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Abstract

The literacy rate in India in 2022 is examined in this research. An important factor in determining a country's degree of development is literacy. The percentage of adults over the age of fifteen who are literate is known as the literacy rate. Some emerging nations are attempting to raise the literacy rate, including Bangladesh, Nepal, Laos, and India. In the past ten years, India's literacy rate has increased significantly. India still has lower levels of literacy than many other nations, though. The literacy rate is 77.70%, with literate males at 84.70% and literate females at 70.30%, according to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) and National Statistical Office: NSO (2021 and 2022). Women appear to have a low literacy rate despite the high percentage of males that are literate.
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ABSTRACT
LITERACY RATE IN INDIA IN 2022
Khritish Swargiary*; Kavita Roy**
*Former Asst. Prof,
Department of Education, Sbm College,
Bongaigaon, INDIA
Email id: khritishswargiary1@gmail.com
**Asst. Prof Cont.,
Department of Education, Bongaigaon College,
Bongaigaon, INDIA
Email id: khritish@teachers.org
DOI: 10.5958/2249-7137.2022.00746.7
The literacy rate in India in 2022 is examined in this research. An important factor in
determining a country's degree of development is literacy. The percentage of adults over the age
of fifteen who are literate is known as the literacy rate. Some emerging nations are attempting to
raise the literacy rate, including Bangladesh, Nepal, Laos, and India. In the past ten years,
India's literacy rate has increased significantly. India still has lower levels of literacy than many
other nations, though. The literacy rate is 77.70%, with literate males at 84.70% and literate
females at 70.30%, according to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) and National
Statistical Office: NSO (2021 and 2022). Women appear to have a low literacy rate despite the
high percentage of males that are literate.
KEYWORDS: NFHS-5, NSO Data, Literacy Rate, India
LITERATURE REVIEW:
1. Literacy Rate in India DR. NAVINCHANDRA R. SHAH Assistant Professor, Dept. of
Economics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot Gujarat, India. International Journal of Research in
all Subjects in Multi Languages. Vol. 1, Issue:7, October 2013 (IJRSML) ISSN: 2321 -2853.
2. Female Literacy Rate is a Better Predictor of Birth Rate and Infant Mortality Rate in India J
Family Med Prim Care.
2013 Oct-Dec; 2(4): 349–353. DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.123889.
3. Literacy in India and China, Jean Dreze and Jackie Loh, Economic and Political Weekly,
Vol. 30, No. 45 (Nov. 11, 1995), pp. 2868-2878 (11 pages), Published By: Economic and
Political Weekly.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
1. To examine the literacy rate in India 2022.
2. To identify the states with highest literacy rate in India 2022.
3. To identify the states with lowest literacy rate in India 2022.
4. To study the differences between male and female literacy rate in India.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
1. Secondary data: NSO literacy rate data for 2022, statistics gathered from NFHS-5.
2. The data from the national surveys conducted by the NFHS-5, NSO data on the literacy rate
in India 2022, undergone an ecological analysis. State-by-state literacy rates were derived
from the Indian Censuses of 2021 and 2022. To provide a precise percentage measure for
consistent comparison, we chose literacy rates as a reflection of educational status.
3. The descriptive research approach.
INTRODUCTION:
An individual's ability to communicate through reading and writing is referred to as literacy. Any
population's literacy rate calculates the proportion of people over a given age who are literate.The
average literacy rate in India was 77.70% as of the year 2021, according to data from the National
Statistical Office (NSO). In India, male literacy is at 84.70% and female literacy is currently
70.30% as of 2021.
According to the National Family Health Survey 2019–21 (NFHS-5), adult women (15–49 years)
have a literacy rate of 71.5%, while adult men (15–49 years) have an 87.4% rate.
According to the 2011 Census, there are 763,498,517 (76.34 billion) literate people in the nation.
Of these, 328,814,738 (32.88 Crore) are women and 434,683,779 (43.46 Crore) are men. While the
nation's total literacy rate is 72.9%, the gender gap at the national level is 16.25 percentage points,
with males having a literacy rate of 80.89% and females having a rate of 64.64%.
Variables Literate Population 2011 Literacy Rate 2011 Literacy Rate 2021
Persons 763498517 72.99 77.70
Males 434683779 80.89 84.70
Females 328814738 64.64 70.30
Source: Census 2011and 2022, National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) & National Statistical
Office (NSO) data 2022.
The percentage of people aged 7 and older who are literate is known as the literacy rate. Literacy is
defined as the ability to read and write a simple message with understanding in any language.
List of States & Union Territories by Literary Rate 2022:
Male literacy in India is expected to be 84.4% in 2021, while female literacy is expected to be
71.5%, according to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) 2019–21.
Male literacy is 84.7% over all of India, while female literacy is 70.3%, creating a gender
difference of 12.9 percentage points. Kerala has the smallest gender literacy gap, with a difference
of just 2.2 percentage points.
Kerala topped the list with 96.2%, while Andhra Pradesh had the lowest literacy rate of all the
Indian states with 66.4%. In second place with 88.7% was Delhi. The list of States and Union
territories with literacy rates may be seen below.
States & Union Territorie
Male Literacy Rate
%
Female Literacy Rate
%
Average
Rate %
Literacy
A&N islands 90.11 81.84 86.27
Andhra Pradesh 73.4 59.5 66.4
Arunachal Pradesh 73.69 59.57 66.95
Assam 90.1 81.2 85.9
Bihar 79.7 60.5 70.9
Chhattisgarh 85.4 68.7 77.3
Chandigarh 90.54 81.38 86.43
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 86.46 65.93 77.65
Daman & Diu 91.48 79.59 87.07
Delhi 93.7 82.4 88.7
Goa 92.81 81.84 87.4
Gujarat 89.5 74.8 82.4
Haryana 88 71.3 80.4
Himachal Pradesh 92.9 80.5 86.6
Jammu & Kashmir 85.7 68 77.3
Jharkhand 83 64.7 74.3
Karnataka 83.4 70.5 77.2
Kerala 97.4 95.2 96.2
Lakshadweep 96.11 88.25 92.28
Madhya Pradesh 81.2 65.5 73.7
Maharashtra 90.7 78.4 84.8
Manipur 86.49 73.17 79.85
Meghalaya 77.17 73.78 75.48
Mizoram 93.72 89.4 91.58
Nagaland 83.29 76.69 80.11
Odisha 84 70.3 77.3
Puducherry 92.12 81.22 86.55
Punjab 88.5 78.5 83.7
Rajasthan 80.8 57.6 69.7
Sikkim 87.29 76.43 82.2
Tamil Nadu 87.9 77.9 82.9
Telangana 80.5 65.1 72.8
Tripura 92.18 83.15 87.75
Uttarakhand 94.3 80.7 87.6
Uttar Pradesh 81.8 63.4 73
West Bengal 84.8 76.1 80.5
All-India 84.7 70.3 77.7
Source: Survey by National Statistical Office (NSO). *UTs & NE States based on 2011 Census
Indian States with Highest Literacy Rate 2022: According to data from the National Statistical
Office (NSO) for 2017–18 on the nation's states' overall literacy rates, Kerala came out on top
with a score of 96.2%. In second place with 88.7% was Delhi.
s
States having the highest rate of literacy:
Sl. No. State Male Female Average
1 Kerala 97.4 95.2 96.2
2 Mizoram 93.72 89.4 91.58
3 Delhi 93.7 82.4 88.7
4 Tripura 92.18 83.15 87.75
5 Uttarakhand 94.3 80.7 87.6
6 Goa 92.81 81.84 87.4
7 Himachal Pradesh 92.9 80.5 86.6
8 Assam 90.1 81.2 85.9
9 Maharashtra 90.7 78.4 84.8
10 Punjab 88.5 78.5 83.7
Source: survey by National Statistical Office (NSO). *UTs & NE States based on 2011 Census
Indian States with Lowest Literacy Rate 2022:
As per the National Statistical Office (NSO) data for 2017-18 on state-wise literacy rate the
country, Andhra Pradesh ranked Lowest in the list with 66.2% followed by Rajasthan & Bihar.
States with Lowest Literacy Rate
Sl. No State Male Female Average
1Andhra Pradesh 73.4 59.5 66.4
2Rajasthan 80.8 57.6 69.7
3Bihar 79.7 60.5 70.9
4Telangana 80.5 65.1 72.8
5Uttar Pradesh 81.8 63.4 73
6Madhya Pradesh 81.2 65.5 73.7
7Jharkhand 83 64.7 74.3
8Karnataka 83.4 70.5 77.2
9Chhattisgarh 85.4 68.7 77.3
10 Jammu & Kashmir 85.7 68 77.3
Source: survey by National Statistical Office (NSO). *UTs & NE States based on 2011 Census
Literary Rate Urban Vs Rural 2022:
In India, the literacy rate for people 7 years of age and over was at 77.7%. The literacy rate in
rural areas was 73.5%, whereas it was 87.7% in urban areas..
Column1 Column2 Column3 Column4 Column5 Column6 Column7
States
Rural
Literacy
Rate
Rural
Literacy
Rate
Rural
Literacy
Rate
Urban
Literacy
Rate
Urban
Literacy
Rate
Urban
Literacy
Rate
States Male Female Average Male Female Average
Andhra
Pradesh 67.5 53.4 60.4 86.3 73.1 79.6
Assam 89.4 79.9 84.9 96.1 91.4 93.8
Bihar 78.6 58.7 69.5 89.3 75.9 83.1
Chhattisgarh 84 65.6 75 91.8 82.3 87.2
Delhi 94.1 83.4 89.4
Gujarat 85.7 68 77 95.2 86.3 91.1
Haryana 85.8 66.4 77 92.5 81.2 87.3
Himachal
Pradesh 92.3 79.2 85.6 97.8 93 95.5
Jammu &
Kashmir 84.9 66 75.8 88.5 75.7 82.6
Jharkhand 80.6 61.4 71.4 92.6 78.6 86.1
Karnataka 78.2 63.1 71 92.5 83.7 88.3
Kerala 96.7 94.1 95.4 98.2 96.4 97.3
Madhya
Pradesh 77.9 61 69.8 91.4 79.5 85.8
Maharashtra 87 71.4 79.4 95.3 87.6 91.7
Odisha 82 67.3 74.9 94.4 85.9 90.2
Punjab 85.5 74 80 93.8 86.7 90.5
Rajasthan 77.6 52.6 65.5 91.1 74.6 83.5
Tamil Nadu 84.2 70.8 77.5 92.3 85.9 89
Telangana 70.6 53.7 62.1 91.7 79 85.5
Uttarakhand 93.1 79 86.1 97.4 85.9 92
Uttar
Pradesh 80.5 60.4 70.8 86.8 74.9 81.2
West Bengal 82 72.6 77.4 91.4 84.7 88.1
All-India 81.5 65 73.5 92.2 82.8 87.7
Source: survey by National Statistical Office (NSO)
Completed educational level of population for different age-groups 2022:
Distribution of rural populations as a percentage ( ages 15 years & above by highest
completed levels of education)
31.5% of the population lacked literacy, 20.9% had literacy up to the primary level, 17.2%
had upper primary/middle level literacy, 24.9% had secondary and higher secondary level
literacy, and 5.7% had a degree or above.
Percentage distribution of urban residents/population(aged 15 years and above) according to
greatest level of education attained:
13.9% of people did not have access to literacy, 14.7% had literacy up to the primary level,
14.0% had upper primary/middle level literacy, and 35.8% had secondary and higher level
literacy.21.7% were graduate& above.
Source: survey by National Statistical Office (NSO)
FINDINGS:
1. Male literacy rate is higher than the female literacy rate in India 2022 according to NSO
survey.
2. Kerala has the highest average literacy rate and Andhra Pradesh has the lowest average
literacy rate in India 2022.
3. Urban literacy rate is more than the Rural literacy rate in India.
CONCLUSION:
A high literacy rate (or low illiteracy rate) indicates the presence of a primary education system
and/or literacy programmes that have made it possible for a significant portion of the population to
learn how to use the written word (and perform basic arithmetic calculations) in daily life and to
continue learning. A literate person is a valuable asset to the prosperity of a country.
To ensure that people have the complex communication and critical thinking abilities required to
succeed in the workplace and a global economy, a high literacy rate is crucial. Over the past 40
years, India's literacy rate has substantially increased. The National Survey of India's report
estimates that India's literacy rate would be 77.7% in 2022. 73% of people in 2011 were literate.
4% more people now live there than according to the most recent census.
Although that is quite impressive in comparison to other emerging nations, it still means that almost
one in four Indians cannot read or write (compared to about one in eight people worldwide). India's
most literate state is Kerala. Kerala has a literacy rate of 96.2%. India will achieve universal
literacy, according to UNESCO, in 2060.
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