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Abstract

Anaerobic digestion has recently gained interest in contributing to territorial strategy regarding the deployment of the circular economy and energy transition. Most projects bring together multiple actors from a wide variety of backgrounds. The article analyzes the evolution of synergies and cooperative behaviors between local stakeholders over the period 2010–2020 in an anaerobic digestion cluster in France. The study draws on social network analysis and proximity theory, which have recently been used for analyzing regional innovation systems, local clusters, territorial governance, and rural development. We reveal that local stakeholders develop dense relational networks that vary and evolve throughout the project. Different groups exist and behave in a semi-autonomous manner. All the actors are located in close geographical proximity. Still, their links in terms of organized proximities are related to various types of relations, resulting from cognitive resemblances or common origins. This explains the persistence and resilience of local relationships and how they maintain a collaborative dynamic over time.

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Torre A. and Rallet A. (2005) Proximity and localization, Regional Studies39, 47- 59. The objective of this paper is to pave the way for an analysis of the relations between proximity and localization of activities and people, two notions that are often mistaken for one another. Our method consists in exploiting the semantic wealth of the notion of proximity. We distinguish two types of proximity (geographical and organized) and propose a grid of analysis of the main models of geographic organization of activities by articulating both types of proximity. We then introduce the phenomenon of tension between geographical and organized proximity in order to discuss problems that are often underestimated in spatial economy. First, organized proximity offers powerful mechanisms of long-distance coordination that constitute the foundation of the increasing geographical development of socio-economic interactions. The confusion between information interactions and knowledge exchange, and the constraint of being located in proximity neglects the fact that the collective rules and representations do manage, and at a distance, an increasing part of these interactions. It is then shown that there is a disjunction between the need for geographical proximity and co-localization of actors by introducing professional mobility and temporary geographical proximity. We also emphasize the ability of big organizations to manage the presence in different areas of their units, whereas smaller ones are more constrained by fixed co-localizations, which are only needed for certain phases of their interactions. Finally, we raise the often neglected question of the negative effects of geographical proximity, which creates tensions between the actors who use limited support-goods and tends to damage the local relational network. However, these negative effects can be limited by integrating them within organizations or institutions, that is through a re-composed organized proximity enabling one to solve conflicts and launch processes of cooperation or negotiation within ad- hoc mechanisms. Torre A. et Rallet A. (2005) Proximite et localisation, Regional Studies39, 47-59. Cet article cherche a ouvrir la voie a une anlyase des rapports entre la proximite et la localisation des activites et de la population, deux notions qui sont souvent confondues. L'approche consiste a exploiter la richesse semantique de la notion de proximite. Dans un premier temps, on distingue deux types de proximite (geographique et organisee) et propose une grille qui permet une analyse des principaux modeles de l'organisation geographique des activites en articulant les deux types de proximite. Dans un deuxieme temps on introduit le phenomene de la tension entre la proximite ou geographique, ou organisee, afin de discuter des problemes qui sont souvent sousestimes dans l'economie geographique. En premier, la proximite organisee fournit de puissants mecanismes de coordination a longue distance qui constituent la base du developpement geographique croissant des interactions socioeconomiques. La confusion entre l'interaction d'information et l'echange de connaissance, et la contrainte d'etre situe a proximite ne fait aucune attention au fait que les reglementations et les representations collectives gerent, a distance, une proportion croissante de ces interactions. On demontre une disjonction entre le besoin de la proximite geographique et la localisation a proximite des agents, en introduisant la mobilite professionnelle et la proximite geographique temporaire. Il faut souligner aussi la capacite des grands etablissements a gerer la presence de leurs unites sur des zones differentes, alors que de plus petits etablissements se voient contraindre par des emplacements a proximite fixes dont ils n'ont besoin qu' a certaines etapes de leurs interactions. Pour finir, on remet en question les effets negatifs de la proximite geographique, souvent negliges, ce qui cree des tensions entre les agents qui emploient de facon limitee les services d'assistance technique, et a tendance a entraver le reseau relationnel local. Cependant, on peut minimiser ces effets negatifs-la tout en les inserant dans les organisations ou les institutions, par moyen d'une proximite organisee recomposee, ce qui permet la resolution des conflits et le lancement des processus de cooperation ou de negociation a partir des mecanismes improvises. Torre A. und Rallet A. (2005) Nahe und ortliche Begrenzung, Regional Studies39, 47-59. Dieser Aufsatz setzt sich zum Ziel, den Weg zu einerAnalyse der Beziehungen zwischen Nahe und ortlicher Begrenzung von Betatigungen und Menschen zu ebnen, als zwei Begriffen, die oft verwechselt werden. Die Methode stutzt sich auf die Ausnutzung der vielfaltigen semantischen Bedeutung des Begriffes 'Nahe'. 1. Es werden zwei Arten von Nahe unterschieden: geographische und organisatorische, und ein Analysennetz der Hauptmodelle geographischer Einteilung von Betatigungen durch klare Unterscheidung beider Arten Nahe vorgeschlagen. Dann wird das Phanomen der Spannung zwischen geographischer und organisatorischer Nahe eingefuhrt, um Probleme zu diskutieren, die in der Raumwirtschaft oft unterschatzt werden. 2. Zunachst bietet organisierte Nahe wirksame Mechanismen der Fernkoordination, welche die Grundlage der zunehmend geographischen Entwicklung sozialwirtschaftlicher Wechselwirkung darstellen. Die Verwechslung von Informationswechselwirkungen mit Austausch von Fachwissen, und die Beschrankung, in benachbarten Standorten zu sein, vernachlassigt die Tatsache, dass gemeinsame Regeln und Darstellungen selbst auf Entfernung einen stetig zunehmenden Teil dieser Wechselwirkungen bewaltigen. 3. Dann wird gezeigt, dass es eine Disjunktion zwischen dem Bedurfnis nach geographischer Nahe und gemeinsamer ortlicher Begrenzung der Spieler gibt, in dem professionelle Beweglichkeit und vorubergehende geographische Nahe eingefuhrt werden. Gleichzeitig wird die Fahigkeit grosser Organisationen betont, deren Vorkommen auf verschiedenen Gebieten ihrer Abteilungen handzuhaben, wahrend kleinere eher durch festgelegte, gemeinsame ortliche Begrenzungen eingeschrankt sind, die nur fur bestimmte Phasen ihrer Wechselwirkungen benotigt werden. 4. Abschliessend wird die oft vernachlassigte Frage nach den negativen Wirkungen geographischer Nahe aufgeworfen, die Spannungen zwischen den Spielern hervorruft, denen begrenzte Hilfsmittel zur Verfugung stehen, und dazu neigt, dem Netzwerk ortlicher Beziehungen zu schaden. Diese negativen Auswirkungen konnen jedoch durch deren Integration mit Organisationen oder Institutionen uberwunden werden, d.h. durch eine neu zusammengesetzte, organisierte Nahe, die es gestattet, Konflikte zu losen, und Wege der Zusammenarbeit oder Verhandlungen in ad-hoc Mechanismen zu beschreiten. Torre A. y Rallet A. (2005) Proximidad y localizacion, Regional Studies39, 47- 59. El objetivo de este articulo es determinar el contexto para un analisis de las relaciones entre la proximidad y la localizacion de actividades y personas, dos nociones que a menudo se confunden. Nuestro metodo consiste en explotar la riqueza semantica que existe en torno a la nocion de proximidad. Distinguimos dos tipos distintos de proximidad (geografica y organizacional), y proponemos un analisis de los principales modelos de organizacion geografica de actividades mediante la articulacion de ambos tipos de proximidad. A continuacion introducimos el fenomeno de tension en la proximidad geografica y la organizacional con el fin de examinar una serie de problemas que a menudo se ven sub-estimados en la economia espacial. En primer lugar, la proximidad organizacional ofrece poderosos mecanismos de coordinacion a larga distancia que constituyen el fundamento del creciente desarrollo geografico de las interacciones socio-economicas. La confusion entre interacciones de informacion e intercambio de conocimiento y el obstaculo que supone estar ubicado en proximidad deja de lado el hecho de que las reglas y las representaciones colectivas manipulan, y a distancia, una parte cada vez mayor de dichas interacciones. A continuacion mostramos que existe una disyuncion entre la necesidad de proximidad geografica y la colocalizacion de actores, mediante la introduccion de movilidad profesional y proximidad geografica temporal. Tambien destacamos la habilidad que tienen las grandes organizaciones para manejar la presencia de sus unidades en diferentes zonas, mientras que las mas pequenas se ven restringidas en mayor medida por colocalizaciones que se necesitan solamente para ciertas fases de sus interacciones. Por ultimo, planteamos una de las preguntas que a menudo se ha dejado de lado sobre los efectos negativos de la proximidad geografica, lo cual crea tensiones entre los actores que hacen uso de un numero limitado de bienes de apoyo, y tiende a perjudicar el network relacional local. No obstante, estos efectos negativos se pueden aminorar si se integran en las organizaciones o instituciones, es decir, mediante una proximidad organizacional recompuesta permitiendole a uno solucionar conflictos y lanzar procesos de cooperacion o negociacion dentro de mecanismos ad hoc.
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One of the common tendencies of animal production activities in Europe and in developed countries in general is to intensify the animal production and to increase the size of the animal production units. High livestock density is always accompanied by production of a surplus of animal manure, representing a considerable pollution threat for the environment in these areas. Avoiding over-fertilization is not only important for environmental protection reasons but also for economical reasons. Intensive animal production areas need therefore suitable manure management, aiming to export and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel - the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable energy systems (RES) have set forward a fixed goal of supplying 20% of the European energy demands from RES by year 2020. A major part of the renewable energy will originate from European farming and forestry. At least 25% of all bioenergy in the future can originate from biogas, produced from wet organic materials such as: animal manure, whole crop silages, wet food and feed wastes, etc.
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The use of the theoretical tools provided by proximity economics to address environmental questions, and the emergence of analyses revitalising the role of the spatial dimension in environmental problems, date from the late 1990s. This paper first aims to provide a review of the research conducted in this field and second to suggest some future research directions concerning the respective roles of geographical proximity and organised proximity in the production and management of environmental problems. First, it deals with the topic of 'geographical proximity and land-use conflicts', a topic that is currently the most researched in this field. This is followed by a discussion of the role of organised proximity in the regulation of environmental problems. The paper then explores the relation between the uncertainty associated with environmental issues and relations of organised proximity. Next it outlines a few possible research directions, focusing more particularly on the roles of geographical proximity as a mode of regulation of environmental problems, and on the possible role of organised proximity in their production. The concluding section draws an overview of the departures and extensions that have resulted from taking into account environmental issues in the paradigm of proximity economics.
Thesis
Les démarches d’écologie industrielle et territoriale (EIT) représentent un potentiel d’action concret pour rendre nos modes de production et de consommation plus soutenables. Leur mise en œuvre reste compliquée en raison de coopérations interentreprises peu évidentes à initier. Plusieurs dispositifs méthodologiques, façonnés par un ensemble d’outils et de méthodes, ont été élaborés afin de faciliter ces coopérations, mais ils ont rarement eu l’effet escompté. Depuis peu sont expérimentés de nouveaux dispositifs méthodologiques s’appuyant sur une approche plus intuitive et des outils plus performants. Le travail présenté ici vise à déterminer, à travers trois cas d’étude, si ces nouveaux dispositifs facilitent l’émergence de relations interentreprises favorables à la mise en place de synergies. Pour chaque terrain, nous avons cherché à identifier les relations interentreprises et leur évolution dans le temps en mobilisant l’analyse des réseaux sociaux, et d’autre part, à comprendre les logiques sous-jacentes de ces interactions grâce au corpus de l’économie de la Proximité. Nos résultats montrent que les dispositifs méthodologiques étudiés facilitent l’identification de synergies et la mise en relation des entreprises. Cette dernière semble toutefois insuffisante pour amener les entreprises à coopérer et un accompagnement post atelier paraît indispensable. Nos résultats viennent également nuancer l’importance de la préexistence d’un socle de références commun entre les acteurs pour mener à bien une action collective dans les démarches d’EIT.
Article
This article presents the results of an ongoing research project on production and allocation of the biomass of agricultural origin (BAO), a key resource in ecological and energy transitions. The production and allocation of BAO are changing under the current development of the bioeconomy, which is the narrative promoted for intensifying the use of BAO, that we question through the lens of the scientific paradigm of bioeconomics. We developed a metabolic approach to agriculture, that we applied to the case study of northern Aube (France), an area specialized in intensive crop farming, undergoing rapid development of agricultural biogas production. Our results indicate that the ongoing changes influence BAO production and allocation at several scales (farm, small collective of farms, value chain, territorial). Development of the bioeconomy strongly influences the socioeconomic metabolism of the territory’s agriculture. Diversion of BAO flows due to biogas production are increasing structural imbalances and have some negative impacts on flows and ecological or economic funds strategic for sustainability, agronomic and economic balances of agricultural activities at multiple scales and as a whole. The changes described are especially disruptive since they strengthen competition and have blocking effects for the existing and potential agricultural metabolism.
Article
Our purpose is to examine the link between circular economy (CE) and territorial development in the literature. Works on CE most often deal with its integration within firms’ strategies. The link between CE and the territorial development process (TDP) is more rarely studied. We define the TDP through the interaction between three key dimensions: coordination modalities between the stakeholders, institutional factors, and the resources generated in the process. Using a systematic literature review our aim is to understand, through the occurrences of those dimensions in the 265 papers selected, whether or not and how the issue of the TDP is addressed. Our first result is that a part of the literature on CE often focuses on one or two of the three key dimensions identified. The second result is to highlight several forms of interactions between the key dimensions, illustrating that CE can imply different types of TDPs.
Article
The multiplication of local-based labelling systems in the forestry sector seems to echo a growing pressure from both globalization and sustainability expectations. Recent prospects in territorial economics invite us to consider not only the way specific resources are activated, but the terms of their valuation as well. We do this through the examination of six case studies in three French mountain ranges: the Alps, the Vosges and the Jura. We analyse the way institutionalized groups of actors shape and use value portfolios and highlight their role in implementing new types of circularities. We show that wood product labels are increasingly built upon territorial values, notably through the activation of various forms of proximities (spatial and relational). Although very recent, these initiatives attempt to legitimize themselves as ‘counter-norms', questioning the dominant production-distribution model.
Article
Collective action within territorial organizations is complex. Initiatives often collapse from a lack of understanding of relational dynamics and logics of action. This article proposes a relational approach to study the collective action process within a producer association of a Localized Agrifood System (LAS). We conducted the research within the APROCAMPOS association, located in the Serrano cheese LAS, which involves producer families, extension agents, inspection veterinarians and secretaries of agriculture. We first conducted a social network analysis of advice seeking within the association, through sociometric interviews with the producer members. Second, an analysis of territorial proximity, conducted through semi-structured interviews with the association participants, was combined with the social network analysis. Results showed that extension agents are in a very central position in the advice network. They follow a classical top down model of knowledge diffusion. The president of the association plays a key brokerage role, essential for the network cohesion and information flow. Second, the analyses revealed a lack of trust and reciprocity among producers, leading to a low level of interaction and collective action, which can, however, be improved by the combination of geographical and organized proximities. In sum, the top-down model leads to low levels of initiative and participation among the producers in collective action. Local knowledge needs to be integrated in a more participatory governance frame to build common projects of cheese valorization. Nonetheless, institutional arrangements appear instrumental to define political orientation that favors cooperation and meets the quality of the Serrano cheese and promotes the development of the territory as a whole.
Article
More than 50 countries and international organisations worldwide are currently working on strategies and policies to promote a transition to a bioeconomy. This economic system centres on a sustainable use of bio- and renewable resources to guarantee sustainability. Although many contributions have been made to the field of bioeconomy, most focus on a science perspective (e.g. chemistry, engineering, technology, biomedicine or biology). Despite the significant importance of social and economic issues for a bioeconomy transition, studies from a social science perspective are largely lacking. This paper presents a systematic review of academic contributions to the field of bioeconomy from a social science standpoint. The results reveal the need for an in-depth analysis of the challenges and opportunities that the bioeconomy faces in social and economic terms.
Article
Biogas production may make an important contribution to multiple policy objectives, i.e. the transition to renewable energy, increased recycling of agricultural waste and reduction in greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. Despite the role of biogas in achieving these wider benefits, the engagement of stakeholders such as farmers has been low and the barriers to their participation in biogas production is not well understood. This study examines farmers’ willingness to participate in a unique, manure-based collective biogas investment based on a discrete choice experiment study of Danish farmers. Our results show that the majority of farmers, including farmers who never considered investing in biogas before and farmers that already participate in conventional biogas plants, are interested in a partnership-based biogas investment (PBI). A mixed logit model with flexible distribution shows that farmers’ participation in PBI is mainly motivated by a moderate number of partner farmers, short distance between the farm and the plant, contract options to sell biogas, an option to cancel the partnership, and free startup consultancy. Farmers are willing to accept a significant reduction in subsidy to acquire favorable aspects of the PBI. A second stage analysis of farmers’ intensity of participation also reveals that an increase in livestock units, involvement in off-farm activity, increase in farm size, and positive view towards investment enhance willingness to supply manure. Linking results from discrete choice and corner solution models, we estimate the average manure supply to a partnership-based biogas plant to be around 96,000 tons/year.
Book
This work aims to present the most recent developments regarding territorial governance, placing particular emphasis on rural and periurban areas. The reader will find information on the processes of development of European regions, as well as on the behaviours and strategies adopted by the different actors who live in these territories and contribute to the latter's livelihood. The first part of the book analyses the structural changes in the modes of production that have affected these territories. The second part addresses the questions of methodology and of the structures of governance of local development in rural areas. The last section makes an assessment of the geographical indications as tools of governance of local agrifood chains. The book was written by economists, geographers, land use planners and specialists of the questions of governance and management of rural and periurban areas.
Book
This volume provides new insights into the functioning of organizational, managerial and market societies. Multilevel analysis and social network analysis are described and the authors show how they can be combined in developing the theory, methods and empirical applications of the social sciences. This book maps out the development of multilevel reasoning and shows how it can explain behavior, through two different ways of contextualizing it. First, by identifying levels of influence on behavior and different aggregations of actors and behavior, and complex interactions between context and behavior. Second, by identifying different levels as truly different systems of agency: such levels of agency can be examined separately and jointly since the link between them is affiliation of members of one level to collective actors at the superior level. It is by combining these approaches that this work offers new insights. New case studies and datasets that explore new avenues of theorizing and new applications of methodology are presented. This book will be useful as a reference work for all social scientists, economists and historians who use network analyses and multilevel statistical analyses. Philosophers interested in the philosophy of science or epistemology will also find this book valuable.
Article
In recent years, biogas production capacity has been greatly enlarged in Germany. Whereas negative effects of this development, for example in increased land lease prices, have been well documented, very few research studies exist on the positive effects of biogas production on the socio-economics of rural areas. This study of the German state of Lower Saxony provides such information. Using a system dynamics model, the effects of increased biogas production on employment and added value in rural areas are projected for three different scenarios and six regions in Lower Saxony. A further step determines the further potential for enlargement of biogas production and to what extent this potential development would improve the socio-economic position of the regions under analysis. The results show that considerable changes occur regarding the employment level. Additionally, in the majority of areas within the regions there is a significant potential for further development of biogas production, which would likewise be reflected in the effects of added value and employment opportunities. This study reveals a differentiated view on the regional economic effects of biogas production. It also provides valuable information for further considerations about the potential construction of additional biogas plants and enhanced possibilities to switch a region's energy supply towards renewable bio-based energies.
Article
The present contribution addresses the results of a longitudinal study in a ‘bioenergy-region’ concerning the public acceptance of biomass plants and the corresponding influencing factors. Using a standardized questionnaire, 423 persons were polled between 2009 and 2011 on three points of measurement in four places in the bioenergy-region Altmark. One main result of the study is that the reported public acceptance remains constantly high over time; nevertheless it became evident that the respective influencing factors differ in their strength, whereas the perceived regional benefit shows a strong connection to the reported public acceptance of biomass plants at each point of measurement. Concluding the research results, the acceptance of biomass plants doesn't seem to be a fixed construct, but has to be seen in context of the respective experiences with plants on a local level over time. In addition to the local population, key actors of the regional biomass sector were also interviewed (N = 26). The analyses show significant differences in the perception and evaluation of the current informational level between the population and the key actors. Furthermore, the key actors estimated the utilisation of biomass even more positively and expected a greater ‘signal function’ of the bioenergyregion-project compared to the population.
Article
Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a collaborative environmental action whereby firms share or exchange by-products, materials, energy, or waste as a way to economically reduce aggregate environmental impact. Research in IS has flourished over the past two decades, and the time is ripe for a coherent review of organizational perspectives on the topic, particularly since the practice of IS is rife with difficulties often attributed to “social” factors. We review the organizational perspectives found in IS literature using a two-dimensional framework considering the antecedents, consequences, lubricants, and limiters of IS assessed through institutional, network/system, organizational, and individual levels of analysis. Our framework highlights what organizational perspectives have been adopted so far and also points to avenues of future scholarship of this unique phenomenon.
Article
After the Swiss government's decision to decommission its five nuclear power plants by 2035, energy production from wind, biomass, biogas and photovoltaic is expected to increase significantly. Due to its many aspects of a direct democracy, high levels of public acceptance are necessary if a substantial increase in new renewable energy power plants is to be achieved in Switzerland. A survey of 502 citizens living near 19 biogas plants was conducted as the basis for using structural equation modeling to measure the effects of perceived benefits, perceived costs, trust towards the plant operator, perceived smell, information received and participation options on citizens' acceptance of "their" biogas plant. Results show that local acceptance towards existing biogas power plants is relatively high in Switzerland. Perceived benefits and costs as well as trust towards the plant operator are highly correlated and have a significant effect on local acceptance. While smell perception and information received had a significant effect on local acceptance as well, no such effect was found for participation options. Reasons for the non-impact of participation options on local acceptance are discussed, and pathways for future research are presented.
Article
Promotion of bioenergy production is an important contemporary topic around the world. Vast amounts of research are allocated towards analysing and understanding bioenergy systems, which are by nature multi-faceted. Despite a focus on the deployment of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods for planning of bioenergy systems, only little research has addressed the location component of bioenergy facility planning. In this paper the authors develop a model for sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector allowing for an identification and prioritization of suitable locations for biogas production. The model builds on a framework for spatial planning and decision making through the application of spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The paper is structured around a case study including four Danish municipalities in order to demonstrate the power of the spatial multi-criteria evaluation model. The model allows a two level comparison of suitability, within municipalities as well as between municipalities. Criteria weights for generation of alternatives are obtained through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) analysis, carried out among a group of Danish central governmental decision makers. We find that resource and production economic criteria are given highest priority followed by environmental and social criteria. In all four case study municipalities, the identified alternatives are compared through incorporating economic, environmental and social criteria. It is found that 4–6% of the municipal area is suitable for biogas facility location and among the best performing sustainable locations the potential of reducing overall production costs is 3% as compared with current biogas plants. The results of this paper can provide support to central governmental decision makers, regarding regional allocation of subsidies in the country. Likewise local decision makers can obtain important information for planning and decision support, allowing for a more inclusive and transparent planning procedure.
Article
This article describes a new methodological framework to account for urban material flows and stocks, using material flow accounting (MFA) as the underlying method. The proposed model, urban metabolism analyst (UMAn), bridges seven major gaps in previous urban metabolism studies: lack of a unified methodology; lack of material flows data at the urban level; limited categorizations of material types; limited results about material flows as they are related to economic activities; limited understanding of the origin and destination of flows; lack of understanding about the dynamics of added stock; and lack of knowledge about the magnitude of the flow of materials that are imported and then, to a great extent, exported. To explore and validate the UMAn model, a case study of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area was used. An annual time series of material flows from 2003 to 2009 is disaggregated by the model into 28 material types, 55 economic activity categories, and 18 municipalities. Additionally, an annual projection of the obsolescence of materials for 2010–2050 was performed. The results of the case study validate the proposed methodology, which broadens the contribution of existing urban MFA studies and presents pioneering information in the field of urban metabolism. In particular, the model associates material flows with economic activities and their spatial location within the urban area.
Article
’Think Globally, Act Locally’ was one of the most famous slogans of the 1970s environmental movement. Discourses about global climate change are now a vivid illustration of this new ‘global thinking’. Although there is a substantial amount of research about global environmental issues and policy initiatives, there is still a gap in understanding of how lay publics actually comprehend global climate change. Using qualitative research method, this study is a comparison of how lay publics in Frankfurt (Germany) and Manchester (UK) perceive these issues and the possible solutions. The study found strong similarities in lay public perceptions in both cities including that (1) awareness of global environmental issues is always contextualised in broader perspectives not exclusively ‘environmental’, (2) there is a shared and strong sense of global equity based on recognition of differences and (3) there is an ambivalence about the role of environmental ‘information’. Differences between lay public perceptions in Manchester and Frankfurt can be explained by specific features of national cultures.
Article
The intuitive background for measures of structural centrality in social networks is reviewed and existing measures are evaluated in terms of their consistency with intuitions and their interpretability.Three distinct intuitive conceptions of centrality are uncovered and existing measures are refined to embody these conceptions. Three measures are developed for each concept, one absolute and one relative measure of the centrality of positions in a network, and one reflecting the degree of centralization of the entire network. The implications of these measures for the experimental study of small groups is examined.
Article
This paper develops an integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for wind farm siting that combines multi-criteria analysis (MCA) with geographical information systems (GIS); an application of the proposed framework for the island of Lesvos, Greece, is further illustrated. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constraints, based on recent Greek legislation, identifies the potential sites for wind power installation. Furthermore, the area under consideration is evaluated by a variety of criteria, such as wind power potential, land cover type, electricity demand, visual impact, land value, and distance from the electricity grid. The pair-wise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. The overall suitability of the study region for wind farm siting is appraised through the weighted summation rule. Results showed that only a very small percentage of the total area of Lesvos could be suitable for wind farm installation, although favourable wind potential exists in many more areas of the island.
Article
Centralized biogas plants in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste, and sewage sludge. Today 22 large-scale centralized biogas plants are in operation in Denmark, and in 2001 they treated approx 1.2 million tons of manure as well as approx 300,000 of organic industrial waste. Besides the centralized biogas plants there are a large number of smaller farm-scale plants. The long-term energy plan objective is a 10-fold increase of the 1998 level of biogas production by the year 2020. This will help to achieve a target of 12-14% of the national energy consumption being provided by renewable energy by the year 2005 and 33% by the year 2030. A major part of this increase is expected to come from new centralized biogas plants. The annual potential for biogas production from biomass resources available in Denmark is estimated to be approx 30 Peta Joule (PJ). Manure comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establishing good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils.
Combining social network approaches with social theories to improve understanding of resource governance
  • Crona
Biogas policies, incentives and barriers, a survey of the strategies of three European countries
  • K Engdahl