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Easton, M., Ponsaers, P. , Demaree, Ch., Vandevoorde, N., Enhus, E., Elffers, H., Hutsebaut, F., Gunther Moor, L. (2009). Multiple Community Policing: Hoezo?, Gent: Academia Press, Reeks Samenleving en Toekomst, Federaal Wetenschapsbeleid, pp. 297.

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Technical Report
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In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD), the Fraternal Order of Police, and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) entered into a collaborative agreement. This agreement pledges its signatories (the parties) to collaborate in efforts to resolve social conflict, improve community relations, and avoid litigation. The agreement requires the CPD to implement a variety of changes, most notably the adoption of Community Problem-Oriented Policing (CPOP) as a strategy for addressing crime problems and engaging the community. Other provisions of the agreement require the CPD to establish a civilian complaint review process. The collaborative agreement incorporates a previous agreement between the CPD and the U.S. Department of Justice on use-of-force issues. The agreement specifies the need to evaluate achievement of its goals. In 2004, the parties contracted with RAND to conduct this evaluation. These goals are assessed through a variety of evaluation mechanisms, including surveys of citizens and of CPD officers; analyses of motor vehicle stops and of CPD staffing patterns; periodic observations of structured meetings between citizens and representatives of the CPD; and a review of CPD statistical compilations. The collaborative agreement requires an annual assessment of progress toward the agreement’s goals. This report is the first such annual review.
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The purpose of this paper is to take a realistic look at the concept of community policing and to attempt to determine the viability of such an approach to contemporary policing. While it is difficult to argue with the potential benefits of community policing, it must be given a proper hearing - in which the potential positive and negative consequences are examined - prior to attempts at implementation. At this point in time, a change to community policing by many, if not most, police agencies may be a pipedream - more rhetoric than reality. One thing is certain, however, if such an approach is to have any chance at success - it must be strongly supported by police management. This means that an infusion of creative police chiefs and mid-level managers, supportive of democratic ideals and management practices, must occur in the very near future. In addition, the commitment to hiring quality personnel who can handle the increased responsibilities required by community policing, including the ability to identify and analyze problems (both of a legal and nonlegal nature), develop plans for action, and evaluate program effectiveness. Police leaders should consider as well that community policing has the potential to be enriching and rewarding for patrol officers, as some pilot programs have discovered. Since the success of community policing depends on every officer and manager, the more ego-involved an officer becomes and the more enriching or rewarding the job design, the better the officer's performance will be. While it may seem as though secondary goals are being overemphasized, that is, organization structure, management style and personnel, it is firmly believed that the philosophy of community policing cannot be realized until significant changes are made in these areas. And, assuming such changes do occur, community policing still has a long way to go. The most important issues, accountability of the police, political neutrality, and the use of the police as a form of informal social control, must be decided. The tone of the interactions between the police and the community, and the police and other agencies, must be set. However, it appears that before community policing can be implemented, some fundamental structural and orientation changes are required to give the police and solid foundation upon which to police a democratic society. Only time will tell if such changes are forthcoming.