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Abstract

The term 'sattva' literally means essence, purity, and character of mind. It is one of the three fundamental qualities (triguna). [A.S.Sutra Sthana 1/29][1] It is characterized by lightness, knowledge, and enlightenment.[2] Psychological constitution, bio typology or body mind typology is an important concept of Ayurveda. Every individual has distinct physical, physiological, and psychological characteristics. Ayurveda classical texts provide a framework to help to understand an individual's mental constitution.
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The term 'sattva' literally means essence, purity, and character of mind. It is one of the three
fundamental qualities (triguna). [A.S.Sutra Sthana 1/29][1] It is characterized by lightness, knowledge,
and enlightenment.[2] Psychological constitution, bio typology or body mind typology is an
important concept of Ayurveda. Every individual has distinct physical, physiological, and
psychological characteristics. Ayurveda classical texts provide a framework to help to understand an
individual's mental constitution. The concept of sharira and manasa prakriti (somatic and psychic
constitution) help to explain differences across individuals. The concept of the manas includes
aspects of psychology, mind, and mental health. There are three characteristics of mind (mana) viz.
sattva, rajas, and tamas. These represent awareness, activity, and inertia, respectively. When one of
these three is dominant in a person, that reflects in his or her personality. In Shreemadbhagwat
Geeta, three attributes of nature are described: Sattva, rajas, and tamas.[3]
1) Sattva guna is the attribute of light or intelligence, which is the state of complete balance.
2) Rajas guna represents motion, ignorance, or action.
3) Tamas guna is representative of inertia and darkness.
These are the three primary and omnipresent qualities that work behind all the material substances
in the universe. Sattva is the initiator of the universe as per Ayurveda [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/9][4]
and Sankhya philosophy. It represents purity and authenticity. Hence it is quality of mind.
[Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 1/57] [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 8/5] This article describes the
concept of sattva and its importance in healthcare practices.
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Sattva
Section/Chapter/topic Concepts / Sattva
Authors Bhojani M.K.1, Sharma Raksha 1, Joglekar A.A.2
Reviewer Basisht G.3
Editor Deole Y.S.4
Affiliations
1 Department of Kriya Sharira, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi,
India , New Delhi, India 2Department of Samhita Siddhant, All India Institute
of Ayurveda, New Delhi, India, New Delhi, India 3 Rheumatologist, Orlando,
Florida, U.S.A.
4Department of Kayachikitsa, G.J. Patel Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and
Research, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India
Correspondence email meera.samhita@aiia.gov.in, carakasamhita@gmail.com
Publisher Charak Samhita Research, Training and Development Centre, I.T.R.A.,
Jamnagar, India
Date of first
publication: August 18, 2022
DOI In process
Synonyms of sattva
Mana, shuddham, kalyanam
Etymology
The word sattva is derived from two terms, 'sat' and 'tva', satto bhava. Sattva refers to the existence
of reality and truth. Shabdakalpadruma defines it as an attribute of prakriti. It represents light
(prakasha), knowledge (dnyana) and happiness (sukha).[5] Monnier Williams dictionary defines it as
the quality of good will, purity, reality, knowledge, virtue, excellence and truth.[6]
Characteristics
Sattva is buoyant/lighthearted (laghu) and illuminating (prakashaka) in nature.[7]
Sattva as synonymous to mind:
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The mind (manas) is also termed as sattva. Sattva is the purest quality of mind, and sattva guna is
the highest form of excellence of manas (sattva) guna. Sattva bala (mental strength) provides an
adequate status of a person's wellbeing. Thus, giving a systematic and holistic approach to
understanding an individual. The normal mind without any disorder (amala sattva) is dominated by
sattva (sattvagunodreka). It can be assessed by the absence of negative emotions like affection
(raga) and hatred (dvesha) and presence of absolute purity of mind. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Vimana
Sthana 4/8]) Three types of mental constitutions are described: shuddha/sattvika, rajasika and
tamasika. [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 3/13]
Panchabhautika constitution:
1. Sattva: Akasha mahabhuta
2. Rajas: Agni mahabhuta and Vayu mahabhuta
3. Tamas: Prithvi mahabhuta and Jala mahabhuta [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/20][4], [Sha.Sa.
Purvakhanda 05][8], [A.S.Sharira Sthana 5/5][1]
Sattva guna gives an experience of happiness (sukha). It becomes powerful by overcoming the rajas
and tamas. The essence of sattva is the consolidation of knowledge.
Relationship between the sattva guna and tridosha
Pitta dosha is predominant in the Sattva guna. Due to the qualities of luminance, lightness, and
purity, these two entities can be closely associated. [Bp.Purvakhanda 2/120][9]
Food and sattva guna
Ayurveda advocates an individualistic approach to maintaining health and treating diseases. So a
categorization of diet (aahara) and lifestyle (vihara) according to their properties as sattvika, rajasika
and tamasika is done. [10]
Food that is delicious, slimy, nourishing, appetizing, and keeps the body healthy are liked by sattvika
persons. In Upanishads, it is stated that the food we consume is divided into three parts. The gross
part is converted into flesh and the subtle part nourishes the mind. Sattvika diet consists of fresh
vegetables, fruits, grains, and dairies like milk and ghee. It keeps the lean body and minds calm and
quiet.
Characteristics of sattvika individual
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Individuals with sattva guna predominance worship God, like food which gives longevity (Ayu),
promotes righteous tendencies and strengthens health and joy. These individuals are intelligent,
have good memory and natural instincts for observing healthy lifestyles. They are polite and joyful
and accept their status and wealth as it is. They are calm and quiet by nature. They react to pain and
pleasure properly. The sattvika constitution is similar to that of the deities. Hence the nomenclature
of auspicious beings or deities is given to such individuals. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana
4/36]
Sattvika is free from vanity of being an active person who has patience and enthusiasm for his
action. However, he is neither too happy with success nor too sad with the failure of his action. It
represents the kalyanansha or auspiciousness due to its qualities of purity and authenticity.
[Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/36] The Bramha sattva is considered to be the best among all the sattvika
constitutions.
The attributes of sattvika person are purity of body and mind (shoucha), faith in the god (astikya),
honesty (shukla dharma), devotion (ruchi), knowledge (mati). [A.H.Sharira Sthana 3/7][11]
Sattvavana, or the individual with sattva predominance, has high tolerance toward physical and
mental ailments. [Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 35/38][4] The sattva dominance is devoid of sorrow
(vyasana/dukkha), happiness (abhyudaya/sukha), malaise (glani), and exhilaration (harsha). Hence
they are considered supreme for the promotion of health. [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Sutra Sthana 35/38][4]
The Sattvika individual is characterised by qualities like avoidance of violent actions (anrushanshya),
sharing (samvibhagaruchita), forgiveness (kshama), truthfulness (satya), righteousness (dharma),
devotion (astikya), knowledge (dnyana), intellect (buddhi), wisdom (medha), memory (smriti),
detachment from the material world (anabhishanga). [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana.1/18][4] [A.S.Sharira
Sthana 5/19][1] [Bp. Purvakhanda 2/95-96][9]
Types of sattvika constitution
The sattvika manas prakriti is termed as the gunamayi prakriti as determined by the prominence of
triguna. [A.H.Sharira Sthana. 3/104][11] The features of the sattvika prakriti are as below:
[Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4]
1. Brahma sattva: These types of people are free from negative emotions like anger, greed,
ignorance, or jealousy. They possess sound knowledge and have excellent power of
discrimination. They are highly righteous towards all beings.
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2. Arsha sattva: They have a good memory and like purity, love, and good self-control. They are
free from pride and ego. They possess good power of understanding and retention. They
engage in pure and auspicious deeds like oblation (homa), vow (vrata), adhyayana etc.
3. Aindra sattva: These people have devotion to sacred books and God. Hence they study rituals
and carry out oblations. They have devotion to virtuous acts and perform sacred rituals. Their
behavior and speech are authoritative.
4. Yamyasattva: They are free from mean and conflicting desires and acts and emotional binds,
hatred, ignorance, and envy. They have an excellent memory and good qualities of leadership.
These are hardworking individuals.
5. Varuna sattva: They are also free from mean acts and exhibit emotion in the proper place.
These love discipline and cleanliness and have hatred towards messiness.
6. Kubera sattva: These types have good courage, patience, and hatred of impure thoughts. They
like virtuous acts and purity. They express their emotions like anger and pleasure at the right
place and time.
7. Gandharva sattva: They possess good wealth and luxuries. However, they are not attached to it.
They are experts in art forms or performing arts like poetry, singing, dance, etc.
When true nature is aligned with the basic personality, there is less stress and more joy and
happiness at the workplace, home, and in various formal and informal relationships. This also
enables an individual to better handle ethical issues and dilemmas in the workplace and many
aspects of life, making it more efficient and effective.[12]
Sushruta used the term Mahendra sattva to denote the Aindra sattva.[Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/82][4]
Kashyapa described eight types of sattvika or kalyanajasattva. He has additionally explained the
Prajapatyasattva. [Ka.Sa.Sutra Sthana 28/24][13]
Importance of the concept of Sattva from a Philosophical point of
view
Ayurveda imbibed different schools of thought principles and concepts to put forth a holistic and
complete science. The process of evolution of the universe (srishtiutpatti) is of significant similarity
between the two sciences. The triguna theory is essentially the basis of evolution as per both
Sankhya Philosophy and Ayurveda. The prakriti is considered astrigunatmaka. Hence its vikara or
manifestations are also trigunatmaka in nature.[14] Thus the entire universe is comprised of the
derivatives of triguna. Therefore sattva guna also plays a significant role in understanding this
philosophical aspect. It is therefore responsible for initiating the process of moksha or salvation. The
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association of Purusha with the twenty-four tattva continues so long as rajas and tamas influence it.
The freedom from the influence (of rajas and tamas) by dominance of sattva leads to liberation of
purusha (and free from its association with the tattva). [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 1/36] [Cha.Sa.Sharira
Sthana 1/142] The Sattva guna is responsible for sleeping during midnight. It occurs for a short time
duration. [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/33)[4] The tamas is responsible for sleep, while sattva is responsible
for the arousal from sleep (bodhanahetu). [Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 4/35][4] Triguna and Tridosha both
form the eternal component of the marma which are exclusive seats of prana or vitality.
[Su.Sa.Sharira Sthana 6/35][4]
Importance of the concept of sattva in the promotion of health
The optimum level or functioning of the sattva guna is necessary to maintain health. [Cha.Sa.Sutra
Sthana 29/38] Presence and union with sattva guna (sattvalakshanasamyoga) is one of the signs of
health (aarogya). [Cha.Sa.Indriya Sthana 12/87] Hence, sattva sampat is an essential quality in
rendering physical and mental health. [Cha.Sa.Siddhi Sthana 12/9] [Cha.Sa.Sharira Sthana 6/13]
Importance of sattva in the diagnosis of diseases
The examination of sattva (pariksha) is one of the ten factors mentioned for assessing the strength
of the patient (aturabala) and the dosha of every individual. Here the sattva guna predominance is
essential for optimum mental strength (pravarasattva). It facilitates the response of an individual to
disease affliction. The optimum sattva level promotes physical strength irrespective of body
morphology. Hence, the sattva pariksha plays an integral part in the diagnosis of any condition.
[Cha.Sa.Vimana Sthana 8/119]
The predominance of sattva or sattva-audarya is a factor for less sleep (nidranasha). [Cha.Sa.Sutra
Sthana 21/56] Thus, the optimum level of sattva can contribute to reducing the prominence of
tamas leading to increased alertness and reduced dizziness/sleepiness.
The depletion of the sattva guna (alpa sattva) is an essential factor in the manifestation of disease
condition like psychosis (unmada). [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 8/5]
In epilepsy (apasmara) vitiation of sattva (samplava) leads to excessive rajas and tamas.
[Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 10/4]
In alcoholic intoxication (madatyaya), hampering of sattva function and vitiation of rajas and tamas
is seen leading to various conditions of madavibhrama. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/39] Due to the
depletion of sattvika qualities, the person becomes addicted to the liquor, also hampering his/her
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decision power. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/55] The consumption of madya or alcohol should be
done considering the sattva of the individual. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/68] If it is consumed in
proper amount and manner, it can lead to the prominence of sattva guna in the individual
(sattvochraya). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 24/70] Hence individuals with sattvika predominance are not
affected by the ill effects or addiction tendencies related to alcohol (madya). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana
24/85] The individuals with sattvika predominance can regularly consume madya also in more
amount as compared to rajasika and tamasika individuals. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana
24/68]
Importance in treatment of diseases
As mentioned earlier, the Sattva predominance is responsible for reducing sleep. Hence the
facilitation of sattva guna is essential in the treatment of the conditions like drowsiness (tandra),
excess sleep (atinidra) etc. The sattva guna should be qualitatively and quantitatively healthy to
combat diseases like unmada, apasmara and other mental health conditions. The therapy to conquer
mind (sattvavajaya) is directed towards enhancing the sattva guna in an individual. It ultimately
balances the triguna to maintain psychosomatic health.
Previous researches done on sattva guna
1. Extensive work is done to study the critical appraisal of sattva and its significance in the
management of the disease.[Yogesh Pandey, Pooja Sabharwal].[15]
2. Enhancing workplace wellbeing through understanding the three personality types; sattva, rajas
and tamas according to samkhya is put forth by Dr.Modh. The researcher has considered these
as important measures to ensure individuals' performance at their respective workplace.[16]
3. Impact of sattva and rajas on transformational leadership and karma yoga is studied by Jayant
Narayan and Venkant R. Krishnan.[17]
4. Aditi K and Venkant K discussed the impact of sattva guna on transformational leadership and
its application in designing the training framework.[18]
5. A randomized control trial of the effect of yogas on gunas (personality) and self-esteem in
normal healthy volunteers is conducted by Sudheer Deshpande, HR Nagendra and Raghuram
Nagarathna.[19]
6. Sattva Guna is observed as a predictor of wisdom and psychological wellbeing in the extensive
research work by Suhani Sharma, Abha Singh, Sakshi Mehrotra.[20]
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7. Verma Y, Tiwari G have studied the relative dominance of sattva and tamas in the domains of
self-compassion and human flourishing.[21]
8. Sharma M. et.al. assessed the effect of sattvika, rajasika and tamasika factors on anxiety levels
in cases and controls. The rajasika and tamasika were linked to impaired quality of life in these
individuals.[22]
9. Rajat Kumar Jain stated that the sattvika personality and risk-taking behavior are not correlated
to each other significantly. This is observed in an observational study on correlation between
triguna and risk-taking behavior.[23]
10. Das G et.al. have mentioned the correlation between the Triguna and emotional problems and
psychological wellbeing, stating the factor of sattva as stability.[24]
11. Khanna et.al. have expressed a positive correlation between the triguna and psychological
wellbeing, where sattva was found to be positively correlated with wellbeing.[25]
12. Nedungotti C et.al. have explained the sattva and anasakti as general personality factors and
compared the Indian school of thought regarding the concept with Big 5 personality
assessment scale of western science.[26]
13. R Banerjee et.al stated the correlation between the sattva guna and job satisfaction.[27]
14. Patil S, Nagendra H have stated that the yogika development camps have positive effect on the
sattva guna improvement in the school-going children.[28]
15. Maika Puta has explained the role of sattva in promoting health through the dissertation work
on the subject.[29]
16. Kalpana Srivastava has considered individuals with Sattvika Guna dominance to be caring,
having strength respect for Gurus, nonviolence, meditation, kindliness, silence, self-control, and
purity of character.[30]
17. Dr Nishi Arora has extensively studied the positive impact of sattva guna on the coping abilities
of females of different ages.[31]
18. Guru Tej has explored the role of sattva guna and sattvika personality in building and nurturing
a positive leadership approach.[32]
Assessment of sattva guna
1. Trigunatmaka Assessment Inventory – Dr R.R. Tripathi in 2009
2. Vedic personality inventory
3. Mysore Triguna Scale[33]
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Related Chapters
Mahatigarbhavakranti Sharira, Rogabhishagjitiya Vimana, Unmada Chikitsa, Apasmara Chikitsa,
Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya
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The current study aimed to explore the relationship of Triguna model from Indian psychology with respect to meta traits of personality as well as affect. For this purpose, a cross sectional survey method was conducted after approval from the institute ethics committee. A total of 84 males between the age of 18-50 years with a minimum of 10 years of formal education were selected from colleges and various organizations. Vedic Ppersonality Inventory, Big Five Aspect Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, were used in the study. A quantitative statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. An integration of the Indian model of personality with the western concept of general factor of personality (GFP) was carried out here and Sattva was found to be highly positively correlated with the general factor of personality or gGamma pPlus (iIntegration) and aAlpha plus (stability) and moderately positively correlated with dDelta pPlus (self-restraint) followed by bBeta plus (plasticity), at the 0.01 level of significance. Tamas was highly negatively correlated with gGeneral fFactor of pPersonality or gGamma pPlus (iIntegration), followed by aAlpha plus (stability), at 0.01 level. Rajas, was also negatively correlated with the positive traits. Thus, triguna model contributes towards integrative personality theories.
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Well-being may have been the subject of discussions in developed countries since long; the issue is catching up in developing countries. More companies in India are now looking at physical, emotional, and financial well-being. This chapter deals well-being at the workplace with focus on the role of an individual-as an employee and also as a distinct personality with various positive and negative attributes. This chapter uses the ancient text of Samkhya as the basis for understanding the true nature of an individual and the influence of this true nature on proclivity to gain knowledge, power, wealth, or skills at the workplace. When the true nature is aligned with the basic personality, there is less stress, and there is joy and happiness not only at the workplace but at home and also in various formal and informal relationships. This also enables an individual to better handle the ethical issues and dilemma at workplace making it more efficient and effective. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
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Sattva (Psychic strength) is one among three essentials of human existence (Ayu), other two are the body (Sharir) and the spirit (Atma). Health and life depends upon the proper functioning and coordination of these three entities. The knowledge of Sattva and its status provides way of maintaining positive well in accordance to Indian system of medicine. Sattva is an entity, which establishes the contact between the Soul and body for normal functioning of Indriya (sense organs). Sattva bala (status of sattva) provides an adequate status of well being of a person, thus giving a systemic and holistic approach to understand an individual. Ayurvedic literature provides a concise yet lucid concept of Sattva, which is useful to make decision of various therapeutic procedures and techniques. It enables insight, self-regulation, positive attitude and higher awareness. Hence, there is a need to assemble available references of sattva and crtically analyze it so that knowledge of sattva can be rationally used in clinical practice. literature of Sattva so that the knowledge of sattva can be available for daily
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The present study aimed to assess the nature and extent of the impacts exerted by sattvic and tamasic personality as enunciated by Indian theory of personality on the self-compassion and human flourishing of the student participants. A total of four hundred sixty-eight participants comprising two hundred sixty-five sattvics (Mean Age = 20.05, SD =2.07) and two hundred three tamasics (Mean Age = 19.90, SD = 1.93) participated in the present study. The results of the study indicated that the sattva and tamas gunas shaped the self-compassion and human flourishing of the participants. The participants having relative dominance of sattva guna as compared to tamas guna exhibited higher mean scores on the self-compassion, human flourishing and their components. In addition, the scores on the self-compassion and human flourishing demonstrated positive correlations whereas self-judgement, isolation, and over-identification demonstrated either non-significant positive correlations or significant negative correlations with the scores of these measures. The scores on the self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness and overall self-compassion components of self-compassion significantly accounted for variance in the scores of hedonic human flourishing, social well-being, psychological well-being, eudaimonic human flourishing, and overall human flourishing of the both sattvics and tamasics whereas the self-judgment aspect of self-compassion caused significant variance in the scores of hedonic human flourishing, social well-being, psychological well-being, eudaimonic human flourishing and overall human flourishing and isolation only to psychological well-being of the tamasics. The results of the study have significant implications of for researchers, academicians, laymen, counselors and educational psychologists. The findings of the study have been discussed in the light of recent findings and theories of personality, self-compassion, and human flourishing. The limitations and future directions for research have also been discussed.
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The authors have developed Mysore Triguna Scale-Advanced to assess Trigunas i.e. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The Trigunas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other Guna is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other PanchaMahabhutas and consequently the Trigunas are absent totally. One or the other guna is in dominance and is responsible for the behaviour expressed by an individual. The present authors have tried to validate the same in psychology, taking into account the descriptions as delineated in Indian tradition and classical textual scriptures. This is an addendum to the Mysore Triguna Scale and is not a stand-alone scale. This scale needs to be read and used in conjunction with the main Mysore Triguna scale. The psychometric properties of the present scale are presented here.
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This study examined whether transformational leadership would be affected by the predominance of a particular guna (sattva, rajas and tamas) in a leader and his or her belief in Karma Yoga. An experiment was conducted using a sample of 110 marketing executives working in a financial services firm in eastern India. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design was used to manipulate the three gunas (sattva, rajas and tamas) and Karma Yoga. Sattva and rajas were crossed with Karma Yoga (yes or no) to produce four cells, with tamas being the fifth cell. Transformational leadership was the measured variable. Results show that compared to rajas, sattva enhances transformational leadership, whereas tamas reduces it. Further, Karma Yoga enhances transformational leadership when the leader is sattvic, but does not enhance transformational leadership when the leader is rajasic. Results imply that organizations interested in enhancing transformational leadership should develop sattvic qualities in their managers and encourage them to be duty oriented.
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The ancient Indian Vedic text places emphasis on balanced living through a conscious strive to evolve from lower states of being to higher ones thus providing physical, spiritual and psychological wellbeing. Similarly the western thought places emphasis on working on physical and psychological well being for humans to flourish and realise their infinite potential. Hence, the present investigation is an attempt to draw a concomitance between Indian and Western Psychology on the topic of psychological well being and how wisdom and satvikta are related to this concept. For the purpose of this study a sample of 100 university students (50 males and 50 females) between the ages of 18-24 years were selected. Three scales namely- (i) PWAS (Practicing Wisdom Assessment Scale) (ii) Trigunatmak Personality Inventory, and (iii) Ryff’s Psychological Well Being were used. Regression analyses was done. The results indicated that Sattva Guna significantly predicts PWB and Wisdom.
Thesis
This thesis examines a psychological model of health and well-being from an ancient Indian philosophical thought system called the tri-guna model. After an introduction in the first chapter, the second chapter establishes the theoretical basis of the model. The third chapter describes the development and psychometric properties of the Tri-Guna Scales which measure the components of the tri-guna model. The fourth chapter presents an intervention study that is focused on an intervention that was conceptualized on the basis of the tri-guna model and aimed at increasing well-being, followed by the last chapter that draws conclusions. As the second chapter illustrates, the tri-guna model proposes that the psyche is influenced by three energies that function in dependence on one another and each strive for dominance, pushing the other two aside when they gain strength. These three energies are called sattva, rajas and tamas. In short, when sattva is dominant in a person, the person has strong well-being, is calm, happy, motivated and persevering. Dominant rajas leads to stress, over-activity and restlessness. When tamas becomes dominant, it makes a person pessimistic, depressed and unmotivated. The implication of the tri-guna model is that sattva should be the dominant guna in order for a person to experience high well-being. Sattva can be strengthened by a number of interventions such as meditation, increasing spiritual awareness, self-regulation and developing virtues. Studies examining the tri-guna model have demonstrated that many of the theorized relations are supported by empirical data. The quality of the inventories used to measure the gunas in the past does not meet current methodological standards, for which reason new tri-guna scales were developed in two studies. The inventory items were derived from the working model discussed in the second chapter of the thesis. Originally, the goal was to develop one large tri-guna scale that is clearly composed of three factors, of which each corresponds to one of the gunas. However, because of the wide range of behavioral aspects that are determined by the gunas, the first exploratory factor analysis found factors that corresponded not only to one of the gunas, but also to one of the many behavioral facets inherent in the one comprehensive scale (e.g. cognition, motivation, social behavior etc.). Therefore, the items were grouped into nine separate scales that each measure the gunas in one single behavioral category. The reliability of the majority of the 27 scales corresponds to reliability values of established personality inventories: Cronbach’s α of 24 subscales is above .7. The internal consistencies of the other three subscales don’t meet this standard, but their values are still above .6. Measures determining the validity of the inventory are very good. The exploratory factor analysis of the second study shows that all scales consist of three factors, each of which can be related to one of the gunas. The correlations of the subscales amongst each other are consistent with the hypotheses and previous research, the sattva scales correlate negatively with the rajas and tamas scales, and the rajas and tamas scales have positive correlations. Furthermore, the correlations of the scales to relevant external criteria provide further evidence for the validity of the scales. As expected, the sattva scales correlate positively with measures of well-being and negatively with measures of stress, whereas the rajas and tamas scales correlate positively with measures of stress and negatively with measures of well-being. The tri-guna model not only aims at describing and explaining behavior, but also at changing it, so that well-being can increase. The fourth chapter of this thesis describes an intervention study that tested a training aimed at increasing sattva and decreasing rajas and tamas, in a multiple baseline study. 24 participants took part in an eight-week training which included a variety of the interventions detailed in the second chapter: meditation, cognitive restructuring, managing energy and will-power, and mindful decision-making and social behavior. The study results show that the training was effective: sattva increased and rajas and tamas decreased with medium to large effects. Other significant changes include an increase in psychological and physical well-being and self-regulation. All in all, this thesis demonstrates the potential of the contribution of the guna model to explaining and increasing well-being. This research provides a thorough description of the model and summary of empirical evidence in connection to the gunas. Furthermore, this work has made it possible to measure the gunas with a questionnaire of high academic standards. This will support future research on the gunas and other fields investigating interventions with an Indian background like meditation or yoga. Finally, this thesis shows how the guna model can be applied practically in a psychological training in order to improve the well-being of its participants.
Article
Tri-Gunas is considered an important personality factors in the eastern philosophy. Objective of the present study is to find out co-relation between Tri-Gunas factors of personality and risk- taking behavior among undergraduate students. Sample consists of 192 under graduate students (94 male & 98 female) selected by adopting random sampling method. The tools used for the study are Personality Assessment Profile by Dr. Upendra Dhar, Dr. Sapana Parashar and Dr. Santosh Dhar and Risk taking Questionnaire constructed by Verendra Sinha and P.N. Arora. Statistical analysis was done by computing person’s product moment co-relation. Findings of the study are - 1) Sattvic personality and risk-taking behavior are not correlated to each other significantly. 2) Rajsic personality and risk-taking behavior are not correlated to each other significantly. 3) Tamsic personality and risk-taking behavior are not correlated to each other significantly in male students but in case of female students there exists a positive and significant corelation