The identification of idiomatic writing for the horn /

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Photocopy. Thesis (D.M.A.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1986. Includes bibliographical references (p. 143-150).

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... Na primeira investigação encontrada relativamente à escrita idiomática para trompa (Horton, 1986) aborda um espetro alargado de instrumentos, que vão desde a trompa natural passando pelas primeiras trompas com chaves até às trompas duplas, triplas e descant. Importa destacar que a investigação foi orientada por Douglas Hill (*1946) que, entre outras publicações, é autor de uma das referências mais importantes relativamente às chamadas extended techniques da trompa (Hill, 1996). ...
... Portanto, torna-se evidente a necessidade de uma investigação mais aprofundada nesta área a fim de continuar o trabalho iniciado por (Horton, 1986), tomando porém um rumo diferente, no sentido de se poder identificar quais os elementos que tornam uma obra escrita de forma idiomática para trompa. ...
... O presente projeto visa, numa primeira instância, tentar clarificar o significado da expressão escrita idiomática para trompa. Horton (1986) concluiu ser possível identificar a escrita "trompística," contudo, não os elementos que a constituem. Assim sendo é, exatamente, deste ponto que a presente investigação se propõe partir. ...
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Definition and analysis of the idiomatic elements found on selected works composed by horn players This research aims to define the elements that make a piece idiomatically written for the horn. On the contrary to Horton (1986) that was able to identify truly hornistic writing but not its components, the current research followed her steps, using a different approach that allowed to identify those components. To accomplish it, it was made at first, a short historic overview that observed a horn players tradition up to the end of the XIX century, vanishing meanwhile, and raising again in the last 50 years. After identifying the components that are defined by the sources as idiomatic, these were validated on a selection of pieces composed by Cláudio Barruma, Fernando Morais, Jeffrey Agrell, João Gaspar, Kerry Turner, and Ricardo Matosinhos, all horn players, which means, that they are the native speakers of the hornistic idiom. Music composition was used here as a research methodology and the researcher included himself as a study object, answering to the challenge released by Hill (2001) who believes in the triangle of musical wholeness, that consists of Composition, Performance, and Teaching. The research proved that some components were not clear, and that there were sometimes mistakes on the bibliographic sources used by composers. The information of these sources is presented briefly, giving to the composer the information but not the tools for using it. In this research, the information is systematically presented, allowing horn players and composers to use the same source. With the comprehensive cross-checking of the instrumentation, orchestration, and notation sources with the opinion of horn players, an important step was given to narrowing the gap between performance and composition.
... Existing research suggests that musicians tend to take advantage of the expressive opportunities afforded by various instruments and playing techniques (e.g., Gimenes, & Manzolli, 2006;Horton, 1986;Huron, Anderson & Shanahan, 2014;Huron & Berec, 2009;Jiranek, 1971;Schutz, et al., 2008;Sudnow, 1978). Recall that the initial motivation for this study was the conjecture that nominally sad musical expressions might gravitate toward the use of darker timbres-as evident in sad speech. ...
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String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut) or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard). Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor) provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.
... Musical genres have been identified in which the idiomatic aspects of one sound source are imitated by another -such as the vocal imitation of the Greek gaida bagpipe by traditional singers (Sarris & Tzevelekos, 2008). Musical idiomaticism has been addressed in a variety of descriptive and statistical ways by music scholars (Horton, 1986;Jiranek, 1971). ...
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A theory of idiomaticism is developed and illustrated using music for B- flat valve trumpet. Physical measures were collected from two trumpet performers and used to construct a computer model of the instrument/performer. Using this model, several works composed by both trumpet virtuosi and non-trumpet players were analyzed. A conceptual distinction is made between measures of performance difficulty (how hard it is to play a particular passage) and measures of performance idiomaticism (how well suited a passage is to a specific instrument). Methods for characterizing both difficulty and idiomaticism are described. In general, the results suggest that detailed modeling of the mechanics of performance can help to pinpoint aspects of musical organization that arise from performance idioms or affordances. Repercussions for ethnomusicology, historical musicology and music analysis are discussed.
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