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The Mediating Role of Rumination and Self-Regulation Between Self-Generated Stress and Psychological Well-Being

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Abstract

In this study, we aimed to examine the relationships between self-generated stress (SGS) and psychological well-being (PWB) and the mediating role of self-critical rumination (SCR) and self-regulation in this relationship. In this direction, the Self-Generated Stress Scale (SGSS) was adapted into Turkish in the first study. In the second study, we tested the mediating role of SCR and self-regulation in the relationship between SGS and PWB in university students. The findings showed that the Self-Generated Stress Scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool for Turkish culture and PWB and self-regulation have partial mediating roles in the relationship between SGS and PWB. These results contribute to a better understanding of the association between SGS and PWB.

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... Self-regulation has been found to mediate the relationship between self-generated stress and psychological well-being [26]. Additionally, the ability to regulate emotions (promotion-focused regulation) has been found to have positive effects on an individual's internal dynamics and social relationships, whereas difficulties in emotion regulation (prevention-focused regulation) have been associated with various psychological struggles [27,28]. ...
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Background: In order to further investigate the relationship of psychological well-being with depression and anxiety. Method: Students from five universities were solicited to participate in this study and 545 students with a mean age of 20.1 (SD = 2.2) years were finally accessed to analysis. Result: All six dimensions-autonomy (AU), environment mastery (EM), personal growth (PG), positive relationships with others (PR), purpose in life (PL), and self-acceptance (SA)-of the Scales of Psychological Well-being Inventory (SPWB) were moderately negatively correlated with depression and anxiety as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Furthermore, due to a good fit with the present data, the model of SPWB on depression and anxiety was consistent with the theory of psychological well-being and indicated that HADS depression was predicted by EM, PR, and SA, while HADS anxiety was predicted by AU, EM, PG, PR, and SA. Conclusion: SPWB is a reliable measure of well-being for Japanese young adults, and the negative affectivity such as depression and anxiety is to some extent determined by the lack of psychological well-being.
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Self-criticism involves constant and harsh self-scrutiny, overly critical evaluations of one's own behavior, and negative reactions to perceived failures in terms of active self-bashing. Self-criticism is associated with various mental disorders and psychotherapy outcome. This paper provides (1) a meta-analysis of the association between pre-treatment self-criticism and multiple treatment outcomes, and (2) a systematic review of the association between change in self-criticism and therapy outcome. Based on a systematic literature search, 49 longitudinal studies (56 independent effect sizes; 3277 patients) were included in the meta-analysis and 7 studies were identified for the additional systematic review. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to assess the magnitude of the association between self-criticism and outcome, also considering potential moderators. The overall association between pre-treatment self-criticism and psychotherapy outcome was r = -.20 (95% CI = -.25 - -.16, p < .0001), suggesting that higher levels of self-criticism are related to poorer outcome. Although effect sizes showed little heterogeneity, the association varied by type of mental health problem and indicated stronger associations with certain disorders (e.g., eating disorders). The review based on change scores yielded inconsistent results. Our findings support the relevance of self-criticism for psychotherapy outcome.
Article
In the current article, we describe the development and validation of a self-report measure of self-generated stress and its associations with measures of perfectionism, self-criticism, and distress. The Self-Generated Stress Scale is a seven-item inventory that taps the tendency to see oneself as someone who generates and adds to existing personal stress (i.e., making a challenging situation worse or turning a life problem into a bigger problem). Psychometric analyses with data from three samples of university students showed that the Self-Generated Stress Scale has one factor and acceptable internal consistency. Analyses established that self-generated stress is associated with trait perfectionism, self-criticism, dependency, and self-silencing, as well as indices tapping cognitive perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presentation. Self-generated stress was also associated with distress and psychosomatic health symptoms. Regression analyses established that scores on the Self-Generated Stress Scale predict unique variance in distress and negative affect beyond the variance attributable to self-criticism and other measures of stress. Overall, our findings attest to the further use of the Self-Generated Stress Scale and highlight that certain perfectionists suffer from a perceived tendency to make their lives more stressful. The implications of these findings are discussed along with directions for future research.
Article
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depression, anxiety, cognitive distortions, and psychological well‐being among nursing students. Design and Methods This descriptive, correlational, cross‐sectional study was conducted with 330 nursing students. Data were collected using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Cognitive Distortion Scale (CDS), and the Psychological Well‐being Scale (PWBS). Findings The PWBS negatively correlated with the BDI, BAI, and CDS (P < .05). Preoccupation with danger was the strongest predictor, followed by hopelessness, self‐blame, total CDS and BDI (P < .05). Practice Implications Nursing students should be evaluated for psychological well‐being to prevent psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression.
Article
Self-criticism is a trans-diagnostic construct that has been receiving considerable research and clinical attention. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore whether there is evidence from prospective studies that self-criticism is significantly associated with subsequent symptoms of psychopathology. Searches were carried out in four electronic databases: PsychInfo, Embase, Medline and The Web of Science Core Collection. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed and data was extracted and synthesised. Sixteen studies were identified for inclusion in this review, investigating depression only (n = 12), depression and anxiety (n = 2), depression and terrorism-related perceived stress (n = 1) and social anxiety (n = 1). In terms of depression, ten studies observed self-criticism, with weak to moderate effect sizes, to significantly predict an increase in symptoms over time. In terms of anxiety, none of the three studies found self-criticism to significantly predict an increase in symptoms over time. The one study of terrorism-related perceived stress found self-criticism, with a weak effect size, to significantly predict an increase in symptoms over time. The methodological quality of studies ranged from fair to good, with study attrition, and its subsequent consideration in the analysis process, being a primary methodological flaw. The use of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) to measure self-criticism was also problematic as this scale was designed to measure self-critical depression and includes items about depression. This systematic review provides some evidence that there is a significant prospective relationship between self-criticism and symptoms of psychopathology amongst a student sample, with the strongest evidence for depression.
Article
Socially prescribed perfectionists play an active role in creating stress through a process known as stress generation. Extensive evidence also suggests that stress among socially prescribed perfectionists stems from perceived external pressures to be perfect. However, the degree to which these sensed outside pressures reflect real or imagined demands is unclear. In particular, does having other-oriented perfectionists in one’s social network lead to greater socially prescribed perfectionism and stress? To address this, we recruited 312 undergraduates (targets) and 1014 members of their social networks (influencers). Targets completed measures of self-oriented perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism, stress, and neuroticism. Influencers completed a measure of other-oriented perfectionism. As expected, the relationship between other-oriented perfectionism in influencers and self-oriented perfectionism in targets was not significant. However, as anticipated, path analysis revealed that influencers’ other-oriented perfectionism contributed to targets’ socially prescribed perfectionism, which in turn contributed to targets’ stress, even after controlling for targets’ neuroticism. Findings underscore the importance of considering the veridical aspects of socially prescribed perfectionism, as well as continuing to investigate the potentially deleterious consequences of having other-oriented perfectionists in one’s social network.
Article
It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
Article
Risk factor for depression is exposure to stress that occurs at least in part because of a person's characteristics, behaviors, and circumstances. Such dependent negative life events may be largely interpersonal in content, although it is an interesting question whether such events are universally more likely to occur or to trigger depression compared to other events. This chapter reviews research specific to depressive disorders and addresses not only the empirical evidence for stress generation, but also the factors that help to clarify its predictors and mechanisms. It is likely that residual depressive symptoms themselves impair functioning and contribute to negative life events; research also suggests that additional factors may contribute to stress generation. These include certain personality styles, as well as dysfunctional beliefs, attitudes, and cognitions, and maladaptive behaviors and social problem-solving skills. Clinical features may also increase the risk of stress generation, including comorbidity with other disorders, and likely also chronicity and number of episodes of depression. A vicious cycle of stress and depression presents challenges and opportunities for intervention and for predicting the course of depression.
Article
Current research indicates that both rumination and low mindfulness are implicated in the development and maintenance of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, yet no research to date has synthesized these findings into one model. In this study, we examined the mediating interplay between BPD symptoms, rumination levels, and low engagement in mindfulness. Two hundred racially diverse undergraduate college students participated in the study. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and BPD symptoms were assessed using semi-structured interviews, and current rumination and mindfulness were assessed using self-report measures. Increased BPD symptoms predicted both decreased mindfulness and increased rumination. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that rumination mediated the association between BPD symptoms and low mindfulness, and low mindfulness mediated the association between BPD symptoms and rumination. Both mediation effects held beyond effects of age, gender and current MDD. However, the magnitude of the indirect effect of BPD on low mindfulness through rumination was significantly larger than the indirect effect of BPD on rumination through low mindfulness. Furthermore, BPD symptoms had a significantly larger indirect effect on low mindfulness through brooding rumination than through reflection rumination. These findings suggest that low mindfulness, rumination, and BPD are intimately related. This study provides important preliminary information for the understanding of the relationship between low mindfulness and rumination in BPD symptom development and treatment.
Article
Many major theories of organizational stress (OS) reflect basic principles of cybernetics, most notably the negative feedback loop. However, these principles are rarely examined in empirical OS research, which focuses predominantly on simple bivariate relationships embedded in OS theories. This problem may reflect an implicit rejection of cybernetic principles on conceptual grounds, the absence of specific propositions regarding these principles, methodological difficulties, or some combination of these factors. In any case, the result is a gap between theoretical and empirical OS research, which severely hinders the accumulation of knowledge in this area. This article is intended to narrow this gap by presenting an integrative cybernetic theory of stress, coping, and well-being in organizations, deriving propositions from this theory, and discussing methodological issues in testing this theory.
Article
Emerging evidence suggests that the tendency to generate stressful life events may be, at least in part, genetically determined. However, the role of the early environment in shaping responses to later stressors is crucial to fully specifying biogenetic models of stress generation. The current study examined the moderating role of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment on the relation of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene to proximal independent, dependent, and dependent-interpersonal life events. This question was tested in a cross-sectional community sample of 297 adolescents and young adults. Childhood maltreatment history and proximal life events were assessed with state-of-the-art interviews that provide independent and standardized ratings of the environmental context. Consistent with the stress generation hypothesis, individuals with the risk s-allele of the serotonin transporter gene reported significantly higher rates of dependent and dependent-interpersonal life events than those homozygous for the l-allele, but only in the context of a history of maternal emotional maltreatment or sexual maltreatment. Neither serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms or childhood maltreatment, or their interaction, were associated with reports of independent life events. The current results demonstrate the importance of considering specificity in the early environmental context when examining the relation of genetic factors to the generation of proximal stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Previous research has highlighted the importance of examining the interpersonal context of stress and coping. How individuals in a relationship respond to one another and cope with stress together have important outcomes on both individual and dyadic levels. The current study sought to examine 2 deleterious coping responses, rumination and interpersonal withdrawal, as they relate to occupational stress and interact in the home setting. An intensive longitudinal design was employed in a sample of 87 couples in which 1 partner was working as a paramedic. Over a period of 4 consecutive work shifts, daily reports of marital tension, spouses' withdrawal, and paramedics' work stress, burnout, and rumination were collected. Multilevel models incorporating actor and partner effects examined daily associations. Supporting our first and second hypotheses, significant associations were observed between paramedics' work stress and subsequent rumination and withdrawal on the part of paramedics. Paramedics' work-related burnout also predicted increased withdrawal from their respective spouses. Regarding the role of these coping responses in daily marital functioning, paramedics' rumination and spouses' withdrawal were associated with increased marital tension over the 4-day period. On days when spouses withdrew more from the relationship, the associations between paramedics' rumination and both partners' reports of marital tension were greater, supporting our third hypothesis. These findings illustrate the importance of examining both partners' coping responses as they interact to predict marital tension. They further underscore the maladaptive nature of rumination and withdrawal specifically in an interpersonal context. Potential implications for collaborative coping are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Knowledge of psychological well-being persistently lags behind knowledge of psychological dysfunction. The imbalance is evident in magnitude of research-studies of psychological problems dwarf the literature on positive psychological functioning-and in the meaning of basic terms (e.g., typical usage equates health with the absence of illness). A person is viewed as mentally sound if he or she does not suffer from anxiety, depression, or other forms of psychological symptomatology. This prevailing formulation never gets to the heart of wellness; to do so, we must define mental health as the presence of the positive. To explicate the positive is, however, to grapple with basic values and ideals of the human experience. These values are no less evident in definitions of human suffering, although consensus in identification of the negative is somehow easier to achieve. Despite these challenges, much has been written, within the field of psychology and outside it, regarding the contours of positive psychological functioning.
Article
The major patterns of self-regulatory failure are reviewed. Underregulation occurs because of deficient standards, inadequate monitoring, or inadequate strength. Misregulation occurs because of false assumptions or misdirected efforts, especially an unwarranted emphasis on emotion. The evidence supports a strength (limited resource) model of self-regulation and suggests that people often acquiesce in losing control. Loss of control of attention, failure of transcendence, and various lapse-activated causes all contribute to regulatory failure.
Article
The capacity for a parent to self-regulate their own performance is argued to be a fundamental process underpinning the maintenance of positive, nurturing, non-abusive parenting practices that promote good developmental and health outcomes in children. Deficits in self-regulatory capacity, which have their origins in early childhood, are common in many psychological disorders, and strengthening self-regulation skills is widely recognised as an important goal in many psychological therapies and is a fundamental goal in preventive interventions. Attainment of enhanced self-regulation skills enables individuals to gain a greater sense of personal control and mastery over their life. This paper illustrates how the self-regulatory principles can be applied to parenting and family-based interventions at the level of the child, parent, practitioner and organisation. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which uses a self-regulatory model of intervention, is used as an example to illustrate the robustness and versatility of the self-regulation approach to all phases of the parent consultation process.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether men and women differ with regard to aspects of psychological well-being. For the purposes of this study, a meta-analysis was performed on data from a trans-university project, involving a multicultural availability sample of 378. The participants each completed 13 scales that measure psychological well-being in affective, physical, cognitive, spiritual, self and social aspects. Statistically significant gender differences with small to medium practical effects were found. Men scored higher on physical selfconcept, automatic thoughts (positive), constructive thinking, cognitive flexibility, total self-concept, and fortitude. Women scored higher on the expression of affect, somatic symptoms, and religious well-being. No significant gender differences were found on sense of coherence, satisfaction with life, affect balance, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and the social components of self-concept and of fortitude. The results are in line with gender stereotypes and traditional socialisation practices and possibly reflect the impact of longstanding social inequity between men and women.
Article
Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In the present study, the Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale – Revised (Tafarodi & Swann, 2001) was translated into Dutch and psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed. According to Tafarodi and Swann (2001), self-esteem is composed of two dimensions, and the questionnaire was constructed specifically to tap these two dimensions of self-esteem, namely self-competence and self-liking. Based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), results confirmed that a two-dimensional model with the factors self-competence and self-liking provided a superior fit to the data as compared to a unidimensional model of self-esteem. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were appropriate.
Article
The response styles theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) was proposed to explain the insidious relationship between rumination and depression. We review the aspects of the response styles theory that have been well-supported, including evidence that rumination exacerbates depression, enhances negative thinking, impairs problem solving, interferes with instrumental behavior, and erodes social support. Next, we address contradictory and new findings. Specifically, rumination appears to more consistently predict the onset of depression rather than the duration, but rumination interacts with negative cognitive styles to predict the duration of depressive symptoms. Contrary to original predictions, the use of positive distractions has not consistently been correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in correlational studies, although dozens of experimental studies show positive distractions relieve depressed mood. Further, evidence now suggests that rumination is associated with psychopathologies in addition to depression, including anxiety, binge eating, binge drinking, and self-harm. We discuss the relationships between rumination and worry and between rumination and other coping or emotion-regulation strategies. Finally, we highlight recent research on the distinction between rumination and more adaptive forms of self-reflection, on basic cognitive deficits or biases in rumination, on its neural and genetic correlates, and on possible interventions to combat rumination. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.