Depression is a common disorder with a worldwide prevalence of 3.8 %, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Little is known about the risk factors for the development of depression. However, it seems clear that it is multifactorial and requires a complex interaction of social, psychological, and biological factors. A possible influence by the intake of exogenous sex hormones (e.g., ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel) has been controversially discussed for years. It is of high social relevance due to the popularity of hormonal contraceptives. Furthermore, this potential interaction would be a significant aspect of preventive doping education for professional athletes due to the misuse of sex hormones and sex hormone receptor ligands (e.g., selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)) for performance enhancement.