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Space–time tourist flow patterns in community-based tourism: an application of the empirical orthogonal function to Wi-Fi data

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This study analyses residents' perceptions and attitudes towards tourism development and community integration in tourism planning in an island tourism destination whose economy is widely influenced by the presence of big external investors. Findings reveal that residents believe that tourism planning should be more sensitive to residents and tradition, and be able to guarantee a higher level of heritage proximity in order to achieve a more indigenous/endogenous-oriented development. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis were conducted. Four clusters were identified (‘enthusiastics’, ‘moderate supporters’, ‘critics’, and ‘indifferents’), with significant differences in terms of employment reliance on tourism, length of residence, contact with tourists in everyday life, and level of education. Conversely, they did not differ based on gender, age, employment status, or geographical proximity to the tourist area, thus providing some contradictory insights when compared with previous studies. From a theoretical point of view, the findings seem to suggest that studies devoted to the investigation of residents’ view and attitude toward tourism should concentrate more on the personal values of respondents and less on their socio-demographic characteristics, which often render the findings of cluster analysis very site-specific and hard to generalise. Managerial implications are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided.
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In the era of mass tourism, phenomena such as sustainable tourism, responsible tourism, rural tourism, eco-tourism, pro-poor tourism and community-based tourism are now increasingly under the research microscope. If established and managed correctly, these alternative forms of tourism have the potential to contribute towards sustainable community development and provide visitors with unique experiences. Few scholars have qualitatively addressed the growth of community-based tourism in South-East Asia. This study investigated the value of a community-based tourism project at Banteay Chhmar in north-west Cambodia, specifically the discourse of the project's members and the broader community. The objective of the study was to provide an ethnographic account of the community member's attitudes, opinions and beliefs concerning the perceived value and contribution of the project towards community development in their locality. The study initially relied on a literature review to conceptualise community-based tourism. Unstructured in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 30 stakeholders of the Banteay Chhmar Community-Based Tourism Project. A narrative identifies the development of the project and provides samples of the respondents’ discourses. Findings from a thematic analysis of stakeholder responses indicated support of tourism and the overall operation of the project. Opinions were divided concerning the future growth of tourism and likely negative impacts on resident livelihoods. While some felt the project was relatively insular and lacked transparency, most identified the project's value as enhanced social capital, pride and a better sense of community. The findings show the project has positively contributed towards community development; however, before it can be considered a best practice example of community-based tourism, its financial sustainability, business practices and community support need to improve. The overall study serves as a valuable insight into themes promoting the merits and complications of community-based tourism, specifically in South-East Asia.抽象在大众旅游时代, 诸如可持续旅游、负责任旅游、乡村旅游、生态旅游、扶贫旅游和社区旅游等现象正逐步暴漏在研究的“显微镜”下接受检视。这些可替代旅游形式如果如果规划并管理得当, 就有潜力对社区可持续发展做出贡献, 并且给游客提供独特的旅游体验。很少有学者从定性方面考察东南亚社区旅游的发展。本研究考察了柬埔寨西北部位于班迭奇马的一个社区旅游项目的价值, 特别是考察了该项目成员和广大社区对该项目的看法。本研究的目的是, 针对该项目的感知价值以及对当地社区发展的贡献, 对社区成员的态度、看法及信念进行了一个民族志的描述。本研究首先利用文献综述概括了社区旅游, 然后对该项目总计 30 个利益相关者进行了一些非结构性深度访谈。深度访谈的描述识别了该项目的发展并提供了受访者观点的样本。对利益相关者访谈文本的主题分析揭示了社区对旅游业的支持及该项目的总体运行情况。这些看法分为两部分༚旅游业的未来发展和旅游发展对居民生计活动的可能负面影响。尽管有些人认为该项目有失偏颇并且缺乏透明度, 但绝大部分人认识到了该项目的价值, 即提升了社区的社会资本、自豪感和更紧密的社区意识。该研究表明该项目积极地促进了社区的发展。但是, 该项目在成为社区旅游的最佳实践范例之前, 需要改善其财务的持续性、业务运行方式和社区支持度。本研究整体而言对发挥社区旅游 (特别是东南亚地区社区旅游) 的长处, 解决社区旅游的难题提供了有价值的看法。
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New sources of geotagged information derived from social media like Twitter show great promise for geographic research in tourism. This paper describes an approach to analyze geotagged social media data from Twitter to characterize spatial, temporal and demographic features of tourist flows in Cilento - a regional tourist attraction in southern Italy. It demonstrates how the analysis of geotagged social media data yields more detailed spatial, temporal and demographic information of tourist movements in comparison to the current understanding of tourist flow patterns in the region. The insights obtained from our case study illustrate the potential of the proposed methodology yet attention should be paid to biases in the data as well as methodological limitations when drawing conclusions from analytical results.
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Sustainability is a concept that continues to evolve and perplex in tourism, one of the world's largest industries. Effective new theories and practices are constantly explored so as to incorporate sustainability into tourism frameworks. Due to their focus on participation processes, integration of resources, and responses to specific needs and contexts, ecomuseum principles can be very useful for the development of sustainable tourism. This paper examines the potential of using the principles of ecomuseology to support sustainable tourism development. The study adopted a mixed-methods approach involving local expert stakeholders at the case study site, the Rupununi region of Guyana, South America. The findings from this research suggest that the principles of ecomuseology possess considerable potential to support sustainable tourism development in the Rupununi and potentially other destinations internationally. In particular, this study illustrates how ecomuseological principles can be used to manage heritage resources and economic development by focusing on, for example, holistic interpretation and information sharing, placing equal attention on heritage resources, and monitoring changes to the region over time.
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ENSO-like variability is examined using a set of univariate indices based on unfiltered monthly global sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), sea level, and the three-dimensional ocean temperature (OT) fields. These indices, many of which correspond to the leading principal components (PCs) of the respective global fields, are highly correlated with each other. In combination with their spatial regression patterns, they provide a comprehensive description of ENSO-like variability in the atmosphere and ocean across time scales ranging from months to decades, from 1950 onward. The SLP and SST indices are highly correlated with one another back to the late nineteenth century. The interdecadal-scale shifts in the prevailing polarity of ENSO that occurred in the 1940s, the 1970s, and around the year 2000 are clearly evident in low-pass-filtered time series of these indices. On the basis of empirical mode decomposition, ENSO-like variability is partitioned into an interannual “ENSO cycle,” to which equatorial ocean wave dynamics imparts a distinctive equatorial signature, and a red noise background continuum, most prominent on the interdecadal time scale, which resembles the ENSO-like variability in some models in which the atmosphere is coupled to a slab ocean. The background continuum bears the imprint of the Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern, the leading mode of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime variability of the atmospheric circulation over the Pacific sector. The superposition of the ENSO cycle and the background continuum imparts a distinctive frequency dependence to the patterns of ENSO-like climate variability.
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New sources of geolocated information, associated with big data and social networks, show great promise for geographical research, especially in the field of tourism geography. Photo-sharing services comprise one of these sources. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential of photo-sharing services for identifying and analyzing the main tourist attractions in eight major European cities: Athens, Barcelona, Berlin, London, Madrid, Paris, Rome and Rotterdam. Geotagged photographs on Panoramio were differentiated according to whether they had been taken by tourists or local residents, and their spatial distribution patterns were analyzed using spatial statistical techniques in a GIS. The results indicated the concentration and dispersion of photographs in each city and their main hot spots, and revealed marked differences between tourists' and residents' photographs, since the former showed higher spatial concentrations. In addition, differences were observed between cities; Barcelona and Rome presented a strong spatial concentration compared with London or Paris, which showed much greater dispersion.
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There has been some discussion about the relationship between sustainable development and sustainable tourism, and the need to further explore the relationships between theory and practice. Using grounded theory, this paper reviews new and existing research on Beijing's historic hutong neighbourhoods in relation to the housing, heritage conservation and hutong tourism sectors. Results indicate that sustainability as a theoretical category has at least five extant properties. Sustainability is relative, dynamic, normative, contestable and reflexive. Sustainability is relative in the sense that proponents of different sectors will construct it differently. It is dynamic in the related sense that this construction changes over time. Sustainability is normative because it is value-laden; one important ideal being that a sector should strive to become ever more sustainable. Proponents of different sectors will assert their values, hence sustainability is contestable. Finally, sustainability is reflexive in that the normative ideal may not occur, thus the sustainability of a sector will be reflexive of the nature of its evolving real world development. The paper explores the substance of these properties, together with a review of the several stages through which hutong tourism has passed in its short 20-year life, including the emergence of governance systems.目的地可持续性框架的应用来探讨泰国在2004年印度洋海啸以后脆弱性的原因2004年印度洋海啸对多个旅游目的地的影响是对依赖旅游业的目的地社区的脆弱性的冲击和压力是一个惊人的提醒。但是,目的地脆弱性的因果驱动仍正在研究中。另外,很少研究是系统化地应用和测试新理论框架在评估真实世界问题例如对自然灾害的脆弱性的有用性。这个社会理论发展中的重要步骤经常被忽略。在该文章中我们通过`操作'新的目的地可持续性框架(DSF)来纠正这些基本的缺口。DSF被用来导向一个案例研究为基础的对比目的地脆弱性评估(DVA),针对泰国的拷叻,巴东,皮皮岛这些海啸影响的目的地来更好地理解目的地脆弱性和在不同地方和发展内容下的进化。结论显示目的地脆弱性被一个多样的,多层次的,相互作用的因素的集合来创造和延续,这包括地理曝光,特定目的地的发展特点,社会结构和治理流程。这些因素和流程的基础是不断相互竞争的利益相关者日程和行为,历史嵌入的文化规范,体制的偏好和巩固和延续不平等的资源使用上的权利结构,这些都随着时间的推移在社会组织的多个规模下发挥出来。
Article
A 2-yr set of profile data from Torrey Pines Beach, California, measured at monthly intervals has been statistically analyzed by using empirical eigenfunctions. The analysis separates the temporal and spatial dependence of the data, this separation permitting beach changes to be described objectively by a linear combination of corresponding time and space functions. Most of the variation in profile configuration can be accounted for by three eigenfunctions corresponding to the three largest eigenvalues. The largest eigenvalue corresponds to an eigenfunction called the'mean beach function,' which represents an average profile. A second eigenfunction, the 'bar-berm function,' has a large maximum at the location of the summer berm and a minimum at the location of the winter bar, indicating its relation to the seasonal onshore-offshore movement of sand. The third eigenfunction, the 'terrace function,' has a maximum at the location of the low-tide terrace. Results of this study indicate that the eigenfunctions are useful in the analysis of beach profile data and provide objective insight into the nature of the variations of the profile configuration. sent the variation of the beach profile configuration in terms of distance from. fixed data points and in terms of temporal changes in profile configuration over the period of study. No standard set of terms exists for describing beach profile features. However, certain features are sufficiently common in their occurrence to be recognized on most beaches and have been given names that are ill defined but are in general usage. Figure I (Inman, 1971) shows the morphological definition of some important beach features. This study will be concerned primarily with three of these features which are the basic parts of the beach profile; the berm and beach face, the terrace, and the bar. Movement or change in these three features accounts for most of the changes in beach profile configuration and con­ sequently is most significant in describing profile changes. Since these three features are so important in the profile changes, the morphologic term has also been applied to the appropriate statistical function.
Article
Some current uses of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) are briefly summarized, together with some relations with spectral and principal component analyses. Considered as a mean square estimation technique of unknown values within a random process or field, the optimization of error variance leads to a Fredholm integral equation. Its kernel is the autocorrelation function, which in many practical cases is only known as discrete values of interstation correlation coefficients computed from a sample of independent realizations.The numerical solution in one or two dimensions of this integral equation is approximated in a new and more general framework that requires, in practice, the a priori choice of a set of generating functions. Developments are provided for piecewise constant, facetlike linear, and thin plate type spline functions.The first part of the paper ends with a review of the mapping, archiving and stochastic simulating possibilities of the EOF method. A second part includes a case study concerning precipitation fields, previously worked out by optimal interpolation methods.
Article
In the 1960s, spurred by jumbo jets, charter tours, and the growing affluence of the middle classes in Western industrial nations, tourism erupted on a grand scale. This was seen as offering a new opportunity for developing countries to secure foreign exchange and stimulate economic growth. Their sunny climates, sandy beaches, and exotic cultures attracted a stream of vacationers, and resorts multiplied to meet the demand. With the oil crisis and the recession of 1974-75, there was a pause in the growth of tourism. The end of the boom gave new urgency to existing concerns about whether tourism produced sufficient gains for developing countries to justify the investments required. In addition to doubts about whether tourism yielded economic returns commensurate with its economic costs, there was a general questioning of some of the basic assumptions about the relationship between development and economic growth. In the case of tourism, these doubts were reinforced by the belief that it brings larger adverse social and cultural effects than does development of other sectors. In December 1976 the World Bank and Unesco sponsored a seminar to discuss the social and cultural impacts of tourism on developing countries and to suggest ways to take account of these concerns in decision making. This report is a summary of those proceedings with written accounts of those seminars presented.
Article
Measurements of beach profiles from southern California spanning a 5-year period have been examined for temporal changes in beach configuration. On an annual time scale the data suggest two distinct seasonal pivotal points separating eroding and accreting regions. Empirical eigenfunction analysis of combined onshore and offshore profiles shows a pivotal point for seasonal onshore/offshore sediment movement at a depth of 2-3 m below mean sea level and suggests another at a 6-m depth. Analysis of accurate reference rod measurements at 4-, 6-, 10-, 14-, and 20-m depths supports the presence of the 6-m pivotal point. A simple model of depth-dependent seasonal sand movement suggests that during initial winter storms, sand is eroded from both the foreshore and from depths of 6-10 m and is deposited in water depths from 2 to 6 m. During less energetic periods, sediment migrates both shoreward (to the beach face) and seaward (to depths of 10 m) from its winter site of deposition (water depths from 2-6 m). This observation of depth-dependent motion contradicts the simple single pivotal point model previously suggested for nearshore seasonal onshore/offshore sediment motion and emphasizes the complexity of nearshore sediment transport. A sediment budget for seasonal onshore/offshore transport, based on the dual pivotal point model, consists of exchanges of 85 m3/m of beach length across the 3-m pivotal point and 15 m3/m across the 6-m pivotal point. Over a longer time scale (i.e., the entire 5 years of study) the beaches showed no noet erosion or accretion, suggesting that this limited coastal region is stable over these short time scales.
Article
This research was conducted in the rural village of Bigodi, Uganda. Bigodi is a village of approximately 385 adults and has been involved with tourism since 1991. Bigodi's primary attraction is a forested wetland managed by a local tourism cooperative. Tourists are guided through the wetland in search of primates and tropical birds. Village life and local culture are also experienced. This research investigated residents’ attitudes towards tourism in Bigodi. Data were collected and analyzed with qualitative methods. Results show residents have consistently positive attitudes towards tourism. Positive attitudes result from resident's belief that tourism creates community development, improves agricultural markets, generates income, and finally, that tourism brings random good fortune. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, it was hypothesized that positive attitudes would lead to pro-tourism behavior. Observations of behavior over 6 months in Bigodi support this hypothesis. Implications for tourism development in poor rural areas are discussed.