g·kg-1 LPM) and cow dung (49.5 g·kg-1 LPM). The contents of crude fat, 372.4 g·kg-1 LPM, and protein, 436.9 g·kg-1 LPM, in prepupae fed food waste were the highest among the four treatments. The reproductive performance and prepupal nutrient composition indicated that food waste was the most suitable feed for H. illucens. The results from this study further demonstrate that the prepupae of H. illucens have great potential for use as a protein and fat source in animal feeds and as biodiesel material.
Article
Black soldier fly (BSF) is used for the management of organic waste, but research has hardly explored the effect of companion bacteria when chicken manure (CHM) is converted to insect biomass. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial species (FE01, FE02, FE03, FE04, FE05, FE06, FE07, FE08, FE09) from BSF eggs and one (BSF-CL) from the larval gut. These companion bacteria were inoculated into CHM along with BSF larvae (BSFL). Larval growth and manure conversion rates were determined. Results indicated that almost all bacteria individual bacteria in this study significantly promote BSFL growth. BSFL reared in manure with the species Kocuria marina (FE01), Lysinibacillus boronitolerans (FE04), Proteus mirabilis (FE08) and Bacillus subtilis (BSF-CL) had higher weight gain and manure reduction rates compared to the control. These four strains used were then examined as a poly-bacteria community experiment to determine BSFL growth and manure conversion. Manure inoculated with the poly-bacteria Group3 (FE01:FE04:FE08:BSF-CL = 4:1:1:1) and then fed to BSFL resulted in 28.6% more weight gain than the control. The greatest manure reduction rate (52.91%) was reached when companion bacteria were mixed at a ratio of 1:1:1:4. Additionally, the companion bacteria influenced the nutritional value of BSFL. Crude protein content in Group1 (FE01:FE04:FE08:BSF-CL = 1:1:1:1) was significantly larger than that of the control. Crude fat content in Group3 was significantly larger than that of the control. BSFL companion bacteria and their poly-bacteria compound improved manure conversion efficiency and nutrient accumulation in BSFL, reduced CHM quantity, increased larvae biomass, with potential economic gains in CHM management.
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A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the optimum selenium requirement in juvenile Nile tilapia. Each of six purified diets with Se‐methionine levels at 0.05, 0.21, 0.41, 0.57, 0.79 and 1.00 mg/kg was assayed in triplicate with initial body weight of 3.00 ± 0.01 g for 8 weeks. The growth of fish was obviously increased when the dietary Se was less than 0.57 mg/kg diet and reached a plateau when the dietary Se was ≥0.57 mg/kg. Serum and hepatopancreatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity increased markedly when the dietary Se was less than 0.57 mg/kg, but then decreased when the dietary Se was higher than 0.57 mg/kg. The malondialdehyde contents in hepatopancreas were significantly decreased when the dietary Se was higher than 0.79 mg/kg. No significant differences were observed in hepatopancreatic total antioxidant capability (T‐AOC) among the groups (p > .05). The results of this study indicated that Se addition as Se‐methionine was essential, while both the deficiency and excess levels of dietary Se would cause negative effects on growth or antioxidant capability in juvenile Nile tilapia. Based on broken‐line regression of WG and piecewise regression of liver GPx, the optimum requirement of Se for juvenile Nile tilapia is 0.57 mg/kg diet.