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Decorte, T., De Ruyver, B., Ponsaers, P. Bodein, M., Lacroix, A-C., Lauwers, S. Tuteleers, P. (2005). Drugs en overlast / Drogues et nuisances, Reeks Wetenschap en Maatschappij, Federaal Wetenschapsbeleid, Gent: Academia Press, pp. 335.

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In de maatschappelijke discussie over drugs en druggebruik speelt het fenomeen "overlast" een belangrijke rol. Dit artikel gaat in op de relatie tussen de illegale (detail) handel in heroïne en cocaïne, en overlast. Bekeken wordt niet alleen welke overlast de illegale drugshandel op consumentenniveau kan veroorzaken, maar ook de wijze waarop handelaren zelfregulering toepassen om overlast te voorkomen of te beperken. Aan de hand van begrippen uit de bedrijfseconomie worden drie verschillende vormen van drugshandel besproken, waarbij steeds wordt gekeken of er sprake is van overlast en van overlastbeperkende maatregelen. Centraal staat daarbij de relatie tussen drugshandel, ondernemingsdoelen en overlast.
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Research from a number of countries shows that there is a strong association between the use and abuse of drugs and alcohol and the commission of criminal acts. However, few in- depth studies have examined the nature of the links, and no comprehensive Canadian studies of this kind exist. In view of the considerable social costs felt to be caused by drug and alcohol abuse in Canada, the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse initiated a set of studies aimed at estimating (1) the strength of the associations among different types of crimes and the use and abuse of psychoactive substances, and (2) the share of crimes in Canada that can be attributed to the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs. It is not easy to estimate the role of alcohol and drugs in the total volume of crimes committed in Canada. Most crime incidents remain unreported and undetected by the authorities. Police reports, which represent the most complete source of information on crimes, often lack information on the perpetrator, and a large proportion of these incidents would not be considered criminal by the courts. Data can be obtained from incarcerated offenders, but it is difficult to generalize any findings from prisoners to all crimes, as this information concerns only the most serious crimes and criminals in Canada.The main findings of this report confirm the close association between the use of psychoactive substances and criminal behaviour and indicate that a substantial portion of this association represents a causal relationship. However, conceptual problems remain with the present approach and the research methodology can always be improved. The validity of self-reported data on sensitive 10 Executive Summary behaviours is always subject to question. There may be a tendency by some offenders to over-estimate the role of alcohol and/or drugs in their crimes. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these estimates would apply today. The findings of this report reflect the prevailing conditions during the period from the mid-’90s to the beginning of the new millennium. The estimates of the share of crime that can be attributed to drugs and alcohol should be based on studies using more than one type of method. In addition to the event-based methodology used in the studies of this report, longitudinal studies are the best way to examine how the volume of crimes varies with the use and abuse of psychoactive substances. Several suggestions are made in the report regarding the type of research that would serve to check the robustness of the estimates presented.
Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data-systematically obtained and analyzed in social research-can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data-grounded theory-is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena-political, educational, economic, industrial- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data. © 1999 by Barney G. Glaser and Frances Strauss. All rights reserved.