Kann der Dimensionsbegriffs am Übergang zur Sekundarstufe I erfolgreich mittels IVR vermittelt werden?

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As immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems proliferate in classrooms, it is important to understand how they affect learning outcomes and the underlying affective and cognitive processes that may cause these outcomes. Proponents argue that IVR could improve learning by increasing positive affective and cognitive processing, thereby supporting improved performance on tests of learning outcome, whereas opponents of IVR contend that it could hurt learning by increasing distraction, thereby disrupting cognitive learning processes and leading to poorer learning outcomes. In a media comparison study, students viewed a biology lesson either as an interactive animated journey in IVR or as a slideshow on a desktop monitor. Those who viewed the IVR lesson performed significantly worse on transfer tests, reported higher emotional arousal, reported more extraneous cognitive load and showed less engagement based on EEG measures than those who viewed the slideshow lesson, with or without practice questions added to the lessons. Mediational analyses showed that the lower retention scores for the IVR lesson were related to an increase in self-reported extraneous cognitive load and emotional arousal. These results support the notion that immersive environments create high affective and cognitive distraction, which leads to poorer learning outcomes than desktop environments.
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Researchers have explored the benefits and applications of virtual reality (VR) in different scenarios. VR possesses much potential and its application in education has seen much research interest lately. However, little systematic work currently exists on how researchers have applied immersive VR for higher education purposes that considers the usage of both high-end and budget head-mounted displays (HMDs). Hence, we propose using systematic mapping to identify design elements of existing research dedicated to the application of VR in higher education. The reviewed articles were acquired by extracting key information from documents indexed in four scientific digital libraries, which were filtered systematically using exclusion, inclusion, semi-automatic, and manual methods. Our review emphasizes three key points: the current domain structure in terms of the learning contents, the VR design elements, and the learning theories, as a foundation for successful VR-based learning. The mapping was conducted between application domains and learning contents and between design elements and learning contents. Our analysis has uncovered several gaps in the application of VR in the higher education sphere—for instance, learning theories were not often considered in VR application development to assist and guide toward learning outcomes. Furthermore, the evaluation of educational VR applications has primarily focused on usability of the VR apps instead of learning outcomes and immersive VR has mostly been a part of experimental and development work rather than being applied regularly in actual teaching. Nevertheless, VR seems to be a promising sphere as this study identifies 18 application domains, indicating a better reception of this technology in many disciplines. The identified gaps point toward unexplored regions of VR design for education, which could motivate future work in the field.
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Having good spatial skills strongly predicts achievement and attainment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields (e.g., Shea, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2001; Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2009). Improving spatial skills is therefore of both theoretical and practical importance. To determine whether and to what extent training and experience can improve these skills, we meta-analyzed 217 research studies investigating the magnitude, moderators, durability, and generalizability of training on spatial skills. After eliminating outliers, the average effect size (Hedges's g) for training relative to control was 0.47 (SE = 0.04). Training effects were stable and were not affected by delays between training and posttesting. Training also transferred to other spatial tasks that were not directly trained. We analyzed the effects of several moderators, including the presence and type of control groups, sex, age, and type of training. Additionally, we included a theoretically motivated typology of spatial skills that emphasizes 2 dimensions: intrinsic versus extrinsic and static versus dynamic (Newcombe & Shipley, in press). Finally, we consider the potential educational and policy implications of directly training spatial skills. Considered together, the results suggest that spatially enriched education could pay substantial dividends in increasing participation in mathematics, science, and engineering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Im Alltag der meisten Menschen sind digitale Medien wie Smartphone, Computer, Internet oder Fernseher allgegenwärtig. Manche davon sind ständige Begleiter in der Freizeit, aber auch unentbehrliche Werkzeuge bei der täglichen Arbeit. Dies gilt nicht nur für Erwachsene, sondern auch für Kinder und Jugendliche. Nichts deutet darauf hin, dass sich daran in absehbarer Zeit etwas ändern wird; vielmehr scheinen sich die technischen Möglichkeiten immer rasanter weiterzuentwickeln.
Virtual models are increasingly employed in STEM education to foster learning about spatial phenomena. However, the roles of the computer interface and students’ cognitive abilities in moderating learning and performance with virtual models are not yet well understood. In two experiments students solved spatial organic chemistry problems using a virtual model system. Two aspects of the virtual model interface were manipulated: display dimensionality (stereoscopic vs. monoscopic displays) and the location of the hand-held device used to manipulate the virtual molecules (co-located with the visual display vs. displaced). The experimental task required participants to interpret the spatial structure of organic molecules and to manipulate the models to align them with orientations and configurations depicted by diagrams in Experiment 1 and three-dimensional models in Experiment 2. Co-locating the interaction device with the virtual image led to better performance in both experiments and stereoscopic viewing led to better performance in Experiment 2. The effect of co-location on performance was moderated by spatial ability in Experiment 1, and the effect of providing stereo viewing was moderated by spatial ability in Experiment 2. The results are in line with the ability-as-compensator hypothesis: participants with lower ability uniquely benefited from the treatment, while those with higher ability were not affected by stereo or co-location. The findings suggest that increased fidelity in a virtual model system may be one way of alleviating difficulties of low-spatial participants in learning spatially demanding content in STEM domains.
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Durchblick -Erdkunde. 5/6
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