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Der kulturalisierte Blick – Das Messen von Interkultureller Kompetenz mit Eyetracking Daten

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Few phenomena have incited as much passion as the unravelling of what ‘intercultural competence’ means. This book presents a novel, bio-cultural approach towards intercultural competence, arguing that a relevant perceptual architecture must be set up via acting competently in various contexts and situations over time. The enactive framework proposes various levels of integration of cultural differences fundamental for communicating and acting effectively in multicultural environments. Intercultural competence emerges here from the co-activation of specific sets of expertise, such as creativity, morality and gender, for which the integration of cultural otherness provides the pivotal axis. A specific perceptual architecture results from such novel functional connections, via the integration of cultural otherness into highly interlinked perception, cognition, affect and action systems.
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Wer im Beruf erfolgreich sein will, benötigt infolge der Globalisierung vor allem interkulturelle Kompetenz. Der Umgang im internationalen Geschäftsverkehr bei unterschiedlichen Gelegenheiten erfordert spezifische Kenntnisse von Land und Leuten und auf einen Besuch sollte man sich immer gut vorbereiten.
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The chapter highlights the theoretical and applied contributions of eye movement research to the study of human expertise. Using examples drawn from the domains of chess and medicine, the chapter demonstrates that eye movements are particularly well-suited for studying two hallmarks of expert performance: the superior perceptual encoding of domain related patterns, and experts’ tacit (or implicit) domain related knowledge. Specifically, eye movement findings indicate that expertise is associated with a greater ability to process domain related visual information in terms of larger patterns of features rather than isolated features. Furthermore, in support of the role of tacit knowledge in expertise, there is evidence that the eye movements of experts may contain information that is not consciously accessible.
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This concluding chapter examines some of the ethical dimensions of groundlessness in relation to the concern with nihilism that is typical of much post-Nietzschean thought. In the humanities—in art, literature, and philosophy—the growing awareness of groundlessness has taken form not through a confrontation with objectivism but rather with nihilism, skepticism, and extreme relativism. Indeed, this concern with nihilism is typical of late-twentieth-century life. Its visible manifestations are the increasing fragmentation of life, the revival of and continuing adherence to a variety of religious and political dogmatisms, and a pervasive yet intangible feeling of anxiety, which writers depict so vividly. It is for this reason—and because nihilism and objectivism are actually deeply connected—that the chapter turns to consider in more detail the nihilistic extreme.
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This paper starts with one of Chalmers’ basic points: first-hand experience is an irreducible field of phenomena. I claim there is no ‘theoretical fix’ or ‘extra ingredient’ in nature that can possibly bridge this gap. Instead, the field of conscious phenomena requires a rigorous method and an explicit pragmatics for its exploration and analysis. My proposed approach, inspired by the style of inquiry of phenomenology, I have called neurophenomenology. It seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences. It needs to expand into a widening research community in which the method is cultivated further.
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Recently, a new model of intercultural communication was proposed and later empirically tested (Arasaratnam, 20041. Arasaratnam , L. A. ( 2004 ). Intercultural communication competence: Development and empirical validation of a new model . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association , New Orleans , LA . View all references; Arasaratnam & Doerfel, 20052. Arasaratnam , L. A. & Doerfel , M. L. ( 2005 ). Intercultural communication competence: Identifying key components from multicultural perspectives . International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 29 , 137 – 163 . [CSA] [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references). The present study was designed to further test the model and address the limitations of the previous test. Survey data were collected from participants (N = 400) and analyzed using regression analyses. The results mostly supported the previous model. These results plus some new findings in the relationship between empathy and intercultural communication competence are discussed.
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Short-term effects on the development of gifted school students have been demonstrated for intensive enrichment programs and means of acceleration. Long-term effects of short enrichment programs, however, have never been investigated and have rarely been postulated. Data from a large enrichment program in Germany can help to clarify this question. Participants and equally gifted nonparticipants of a 2-week summer course in the years 1994 to 1996 were contacted about 10 years after and compared by questionnaires. Prior to this systematic study, anecdotal evidence had shown that some participants have been deeply influenced during this summer camp, which is organized yearly for several hundred German school students at about age 16. Data from a larger group of former participants and nonparticipants could not confirm the overall long-term positive influence of the summer course on measures of academic career. Several reasons for this result are discussed and theoretical explanations are provided.
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Although the concept of justification has played a significant role in many social psychological theories, its presence in recent examinations of stereotyping has been minimal. We describe and evaluate previous notions of stereotyping as ego-justification and group-justification and propose an additional account, that of system-justification, which refers to psychological processes contributing to the preservation of existing social arrangements even at the expense of personal and group interest. It is argued that the notion of system-justification is necessary to account for previously unexplained phenomena, most notably the participation by disadvantaged individuals and groups in negative stereotypes of themselves, and the consensual nature of stereotypic beliefs despite differences in social relations within and between social groups. We offer a selective review of existing research that demonstrates the role of stereotypes in the production of false consciousness and develop the implications of a system-justification approach. [T]he rationalizing and justifying function of a stereotype exceeds its function as a reflector of group attributes—G. W. Allport (1958, p. 192).
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Most theories in social and political psychology stress self-interest, intergroup conflict, ethnocentrism, homophily, ingroup bias, outgroup antipathy, dominance, and resistance. System justification theory is influenced by these perspectives—including social identity and social dominance theories—but it departs from them in several respects. Advocates of system justification theory argue that (a) there is a general ideological motive to justify the existing social order, (b) this motive is at least partially responsible for the internalization of inferiority among members of disadvantaged groups, (c) it is observed most readily at an implicit, nonconscious level of awareness and (d) paradoxically, it is sometimes strongest among those who are most harmed by the status quo. This article reviews and integrates 10 years of research on 20 hypotheses derived from a system justification perspective, focusing on the phenomenon of implicit outgroup favoritism among members of disadvantaged groups (including African Americans, the elderly, and gays/lesbians) and its relation to political ideology (especially liberalism-conservatism).
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The globalization of business has resulted in the emergence of hyper-competition in many industries. Given the geographic, economic, and cultural dispersion of markets, many organizations have developed network structures to increase their strategic flexibility and to preserve idiosyncratic assets. This reliance on inter-organizational relationships has created an increased need to improve coordination and communication among the members of the global network. The problems associated with effective inter-organizational communications are exacerbated by the accelerating rate of change and time ...a `quickening' of events. Moreover, managers are required to adapt to the eventful differences in time across national and organizational cultures. This paper develops the concept of `timescapes' to facilitate effective inter-organizational and inter-cultural communications. A managerial process for decision-making relative to global communications is also presented in the paper.
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Recent research has shown that the psychological skills assessed by the Intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale (ICAPS) can predict adjustment, above and beyond what is already accounted for by personality. The purpose of this study was to examine if the skills tapped by the ICAPS can predict adjustment above and beyond that accounted for by both personality and general intelligence, and whether intelligence can predict adjustment above and beyond skills and personality. International students completed a battery of instruments including the ICAPS, a personality measure, and several adjustment indices. In a separate session they also completed a measure of general intelligence. The results indicated that the ICAPS did predict adjustment independently of both personality and intelligence, but that intelligence did not.
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Emotions operate along the dimension of approach and aversion, and it is reasonable to assume that orienting behavior is intrinsically linked to emotionally involved processes such as preference decisions. Here we describe a gaze 'cascade effect' that was present when human observers were shown pairs of human faces and instructed to decide which face was more attractive. Their gaze was initially distributed evenly between the two stimuli, but then gradually shifted toward the face that they eventually chose. Gaze bias was significantly weaker in a face shape discrimination task. In a second series of experiments, manipulation of gaze duration, but not exposure duration alone, biased observers' preference decisions. We thus conclude that gaze is actively involved in preference formation. The gaze cascade effect was also present when participants compared abstract, unfamiliar shapes for attractiveness, suggesting that orienting and preference for objects in general are intrinsically linked in a positive feedback loop leading to the conscious choice.
Article
The present study examined individual differences in appraisal of and affective reactions to intercultural situations. A sample of 160 students filled out the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and participated in an experiment in which they received a description of an intercultural situation that was either high or low in potential stressfulness. Individuals with high scores on the intercultural dimensions appraised the potentially stressful situation more positively and showed more positive and less negative reactions to the situation than did individuals with low scores on the MPQ. Interestingly, following a Terror Management Intervention (TMI), individual differences in emotional reactions to intercultural situations disappeared. The results could only partially be replicated using a general personality questionnaire, suggesting that these findings have at least some specificity to intercultural personality dimensions.
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