Definition and analysis of the idiomatic elements found on selected works composed by horn players
This research aims to define the elements that make a piece idiomatically written for the horn. On the contrary to Horton (1986) that was able to identify truly hornistic writing but not its components, the current research followed her steps, using a different approach that allowed to identify those components. To accomplish it, it was made at first, a short historic overview that observed a horn players tradition up to the end of the XIX century, vanishing meanwhile, and raising again in the last 50 years. After identifying the components that are defined by the sources as idiomatic, these were validated on a selection of pieces composed by Cláudio Barruma, Fernando Morais, Jeffrey Agrell, João Gaspar, Kerry Turner, and Ricardo Matosinhos, all horn players, which means, that they are the native speakers of the hornistic idiom. Music composition was used here as a research methodology and the researcher included himself as a study object, answering to the challenge released by Hill (2001) who believes in the triangle of musical wholeness, that consists of Composition, Performance, and Teaching. The research proved that some components were not clear, and that there were sometimes mistakes on the bibliographic sources used by composers. The information of these sources is presented briefly, giving to the composer the information but not the tools for using it. In this research, the information is systematically presented, allowing horn players and composers to use the same source. With the comprehensive cross-checking of the instrumentation, orchestration, and notation sources with the opinion of horn players, an important step was given to narrowing the gap between performance and composition.