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European Journal of Education Studies
ISSN: 2501 - 1111
ISSN-L: 2501 - 1111
Available on-line at:
Copyright © The Author(s). All Rights Reserved. 347
DOI: 10.46827/ejes.v9i5.4386
Volume 9 Issue 5 2022
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso1
Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi2
1PhD, Science Education Department,
Faculty of Education,
Ekiti State University,
Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
2Science Education Department,
Faculty of Education,
Ekiti State University,
Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
The process by which one generation's wisdom, information, and skills are handed on to
the next is known as education and training. Mobile learning (M-Learning) uses mobile
devices such as handheld and tablet computers, mp3 players, smart phones, and mobile
phones to support the learning process. These cutting-edge technological devices have
revolutionised education by allowing students to learn while moving, making the
learning experience more engaging, entertaining, and motivating. This has provided
people all around the world with a complete means of transmitting and sharing
information. Science is both a process and a body of knowledge, and students learn
science by participating in both the content and the methodology. This study investigates
the use of mobile learning in the teaching of science sustainable development. Also, it
examines the concept of mobile learning, its relevance in the teaching of science,
challenges of M-Learning. It concludes by recommending provision of M-learning
gadgets such as mobile phones, smartphones, laptops, iPods etc., for collaborative and
personal learning at their convenient time which will bring about improvement in
learning and teaching of science.
Keywords: mobile learning, teaching science, mobile technologies
1. Introduction
The broad adoption of mobile technologies, both hardware and software, is quickly
becoming a requirement for development support. According to Jabbar & Felicia (2015),
Correspondence: email
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European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 9 Issue 5 2022 348
mobile learning is a sort of learning that takes place on mobile devices such as tablets,
laptops, and digital readers.
It is the form of learning that occurs when a learner is not in a fixed, predetermined
location, or when a learner utilises the learning opportunities provided by mobile
technologies. Mobile learning (M-Learning) is a new way to skill acquisition, information
distribution, and dissemination that is gaining traction throughout the world. Mobile
learning is a modern learning environment that allows for collaboration, personalization,
informal learning, and a student-centered learning environment. Mobile learning is
defined as "learning across different contents/ settings through social and content interactions,
as a result of the convergence of online capabilities onto mobile platforms, as well as the
accessibility and affordability of mobile technology." In both formal and informal settings, m-
learning has the potential to become the next ubiquitous channel of education.
The mobile technology consolidates sustainable development in the sense that its
accessibility and flexibility ease the stress of carrying heavy computerized equipment in
order to access materials online or offline. The major fact that mobile learning brings in
flexibility on location and time of access is in itself a boost for development.
2. Concept of Mobile Learning
Any sort of learning or education that is not restricted to a specific venue, geographical
area, or time frame is referred to as mobile learning. It is the schooling or learning
experience that is flexible with venue and timing. Mobile learning exists in various forms
ranging between text messages, audio messages and video messages. This presents the
platform and forum for learning with ease or convenience. Learning is constant while the
methods of learning change every day with technological development. M-Learning has
added to the focus of education from what is learnt (content) to how we learn (method).
Over the last two decades, mobile computers have steadily been brought into
educational settings (Sung, Chang & Liu, 2016; Olugbuyi, Oginni, Ayeni & Fatoba, 2018).
They are more convenient than laptops and computers, and their functions are similar to
those of laptops. Mobile devices are substantially less expensive than PCs and laptops,
therefore these are relatively inexpensive options.
This presents the learners the room to be active in the process. The new age of
learning has motivated learners to be active in the classroom. One-to-one computing has
a lot of computing power and portability, which, when paired with wireless
communication and context sensitivity features, makes it a wonderful learning tool for
both regular classrooms and outdoor casual learning (Sung, Chang & Liu, 2016).
2.1 Mobile Learning and Science Teaching
Mobile learning, as a type of digital education, provides scientific students with a diverse
range of learning opportunities. M-Learning, or the process of making education mobile,
satisfies the demands of learners all over the world, boosting their confidence. Mobile
learning is an eye-catching and stress-free way to maintain mastering skills and have
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso; Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 9 Issue 5 2022 349
constant access to information. It is widely available, inexpensive, and quickly
disseminated, so it has a lot of potential for reaching out to underserved communities
and giving them with opportunities for further education and advancement (Mehdipour
& Zerehkafi, 2013).
Science teaching has evolved over the years, from the age of physical classrooms
to virtual classrooms. Technological advancement has welcomed new ideas in the
teaching of science. Science concepts are no longer obsolete as it is ever present in this
new age. Students can access science library anytime and anywhere and of course
anyhow! Technology, which is a type of science and is the application of knowledge, is
constantly breaking new ground, offering scientific education a fresh perspective.
Distance learning is aided by mobile learning in instances where access to learning is
restricted or disrupted owing to physical location or post-conflict or post-disaster
scenarios (Mehdipour & Zerehkafi, 2013).
Several experiments were conducted to see if mobile learning may improve
students' motivation to learn (Jabbar & Felicia, 2015; Wouters, van Nimwegen, van
Oostendorp, & van der Spek, 2013). It was observed that mobile learning can help
students achieve emotional learning objectives, which adds to the body of data
supporting the use of mobile technology in science learning and teaching. Therefore, as
mobile learning has a great and positive influence on the teaching and learning of the
sciences, its utilization into science teaching will enhance both the teachers and learners.
2.3 Relevance of Mobile Learning in the Teaching of Science
Science concepts is dynamic as the method of teaching. Mobile learning takes away
rigidity from the method of teaching and learning, gives room to interactive,
collaborative and efficient classrooms. Mobile learning has evolved from a tiny academic
interest to a set of substantial programmes in schools, companies, museums, cities, and
rural areas all over the world in the last ten years. Challenges such as covid-19 have been
unable to impede teaching and learning with the introduction of mobile learning in
science education. It is therefore imperative that mobile learnings’ relevance to teaching
and learning of science cannot be over emphasised.
The educational system has shifted from the pre-COVID era to the post-COVID
era, where learning has to be on the go. Any education that wants to thrive will embrace
mobile learning as it eases so many educational barriers, and makes teaching and
learning flexible. Science education has progressed beyond learning within the four walls
of a school or institution; it is now virtual, requiring students to learn without having to
travel to a specific area. Every organisation and industry are on the web, as this is a way
of reaching out to the world at large. M-learning is a means of reaching out to the world
at large, hence science education will be projected to the world via M-learning.
Science education can take place anywhere, anytime, anyhow and in any form, all
thanks to M-Learning. The idea that you can never be late to the classroom alone takes
away the fear most students have tried to overcome for years. The emotional stability that
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso; Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 9 Issue 5 2022 350
comes with never missing anything whenever one decides to learn alone is power and
gives learner the right attitude to learning.
Mobile learning also brings many forms and strategies of teaching and learning to
science education. Virtual and collaborative classrooms will be utilized when engaging
the classroom using mobile learning. M-learning gives the learner confidence to gather
information. The teacher also will be flexible in teaching as most of the concepts and
information to pass across is always available.
Mobile learning also makes science teaching available around the clock. It is
always available 24/7! This idea brings the right attitude from the learner and he/she will
be rightly motivated to learn. Mobile learning eliminates the need to carry laptops or
other heavy devices around to access information online; instead, mobile phones, tablets,
and iPads can access information online in a short amount of time. Mobile learning's
importance in science learning and teaching cannot be overstated.
2.4 Utilization of Mobile Learning in Science
Mobile learning can be used in many ways in the learning of the sciences. Electronic
books, OutStart, Inc., handheld audio and multimedia guides, in museums and galleries,
are examples of mobile devices and personal technology that can enable mobile learning.
Handheld gaming consoles, such as the Sony PSP or Nintendo DS, are examples of
current gaming consoles. Personal audio player, for example, for listening to lecture
recordings (podcasting), Personal Digital Assistant, both in and out of the classroom
Tablet computers, UMPCs, cellphones, camera phones, and smart phones are all
examples of mobile devices (Mehdipour et al., 2013).
According to analysis, the use of portable devices resulted in better learning
results than the use of laptop computers. It's possible that this is related to the fact that
handheld studies tend to incorporate novel teaching methods (Sung et al., 2016).
Therefore, it is admirable for mobile learning to be utilized into the teaching and learning
of the sciences.
2.5 Challenges of Mobile Learning for Effective Teaching of Science
Technologies have eased a lot when it comes to education. However, there are challenges
that come with the integration of mobile learning in the teaching and learning of sciences.
Technical challenges such as; network connectivity (where one may experience
difficulties in connecting to the internet/intranet), battery life (the mobile devices can
operate as long as the battery can take it), the size of the screen for reading matters as one
may find it difficult seeing the letters clearly, key size is also an issue as typing or
messages may not be types expressly as the larger devises, limited memory space also is
an issue as memory becomes full after saving files for a period of time which eventually
will affect the response of the device. A device may become inefficient if not updated
regularly which takes up memory space. There are some files or assets which may not be
supported by a specific device, also there is the challenge of not being able to open
multiple pages at once. The possibility of files being hacked by hackers, phishing agents,
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso; Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 9 Issue 5 2022 351
and other third parties. These are some of the technical difficulties that mobile learning
Also substantial are the societal challenges. There are numerous internet
distractions that may cause one's focus to move away from reading or learning vital
books or messages and toward chatting, pornography, movies, gaming, and other
activities. There is no time limit on the schedule, which could lead to time waste. On the
internet, demographic restrictions are impossible to enforce. On the internet and through
the usage of mobile learning, personal and academic life are disrupted. In the teaching
and learning of science via mobile learning, these and a slew of other issues arise.
The abuse of the mobile learning leads to internet thefts, cyber bullying, hackings,
tracking of someone’s location and so many more are side effects of M-Learning.
3. Conclusion and Recommendations
It can be established that mobile learning is an improvement in the study of the sciences.
It has its pros and cons; however, it brings a new dimension to science teaching and
It is recommended that for sustainable development, learners should be
encouraged to engage the mobile handset for learning purposes more than the
destructive and selfish reasons.
It is also recommended that learning applications should be easily accessible for
learners so as to ease learning.
Also, it also recommended that mobile learning applications be updated
frequently to ward off hackers and fishers thereby easing its accessibility to users.
Contributions Statement
The abstract, introduction and concept of M-Learning was written and edited by Dr.
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso, while Olugbuyi Peter Olubunmi wrote Mobile Learning, Science
Teaching, Utilization of M-Learning and Challenges of M-Learning for effective teaching
of science. The final editing and proof reading was done by Dr. Margaret Foluso Ayeni.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors hereby declare no conflicts of interests. The article is not submitted to any
other journal outfit.
About the Authors
Dr. Margaret Foluso Ayeni is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Science Education,
Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. She has a wealth of experience working in the
education sector for eighteen (18) years in secondary schools and over twelve (12) year in
the university system. Her articles ranging sole-authorship and co-authorship is a proof
of her commitment to academic. Her research interest is in Teaching and Learning
Pedagogy. She is a member of the Teachers’ Registration Council and, currently, the
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso; Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 9 Issue 5 2022 352
Deputy Director Affiliate Programs (Sandwich) of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti,
Nigeria. Her ORCID ID is; her e-mail addresses are and
Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi is a Lecturer I in the Department of Science Education, Ekiti
State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. His research interest is in Chemistry Education, ICT
in Science Education, Teaching and Learning Pedagogy and Online Assessment. He has
eight research works included with his ResearchGate profile. His ORCID ID is; his e-mail address is
Jabbar, A. I. A., & Felicia, P. (2015). Gameplay engagement and learning in game-based
learning: a systematic review. Review of Educational Research, 85(4), 740-779.
Mehdipour Y. & Zerehkafi, H. (2013). Mobile Learning for Education: Benefits and
Challenges. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research. 3, (6), 93
Olugbuyi, P. O., Oginni O. I., Ayeni, M. F. & Fatoba, J. O. (2018). Digitalizing Science
Education: the Panacea for Apathy of the present Nigerian Youth. Journal of
Research in Science Education. 2(1), 52 57.
Sung Y. T., Chang K. E. & Liu T. C. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices with
teaching and learning on students' learning performance: A meta-analysis and
research synthesis, Computers & Education, (94), 252-275, ISSN 0360-1315,
Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Spek, E. D. (2013). A
meta-analysis of the cognitive and motivational effects of serious games. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 105(2), 249-265.
Ayeni, Margaret Foluso; Olugbuyi, Peter Olubunmi
European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 9 Issue 5 2022 353
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Full-text available
The paper sought to examine various digital techniques for teaching science education with a bid to making the subject more interesting, practical and research oriented with the attendant innovations. The paper also sought to explore the learning support materials necessary to implement the digital teaching of the sciences. Not only these, the paper also highlighted digitalization as a good construct to equip learners with knowledge and skills to convert innovations from science researches to marketable products for commercial gain. It was the view of the paper that lesson delivered using ICT materials would be faster and more fascinating. Also, learners and Nigerian youths would be eager to put what they learned into practice independently.This paper also highlighted the importance of digitalization, whichwillstrengthen the confidence of science teaches and learners. In view of the above, the paper recommended the teaching of digital science in both secondary and post – secondary institutions, especially in Nigeria, as this would promote science innovations necessary for tackling the state of apathy of Nigerian youth and unemployment. Key words: Digitalization, Science Education, Apathy, Nigerian youths.
Full-text available
Mobile devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants, and mobile phones have become a learning tool with great potential in both classrooms and outdoor learning. Although there have been qualitative analyses of the use of mobile devices in education, systematic quantitative analyses of the effects of mobile-integrated education are lacking. This study performed a meta-analysis and research synthesis of the effects of integrated mobile devices in teaching and learning, in which 110 experimental and quasiexperimental journal articles published during the period 1993–2013 were coded and analyzed. Overall, there was a moderate mean effect size of 0.523 for the application of mobile devices to education. The effect sizes of moderator variables were analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of mobile learning in different levels of moderator variables were synthesized based on content analyses of individual studies. The results of this study and their implications for both research and practice are discussed.
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It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional instruction methods (learning: k = 77, N 5,547; motivation: k = 31, N 2,216). Consistent with our hypotheses, serious games were found to be more effective in terms of learning (d= 0.29, p d = 0.36, p d = 0.26, p > .05) than conventional instruction methods. Additional moderator analyses on the learning effects revealed that learners in serious games learned more, relative to those taught with conventional instruction methods, when the game was supplemented with other instruction methods, when multiple training sessions were involved, and when players worked in groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
In this review, we investigated game design features that promote engagement and learning in game-based learning (GBL) settings. The aim was to address the lack of empirical evidence on the impact of game design on learning outcomes, identify how the design of game-based activities may affect learning and engagement, and develop a set of general recommendations for GBL instructional design. The findings illustrate the impact of key gaming features in GBL at both cognitive and emotional levels. We also identified gaming trends and several key drivers of engagement created by the gaming features embedded within GBL, as well as external factors that may have influences on engagement and learning.
Mobile Learning for Education: Benefits and Challenges
  • Y Mehdipour
  • H Zerehkafi
Mehdipour Y. & Zerehkafi, H. (2013). Mobile Learning for Education: Benefits and Challenges. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research. 3, (6), 93 -101.