Article

Perceived Organizational Listening Effectiveness: A Comparison of Consumer Intelligence Provider and Consumer Intelligence User Assessments

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This paper describes research focusing on how an organizational member’s role in the process—specifically, whether s/he is a consumer intelligence provider or a consumer intelligence user—may impact his/her assessment of organizational listening practices and effectiveness. After reviewing literature in three relevant areas of research, the paper describes a study in which five hypotheses are tested, each of which predicts differences between provider and user assessments. Results indicate that provider and user assessments are comparable regarding (a) creating a climate for listening to consumers and (b) capturing consumer feedback. However, user assessments of effectiveness at analysis, dissemination, and utilization consumer intelligence are significantly less favorable than those from providers. Implications for theory-building and knowledge development, implications for practitioners, and directions for future research, are discussed.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Chapter
Full-text available
El crecimiento exponencial e irreversible de la web y las redes sociales es un fenómeno irrefutable que conlleva una serie de cambios en las distintas formas con las cuales las personas se comunican, informan, educan y entretienen (De-Santis Piras y Armendáriz González, 2021). La revolución generada alrededor del mundo propone un nuevo modelo en el cual los usuarios, sin importar su procedencia, estatus u ocupación, pueden ser emisores y receptores de información en tiempo real e ininterrumpido. Con todos estos cambios la publicidad ha visto la necesidad de adaptarse a los medios y formatos emergentes, modificando sus estrategias para adecuarse a los nuevos modelos. Las fórmulas tradicionales en la elaboración de publicidad y mensajes comerciales no funcionan de la misma manera en Internet y su eficacia resulta escasa sin la adecuada planificación estratégica. La inversión publicitaria en medios digitales crece año tras año, lo que demuestra la apuesta del mercado por las posibilidades comerciales de Internet como un portal de venta que no descansa y se mantiene activo todos los 356 días del año las 24 horas del día. La publicidad en internet invita al usuario a vivir una experiencia sensorial a través del ordenador mediante mensajes comerciales de forma interactiva, sutil, pero contundente. Esto se logra gracias a la elaboración de contenidos multimedia y audiovisuales desde una visión técnica y semántica de los nuevos espacios, buscando definir y destacar las principales características de productos y servicios de manera estratégica dentro de una o varias campañas publicitarias online u offline que aporten valor hacia los distintos usuarios o espectadores.
Article
Full-text available
Recently, calls have grown louder for more stakeholder democracy that is, letting stakeholders participate in the process of organizing, decision‐making, and governance in corporations, especially in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities. Despite the relevance of the subject, the impact of customer involvement in CSR on their company‐related attitudes and behaviors still represents a major research void. The paper at hand develops a conceptual framework of consumer involvement in CSR based on the existing literature, theories of stakeholder democracy, and organizational boundaries as well as drawing from the qualitative focus group interviews (N = 24). The framework is tested on a large scale, two‐time point field‐experimental study (N = 3,397). More specifically, consumer reactions to three degrees of customer involvement (i.e., information, feedback, and dialogue) are tested in two different CSR domains (i.e., company‐internal business process vs. company‐external philanthropic CSR). Results indicate that the customer involvement in CSR has a more beneficial effect in terms of strengthening customer outcomes in CSR domains that directly affect external stakeholders of the company (i.e., philanthropic CSR) than in domains that mainly concern company‐internal stakeholders (i.e., business process CSR).
Article
Full-text available
While there is an important and growing body of research literature on listening, it is predominantly focused on interpersonal listening. Meanwhile, in contemporary industrial and postindustrial societies, organizations play a central role in society and the lives of citizens. People need to interact on a daily basis with government departments and agencies, corporations, and a plethora of nongovernment and nonprofit organizations. Despite theorization of the disciplinary practices of public relations and corporate, organizational, government, and political communication as two-way communication involving dialogue and engagement with stakeholders and publics, a transdisciplinary literature review of these fields reveals that little attention is paid to listening. In addition to identifying this gap in the literature, this article reports empirical research that shows organizations listen sporadically, often poorly, and sometimes not at all. To address this socially and politically significant gap, this analysis makes recommendations as a contribution to a theory and practice of organizational listening.
Article
Full-text available
An extensive body of literature theorizes public relations as two-way communication, dialogue, and relationships between organizations and their publics. Although there are alternative views, including public relations as advocacy, most theories emphasize dialogue, co-orientation, and relationships incorporating satisfaction, trust, and control mutuality—even to the extent of symmetry. Critical perspectives propose a sociocultural turn that further emphasizes stakeholders’ and societal interests. This analysis draws on a three-country study that reveals a major theory-practice gap and proposes a significant expansion of public relations theory in relation to listening to realize normative notions of public relations and give effect to claims of dialogue and engagement.
Article
Full-text available
All too often researchers perform a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) on their data and then fail to fully recognize the true multivariate nature of their effects. The most common error is to follow the MANOVA with univariate analyses of the dependent variables. One reason for the occurrence of such errors is the lack of clear pedagogical materials for identifying and testing the multivariate effects from the analysis. The current paper consequently reviews the fundamental differences between MANOVA and univariate Analysis of Variance and then presents a coherent set of methods for plumbing the multivariate nature of a given data set. A completely worked example using genuine data is given along with estimates of effect sizes and confidence intervals, and an example results section following the technical writing style of the American Psychological Association is presented. A number of issues regarding the current methods are also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article consists of a dialogue focused on listening philosophy, theory, and inclusive management practices for maximum productivity and performance in multicultural workplaces. The discussion illustrates that listening both influences cultural interactions and is impacted by cultural values and practices. This focus is broadly framed by an intercultural background that is philosophical and theoretical (but with a critical awareness of the limitations of theory). The study is supported by examples of cultural practices that illuminate and solve problems in the multicultural workplace, particularly in North America (the U.S. and Canada).
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to develop five public relations scales as a substitutions for models/dimensions that were subject to much criticism. Based on this conceptual re‐evaluation of the excellence study, one of the dominant public relations paradigms, the manuscript proposes a measurement approach for the public relations practice. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper based on a critical literature review aimed at understanding the errors in the public relations models conceptualization and their empirical tests. Based on this review, new and improved scales of public relations are proposed. Findings The study developed five scales of public relations as substitutions for models/dimensions. The study proposed a measurement approach for the public relations practice. Finally, the study concluded that further research advancing the excellence scholarship is essential to better understanding the profession of public relations. Practical implications This manuscript creates a measurement approach which public relations practitioners can use to plan, monitor, and evaluate public relations campaigns and ongoing programs, as well as to manage knowledge and expertise of public relations practitioners and departments, and the expectations of the dominant coalition toward the public relations unit. Originality/value This re‐conceptualization can finally address the criticism of the earlier models and dimensions of public relations, establish a measurement approach for the practice of public relations, as well as provide a tool that can be used by both academic and practitioners in planning, monitoring, evaluating, and managing public relations.
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this work was to examine the content of continuous improvement processes, taking into account its inclusion in modern organizations´ strategies. Continuous improvement plays an important role in ISO 9000 norms and excellence models. This paper argues that several specific issues must be taken into account in order to reach successful outcomes. This work starts with a literature review on the matter. On this basis we designed a survey of a group of 30 large companies, selected according to their billing, its market share, its membership to quality institutions and the existence of a certified management system. Finally, we compared the development of continuous improvement process in companies with very effective results and with scarce results. Differences that emerged from this comparison enabled us to identify critical factors for achieving a successful improvement process. As there are no recent researches on continuous improvement programs in Argentina, this paper contributes to recognizing and systematizing what has been done, comparing it with theoretical framework and uncovering research gaps for future studies. However, further research must confirm these findings and move forward on the analysis of intangible factors, like: internal communications, climate, culture, self reflexion, consensus, etc.
Article
Full-text available
Listening is known to strongly correlate with leadership perception. As leadership theories distinguish between people-oriented (consideration) and task-oriented (initiating structure) leaders, we sought to identify parallel listening behaviors: person-oriented listening versus fact-oriented listening. A survey of employees from multiple organizations (N = 238) suggested that both person-oriented listening and considerate leadership are better measured with subscales differentiating constructive and destructive listening and considerate and inconsiderate leadership. Second, results suggested that the highest correlations for each leadership scale were (a) leadership consideration with person-oriented listening (r = .71), (b) leadership inconsideration with destructive listening (r = .67), and (c) initiating- structure leadership with fact-oriented listening (r = .23). The pattern of relationships was further explored with a path analysis. Based on the data, it appears that measuring listening could benefit from using separate scales for constructive versus destructive listening, and that key aspects of leadership perception are highly correlated with listening behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Five studies compared the complexity of explicit semantic knowledge of self and others. In Study 1, students rated targets on unipolar and bipolar trait scales. In Study 2, they used trait checklists to describe targets in various roles. Study 3 replicated Study 2 except participants generated a unique set of roles for each target. In Studies 4 and 5, judges coded the complexity of openended descriptions of each target. Self-other differences in complexity were found in both directions and depended on such factors as the valence of the descriptors and the closeness of the target. For example, compared to self-descriptions, descriptions of disliked others contained fewer roles and more negative traits, whereas descriptions of liked others (although generally similar to the self) contained fewer negative traits and more roles. Overall, the results contradict the common belief that people think more complexly about the self than others.
Article
Full-text available
Institutional messages provide a conceptual and empirical link between the predominantly macro world of institutions and the micro world of organizational communication. The concept of the institutional message is used colloquially but has not been developed theoretically.The conception that emerges from a review of the scholarly and primitive uses is that institutional messages are collations of thoughts that take on lives independent of senders and recipients. They may have the force of rules, spread intentionally or unintentionally via multiple channels to narrow or wider audiences. This essay considers the institutionality of messages in terms of their endurance, reach, encumbency, and intentionality. Institutional messages carry institutional logics—patterns of beliefs and rules. They are collations of thoughts that are intentional, enduring, have a wide reach, and encumber organizational participants to engage in certain behaviors or to take performative responses. It is argued that individuals and organizations develop institutional logics as they make sense of institutional messages. Implications and suggestions for research are included.
Article
Full-text available
Call centers have become an important customer access channel as well as an important source of customerrelated information. This boundary-spanning unit has finally enabled companies to take marketing’s commonplace wisdom of listening to the customer literally. As a result, there has been an increase in voice-to-voice service encounters and in these encounters listening as an essential skill. In this article, three dimensions of listening behavior are discerned: attentiveness, perceptiveness, and responsiveness. Results of an empirical study reveal that attentiveness is a direct driver of encounter satisfaction, whereas perceptiveness is primarily related to trust. Furthermore, the responsiveness dimension is related positively to both satisfaction and trust. In addition, we find a significant association between satisfaction and trust, and, finally, both a satisfactory evaluation of the voice-tovoice encounter and the build up of trust have a significant impact on the customer’s intention to contact the call center again in the future.
Article
Full-text available
For more than 50 years, business professionals and some researchers have held that effective listening is a highly desirable workplace skill (Cooper, 1997; Husband, Cooper, & Monsour, 1988; Nichols & Stevens, 1957; Rogers & Rothlisberger, 1952; Sypher, 1984). However, listening as an organizational variable continues to be seen as a “soft” skill worthy of little attention in the scholarly business literature, in the business classroom, and in organizations (Flynn & Faulk, in press). This paper presents an overview of academic research on listening in the business environment and raises a number of key research questions that guided discussion of the Business Context Division of the International Forum on Listening Research. This work is designed to foster rigorous listening research among scholars in a variety of academic business fields.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide experimental evidence supporting the view that internal service quality has a direct effect on external service quality. Design/methodology/approach – The study focuses on the restaurant industry in Greece. Waiters are considered as internal customers and kitchen personnel as internal suppliers. Inferential analysis included factor analysis on individual waiter and customer data as well as canonical correlation analysis on a restaurant level. Findings – Factor analysis of external service quality revealed six factors including product, organizational image, safety and choice, empathy, reliability as well as responsiveness. Internal service quality factors, additional to those found in external service quality research, included professionalism and internet. Canonical correlation revealed that the internal service quality dimensions of safety, reliability and internet exert a direct positive influence on the external service quality dimensions of organizational image, empathy and responsiveness. Originality/value – The paper shows that service firms should focus on internal service quality in order to improve external service quality.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Knowledge sharing is the corner‐stone of many organisations’ knowledge‐management (KM) strategy. Despite the growing significance of knowledge sharing's practices for organisations’ competitiveness and market performance, several barriers make it difficult for KM to achieve the goals and deliver a positive return on investment. This paper provides a detailed review of current KM and related literatures on a large number of possible knowledge‐sharing barriers with the purpose of offering a more comprehensive and structured starting‐point for senior managers when auditing their organisation's current knowledge base and knowledge‐sharing requirements. Design/methodology/approach This article reviews and discusses over three dozen potential knowledge‐sharing barriers, categorising them into three main domains of recently published works: individual/personal, organisational, and technological barriers. Findings The extensive list of knowledge sharing barriers provides a helpful starting point and guideline for senior managers auditing their existing practices with a view to identifying any bottle‐necks and improving on the overall effectiveness of knowledge‐sharing activities. Practical implications Managers need to realise, however, that a particular knowledge sharing strategy or specific managerial actions will not suit all companies and that there are differences to be expected between MNCs and SMEs, private, public sector, and not‐for‐profit organisations. As such, the implementation of knowledge‐sharing goals and strategies into an organisation's strategic planning and thinking will vary greatly. Originality/value The main discussion of this paper brings together a large range of knowledge‐ sharing barriers in an attempt to indicate the complexity of knowledge sharing as a value‐creating organisational activity.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to summarize the current research in the field of complaint handling, specifically to focus on how the organizational response to a customer complaint affects the postcomplaint customer behavior. A model framework is presented that divides these organizational responses into six separate dimensions (timeliness, facilitation, redress, apology, credibility, and attentiveness) and takes an in-depth look at each dimension in turn. Major questions and conclusions are presented for each dimension, which attempt to clarify what is really known or not known about the effect of that dimension on postcomplaint customer behavior. Special topics of future areas of research are discussed and a revised framework is presented to facilitate future research.
Article
Full-text available
By "listening in" to ongoing dialogues between customers and Web-based virtual advisers (e.g., Kelley Blue Book's Auto Choice Advisor), the authors identify new product opportunities based on new combinations of customer needs. The data are available at little incremental cost and provide the scale necessary for complex products (e.g., 148 trucks and 129 customer needs in the authors' application). The authors describe and evaluate the methodologies with formal analysis, Monte Carlo simulation (calibrated on real data), and a "proof-of-concept" application in the pickup-truck category (more than 1000 Web-based respondents). The application identified opportunities for new truck platforms worth approximately $2.4 billion-$3.2 billion and $1 billion-$2 billion, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
As one of its own foundational premises implies, the value of service- dominant (S-D) logic is necessarily in its open, collaborative effort. Thus, the authors invite and welcome both elaborative and critical viewpoints. Five recurring, con- tentious issues among collaborating scholars, as they attempt to understand the full nature and scope of S-D logic, are identified. These issues are clarified and refined, as is appropriate to this co-creation of a service-centric philosophy by the worldwide marketing community. Key Wordsmarketing theoryrelationship marketing • resource integrationresource theoryservice-dominant logicS-D logic • service marketing
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer critical reflection on the role played by the concept of dialogue in public relations theory, pedagogy, and practice. Design/methodology/approach This paper is theoretical and therefore focused on the elucidation of the history, meaning, and application of “dialogue” in public relations in comparison with two other academic disciplines and professional fields: political science and organizational communication. Findings The paper argues that, despite the key normative position occupied by the concept of dialogue in much mainstream public relations scholarship, public relations as an academic discipline has not engaged extensively with the theory of dialogue. While other academic and expert practitioner fields have developed much theoretical reflection, a range of dialogical tools, and created spaces in which the expertise is applied, public relations' normative interest in dialogue seems not to have translated into developing expert dialogic tools or spaces in which public relations experts routinely use such tools. Originality/value The paper introduces literature and debates about dialogue largely ignored in the mainstream public relations scholarship and aims to stimulate fresh discussion about the nature of public relations knowledge and practice.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In this paper, the aim is to propose a framework for utilizing quality function deployment (QFD) and benchmarking in combination to chalk out an improvement plan that redesigns or modifies existing processes to a point where they consume the least amount of resources while imparting the maximum value (in the sense of customer satisfaction) to the output. Design/methodology/approach Using a real world case study, the paper demonstrates that the marriage of two tools – QFD and benchmarking – is synergistic in its import and vital to a company's strategic and financial superiority. Findings The product and process design was improved by using the combination of QFD and benchmarking techniques discussed in the paper. As a result, the company accomplished significant financial and strategic results. Research limitations/implications The case study includes competitiveness analysis at the first house of quality (HOQ) but not at the subsequent HOQ due to lack of information from the competitors. However, the paper demonstrates the competitiveness analysis at the first HOQ which can be extended to all subsequent HOQ. Practical implications The research would be useful to academicians and practitioners in developing their own integrated versions of QFD and benchmarking methodologies to improve their products and processes and gain strategic advantage. Originality/value Despite the mutual dependence between a firm's strategic and financial performance and the consequent dependence on market share and profitability, which can both be maximized using QFD and benchmarking, the research that employs both techniques is virtually non‐existent.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the antecedents of consumers’ repatronage intentions and negative word-of-mouth behaviors following organizational failures. Participants were 233 people who had actually complained to organizations. Using Rusbult's investment model of relational stability, consumers’ perceptions of their investments, alternatives, satisfaction, and commitment were measured with respect to their impact on customers’ intent to do business with organizations in the future and willingness to spread negative publicity about an organization following a business failure. Results indicated that a modified version of the investment model helped to predict significant variance in consumers’ repatronage intentions and negative word-of-mouth behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Mistakes are common in business and can lead to negative repercussions for organizations. However, through the use of explanations, firms can diminish the negative consequences of their errors. The current study used a field stimulation to examine organizational explanations (excuses, justifications, and excuses) and their components (believable, appropriate, considerate, and responsible) to determine which factors make a difference in consumer satisfaction following organizational failures. Results, interpreted through the lens of expectancy violations theory, suggest that various components of explanations and the form of explanations used in remedial responses influence people's perceptions of organizations and organizational responses following complaints about failures.
Article
Full-text available
The experiment investigates the effect of perceived control on risk taking in a dynamic, everyday task. Using established and validated video simulation techniques, the risk-taking preferences for 96 drivers were measured for a range of driving activities (speed choice, following distance, gap acceptance, and overtaking). The perceived control manipulation was as follows: Half of the participants were told to imagine they were driving the vehicle, and the other half were told to imagine they were passengers. Those who were told to imagine they were driving chose significantly faster speeds than did those who were told to imagine they were passengers. Differences for the other risk-taking measures were not significant. For speed choice, it could be argued that an illusion of control was in operation, such that those who were in control (i.e., drivers) were comfortable with a higher level of risk than those who were not in control (i.e., passengers).
Article
Full-text available
This study offers an empirical test and extension of Gupta and Govindarajan's typology of subsidiary roles based on knowledge inflows and outflows. A four-fold typology of subsidiary roles—global innovators, integrated players, implementors and local innovators—is tested using a sample of 169 subsidiaries of MNCs headquartered in the US, Japan, UK, Germany, France and the Netherlands. Results confirm the typology and show that different subsidiary roles are associated with different control mechanisms, relative capabilities and product flows. In comparison to earlier studies, our results show an increased differentiation between subsidiaries, as well as an increase in the relative importance of both knowledge and product flows between subsidiaries suggesting that MNCs are getting closer to the ideal-type of the transnational company.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Customer knowledge has been increasingly recognized as a key strategic resource in any company's success. Recent studies conducted in the fields of Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management have proposed that the two approaches can have great synergies. In this paper, our purpose is to provide an understanding of Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) as an integrated management approach and competence it requires. We describe CKM as an ongoing process of generating, disseminating and using customer knowledge within an organization and between an organization and its customers. In addition, we propose a tentative theoretical framework of CKM competence, i.e., the ability to integrate customer knowledge into customer relationship management processes.
Book
Organizations including government departments and agencies, corporations, and non-government organizations claim they want and practice two-way communication, dialogue, and engagement with citizens, customers, employees, and other stakeholders and publics. But do they in reality? Voice—speaking up—is recognized as fundamental for democracy, representation, and social equity. But what if organizations are not listening? This book reports findings of a two-year, three-continent study that show that public and private sector organizations devote substantial and sometimes massive resources to construct an ‘architecture of speaking’ through advertising, PR and other public communication practices, but listen poorly, sporadically, and sometimes not all. Beyond identifying a ‘crisis of listening’, this landmark study proposes that organizations need to create an architecture of listening to regain trust and re-engage people whose voices are unheard or ignored. It presents a compelling case to show that organizational listening is essential for healthy democracy, organization legitimacy, business sustainability, and social equity and brings benefits to organizations, their stakeholders, and society.
Article
While there is a rich literature on listening in interpersonal settings, studies of organizational listening have been comparatively scarce. A growing body of recent research, however, underscores the importance of how effectively (or poorly) organizations listen and attempt to respond to their respective publics and external stakeholders. This paper describes research focusing on organizational practices and effectiveness related to capturing, analyzing, disseminating, and utilizing the “Voice of the Consumer (VoC).” After reviewing literature regarding factors that may shape and influence VoC program effectiveness, the paper describes a two-phased program of research aimed at (a) identifying specific characteristics and practices that can/should be used to describe VoC programs and (b) assessing the current state of VoC programs with respect to overall effectiveness, and in relation to the preceding specific characteristics and practices. Results reveal that a majority of organizations have not yet achieved a desired level of VoC program effectiveness, and that most are better at capturing consumer feedback than they are at analyzing, disseminating, or utilizing it to improve products, services, and consumer experiences. Implications for theory-building and knowledge development, along with practical implications for organizational planning and management, are discussed.
Article
Customer knowledge (CK) is recognized as a critical organizational resource that provides competitive advantage. Capability of absorbing, sharing, and applying CK can be a challenge for organizations. Human, Organizational, and Technological conditions that facilitate CK management (CKM) are vital capabilities for organizations. This article intends to delve into the world of CKM by appraising and scrutinizing the present state of research and extracting organizational, individual, and technological CKM precursor factors. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study gathers, integrates, and scrutinizes 66 papers pertaining to CKM precursor factors published during the period 2003–2016 on seven databases by adhering to a predefined review convention. The chosen articles have been appraised so as to mine pertinent information on a series of research questions. We noted a general rise in the number of related papers in the last 8-year period. Selected articles have investigated CKM in 14 different contexts and 19 different countries. The result of extracting CKM antecedent factors shows that “Customer-Centric Culture,” “Collaboration System,” and “CRM Technology Infrastructure” have the most frequency in the literature. However, “Intellectual Property,” “Program Champion,” and “Trust” are less iterative factors. Therefore, companies and researchers can use the result of this research for developing Human, Organization, and Technological capabilities in order to implement CKM successfully.
Article
Researchers apply Bodie, St. Cyr, Pence, Rold, and Honeycutt’s (2012) model of listening competency to social media messaging for organizations. The article provides examples of how organizations and their social media managers, as de facto “listening agents,” can incorporate important verbal listening behaviors that represent active-empathic listening—pertinent responses, elaboration, offering advice and opinions, and answering and asking questions—into their social media profiles. In addition, guidance is provided to social media managers and organizations for how to adopt listening skills that will foster dialogue between organizations and their online publics. Potential areas for future research are also examined.
Article
With the growing role of information technology (IT), many organizations struggle with IT-related risks. Both IT managers and IT auditors are involved in assessing, monitoring, and reporting IT risks, but this does not necessarily mean that they share the same views. In this study, we draw upon the actor–observer asymmetry perspective to understand differences in IT managers’ vs. IT auditors’ perceptions of risks. Through a quasi-experiment with 76 employees of a financial institution, we found that IT managers and IT auditors showed the expected actor–observer differences. Implications for both research and practice are discussed.
Book
Provides new insights into the accuracy and value of online panels for completing surveys Over the last decade, there has been a major global shift in survey and market research towards data collection, using samples selected from online panels. Yet despite their widespread use, remarkably little is known about the quality of the resulting data. This edited volume is one of the first attempts to carefully examine the quality of the survey data being generated by online samples. It describes some of the best empirically-based research on what has become a very important yet controversial method of collecting data. Online Panel Research presents 19 chapters of previously unpublished work addressing a wide range of topics, including coverage bias, nonresponse, measurement error, adjustment techniques, the relationship between nonresponse and measurement error, impact of smartphone adoption on data collection, Internet rating panels, and operational issues. The datasets used to prepare the analyses reported in the chapters are available on the accompanying website: www.wiley.com/go/online_panel • Covers controversial topics such as professional respondents, speeders, and respondent validation. • Addresses cutting-edge topics such as the challenge of smartphone survey completion, software to manage online panels, and Internet and mobile ratings panels. • Discusses and provides examples of comparison studies between online panels and other surveys or benchmarks. • Describes adjustment techniques to improve sample representativeness. • Addresses coverage, nonresponse, attrition, and the relationship between nonresponse and measurement error with examples using data from the United States and Europe. • Addresses practical questions such as motivations for joining an online panel and best practices for managing communications with panelists. • Presents a meta-analysis of determinants of response quantity. • Features contributions from 50 international authors with a wide variety of backgrounds and expertise. This book will be an invaluable resource for opinion and market researchers, academic researchers relying on web-based data collection, governmental researchers, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, and other research practitioners.
Article
Effective knowledge flows among organisational subunits have the potential to increase subunit performance and innovation, and are thus an important concern for both domestic multiunit firms and multinational firms. In what ways do subunit characteristics of a multiunit firm vary to facilitate inter-unit knowledge flows? Based on information processing theory, this paper proposes that subunit characteristics, including formal structure, informal structure and human capital, are partly a response to the information processing requirement of a subunit's specific knowledge role. A contingency framework is developed to explain the alignment between knowledge role and subunit characteristics. An intensive case study of a Chinese multiunit firm is conducted to obtain more insights about the proposed framework, which provides a comprehensive tool for managers to understand the connection between knowledge flow and various aspects of their subunits in a more systematic and holistic manner.
Article
An important tenet of Total Quality Management holds that each employee should treat other organization members with whom she interacts as valued customers. To know if such internal service efforts are successful, managers need a means by which internal service quality can be measured. This exploratory study of internal customers employs marketing research methods that, traditionally, have been applied to final consumers. The setting is the corporate purchasing department of Alcon Laboratories, Inc., a large pharmaceutical manufacturing firm. The ninety-seven participants were all internal customers of the corporate purchasing department. Their jobs ranged from R&D scientists, to secretaries, to promotion specialists, to manufacturing planners. We sought answers to two questions: 1) What do internal users want from the purchasing department?; and 2) Do they think they are getting it? In answer to the first question, we found six types of service requirements of purchasing’s internal customers. To answer the second question, we developed a diagnostic tool that measures internal users’ perceptions of the purchasing department’s performance. Managerial and research implications of the study are discussed.
Article
Amidst the onslaught of communication at work, employees’ voices can be neglected in favor of the bottom line. This research initiates an exploration of the relationship between employee perceptions of the listening environment at work and organizational financial performance indicators. In this exploratory pilot study, we collected data from N = 65 employees of a single firm with multiple geographically and financially independent units. Using simple regression analysis, researchers compared data between units to determine if employee perceptions of positive qualities of the listening climate are related to improvement in sales and net income. Results suggest a potentially positive relationship between employees’ perceptions of a positive listening environment and these organizational performance indicators, suggesting that listening is an important step in building the communication climate of a productive company.
Article
Information system service quality has been a very important theme in both IS practice and research. User service expectations affect perceived service quality and user satisfaction. The objectives of this research are to i) to explore the relationship between perceived IS service quality and user satisfaction across the three regions of zone of tolerance (ZOT) and ii) to validate the associations between service expectations (adequate service and desired service) and service performance. The analysis of the data obtained from 193 IS users revealed a positive and significant association between perceived service quality and user satisfaction across the service zones and service dimensions with stronger associations in the acceptable service zone and weaker associations in the inadequate and superior service zones. Thus, the results demonstrate that the relationship between IS service quality and user satisfaction is affected by ZOT. It is found that the desired service expectation measure is more strongly related to service performance compared to the adequate service expectation measure. It is also observed that irrespective of the ZOT, the service dimension that contributes most to service performance is assurance. Tangibles have the widest ZOT and assurance has the narrowest ZOT compared to most other service dimensions. The author discusses the implications of the present study for both research and practice.
Article
Organizational insiders have considerable influence on the effectiveness of information security efforts. However, most research conducted in this area fails to examine what these individuals believe about organizational security efforts. To help bridge this gap, this study assesses the mindset of insiders regarding their relationship with information security efforts and compares it against the mindset of information security professionals. Interviews were conducted with 22 ordinary insiders and 11 information security professionals, which effort provides insight into how insiders gauge the efficacy of recommended responses to information security threats. Several key differences between insiders’ and professionals’ security mindsets are also discussed.
Article
This paper reports on a study to determine the opinion of expert practitioners of the most important risks in the development of e-commerce projects. The 32 respondents in the final round of the survey were mainly project managers from South African software houses. Various academics and users of e-commerce systems also contributed to the survey. The Delphi technique was used to gather the data and to rank the risks.Misunderstanding the users’ requirements emerged as the most significant risk, followed by the absence of declared business benefits. As with conventional systems, there is a risk of top management not getting totally committed to the project, very often giving verbal encouragement to the IT team but overlooking the impact on the business as a whole.Respondents place a high importance on the security issues surrounding e-commerce projects. Transactions are subjected to more threats, and developers have to incorporate procedures to ensure transaction integrity and confidentiality, and then convince potential customers of the system's security. Other related issues include transaction tracability and database security and integrity.Hype in the market suggested that there was a large risk of delivering systems too slowly as a result of “cumbersome” methodologies. The research did not find this to be the case.Different perspectives emerged from the viewpoints of developers, project managers, clients/users and academics.
Article
For decades, marketers have trumpeted the importance of word of mouth in influencing purchase choice, but have still spent billions on brand advertising-without any proof of the link between the two. Using newly available data, we sought to resolve this contradiction by searching for the "missing link" between positive word of mouth about brands and brand advertising. We also tested the relationship between advertising and measurable behaviors of brand interest-namely, brand searches and website visits. The analysis involved 35 brands over a 26-week period using six sources of data. The results indicate that brands should redouble their efforts in using advertising to grow brand advocacy through the integration of online and offline branded consumer contact points.
Article
Monte Carlo methods were used to study the performance of the largest-root test, two trace-type tests and three determinantal tests in the fixed-effects MANOVA model when certain assumptions are violated. Results indicated that for protection against nonnormality and heterogeneity of covariance matrices, the largest-root test should be avoided, while the Pillai-Bartlett trace test may be recommended as the most robust of the MANOVA tests, with adequate power to detect true differences in a variety of situations.
Article
In the rapidly changing information environment, libraries have to demonstrate that their services have relevance, value, and impact for stakeholders and customers. To deliver effective and high quality services, libraries have to assess their performance from the customer point of view. Moving to an assessment framework will be more successful if staff and leaders understand what is involved in organizational culture change. This paper describes the new paradigm of building a culture of assessment, and places it in the framework of organizational culture change, utilizing a learning organization and systems thinking approach.
Article
C. L. Olson (1976, 1979) suggests the Pillai-Bartlett trace (V) as an omnibus multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test statistic for its superior robustness to heterogeneous variances. J. Stevens (1979, 1980) contends that the robustness of V, Wilk's lambda (W) and the Hotelling-Lawley trace (T) are similar, and that their power functions are highly sensitive to slight covariance inequalities. Yet under conditions of diffuse noncentrality structures, V is a clear choice. A Monte Carlo simulation of V, W, and T as omnibus tests under conditions of covariance heterogeneity and variance homogeneity investigates the robustness of each test. Conditions of concentrated covariance and noncentrality structure were imposed to compare power. Results indicate that the assumption of homogeneous variance-covariance matrices in the form of covariance inequalities does not affect the robustness of V, W, or T, while T is slightly more powerful under such conditions. Five tables are included. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/SLD)
Article
Although it has been widely accepted that internal customer service quality leads to internal customer satisfaction and in turn external customer satisfaction, relatively little research has focused on the dimensions of internal customer service quality and their differing impacts on internal customer satisfaction. This empirical study identifies six key internal service quality dimensions as perceived by the purchasing department's internal customers: customer intimacy, team-based continuous improvement, communication, reliability/competence, requisition process and tangibles. In addition, this study reveals the following factors. First, customer intimacy is the most influential dimension to achieve both high internal customer service quality and satisfaction. Second, team-based continuous improvement and requisition process are the second and third most important dimensions of service quality but not significantly associated with internal customer satisfaction. Third, conversely, communication is the second most influential dimension for internal customer satisfaction but not with internal customer service quality. Finally, there is a significantly positive association between internal customer service quality and satisfaction. Managerial implications and recommendations are also presented.
Article
Many areas of the behavioral sciences have few measures that are accepted as the standard for the operationalization of a construct. One consequence is that there is hardly ever an articulated and understood framework for the units of the measures that are employed. Without meaningful measurement units, theoretical formulations are limited to statements of the direction of an effect or association, or to effects expressed in standardized units. Thus the long term scientific goal of generation of laws expressing the relationships among variables in scale units is greatly hindered. This article reviews alternative methods of scoring a scale. Two recent journal volumes are surveyed with regard to current scoring practices. Alternative methods of scoring are evaluated against seven articulated criteria representing the information conveyed by each in an illustrative example. Converting scores to the percent of maximum possible score (POMP) is shown to provide useful additional information in many cases.
Article
Given the important role being played by knowledge management (KM) systems in the current customer-centric business environment, there is a lack of a simple and overall framework to integrate the traditional customer relationship management (CRM) functionalities with the management and application of the customer-related knowledge, particularly in the context of marketing decisions. While KM systems manage an organization's knowledge through the process of creating, structuring, disseminating and applying knowledge to enhance organizational performance and create value, traditional CRM have focused on the transactional exchanges to manage customer interactions. True CRM is possible only by integrating them with KM systems to create knowledge-enabled CRM processes that allow companies to evaluate key business measures such as customer satisfaction, customer profitability, or customer loyalty to support their business decisions. Such systems will help marketers address customer needs based on what the marketers know about their customers, rather than on a mass generalization of the characteristics of customers. We address this issue in this paper by proposing an integrated framework for CRM through the application of knowledge management technology. The framework can be the basis for enhancing CRM development. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
While increasingly demanding customers have prompted many firms to implement customer relationship management (CRM) programs, little is known about the internal processes that assist organization-wide learning about individual customer relationships. This research proposes a conceptual framework about the internal processes involved in creating customer knowledge competence, which allow firms to strategically manage their CRM programs. The framework is discussed based on five case studies of Canadian financial services firms that have implemented customer relationship programs.
Article
Abstract In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of the firm’s proactive management of customer-to-customer communication. We are particularly interested in understanding how, if at all, the firm should go about effecting meaningful word-of-mouth. To tackle this problem, we collect data from two sources: 1) We implemented,a large-scale field test in which a national firm created word of mouth,through,two populations: customers and non-customers, 2) We collected data from an online experiment. We break our theoretical problem into two subproblems. First, we ask, “What kind of WOM drives sales?” Motivated by previous research, we hypothesize that for a product with a low initial awareness level, the WOM that is most effective at driving sales is created by less-loyal (not highly-loyal) customers, and occurs between acquaintances (not friends). We find support for this in the field test as well as in an experimental,setting. Hence we demonstrate the potential usefulness of exogenously-created WOM: conversations,are created where,none would naturally have occured otherwise. Then, we ask, “Which agents are most effective at creating this kind of WOM?” In particular, we are interested in evaluating the effectiveness of the commonly-used opinion leader designation. We find that while opinion leadership is useful in identifying potentially effective spreaders of WOM among very loyal customers, it is less useful for the sample of less loyal customers. Keywords: Word of Mouth, Promotion, Advertising 1I ntroduction