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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Is still Relevant in the 21st Century

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Abstract

You may be familiar with Maslow. Possibly even a fan. Alternately, you may stop listening the instant a psychologist starts spitting forth a theory. If you Google "Maslow" or his "hierarchy of wants," you'll likely see a colourful pyramid as the result. But given that this particular thinker passed away fifty years ago, what does it signify and can it really still be applicable? The present demands and the benefits of the system have altered significantly in the more than 70 years since the renowned psychologist launched his theory. Even after all this time, it's still important to think about whether Maslow's hierarchy of needs is still true. If you don't already know, in a nutshell, Maslow thought that people's needs can be neatly grouped into five categories. Each category comes into play once the needs in the previous category have been met. Greg Stocker, a Lean Advisor, says that Maslow never really talked about the hierarchy in terms of a pyramid. Instead, the diagram was made much later to make the theory clear. The goal of the study is to see how well Maslow's hierarchy of needs still works in the 21st century. For the study to come to a conclusion, it used both descriptive and analytical methods. The study also relied heavily on thematic analysis tools and both primary and secondary data sources to achieve its goals in a qualitative way.
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Vol: 02 , No. 5, Aug-Sept 2022
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Is still Relevant in the 21st Century
Showkat Ahmad Dar1, Dr. P. Sakthivel2
1Research Scholar of Public Administration Annamalai University Tamil Nadu, India
2Professor of Political science, Annamalai University Tamil Nadu, India.
Email id: 1darshowkat41@gmail.com
Abstract: You may be familiar with Maslow. Possibly even a fan. Alternately, you may stop
listening the instant a psychologist starts spitting forth a theory. If you Google "Maslow"
or his "hierarchy of wants," you'll likely see a colourful pyramid as the result. But given
that this particular thinker passed away fifty years ago, what does it signify and can it
really still be applicable? The present demands and the benefits of the system have altered
significantly in the more than 70 years since the renowned psychologist launched his
theory. Even after all this time, it's still important to think about whether Maslow's
hierarchy of needs is still true. If you don't already know, in a nutshell, Maslow thought
that people's needs can be neatly grouped into five categories. Each category comes into
play once the needs in the previous category have been met. Greg Stocker, a Lean Advisor,
says that Maslow never really talked about the hierarchy in terms of a pyramid. Instead,
the diagram was made much later to make the theory clear. The goal of the study is to see
how well Maslow's hierarchy of needs still works in the 21st century. For the study to come
to a conclusion, it used both descriptive and analytical methods. The study also relied
heavily on thematic analysis tools and both primary and secondary data sources to achieve
its goals in a qualitative way.
Keywords: Applicability, Hierarchy, Needs, Maslow, Reorganization.
1. INTRODUCTION
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a psychological theory outlining the items that people
consider to be essential to their well-being. However, the theory focuses on how and why we
meet these wants rather than the needs themselves. According to Dr. Aimee Daramus, a
certified clinical psychologist, "Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a hypothesis of motivation."
According to Maslow, "we're motivated to meet each of the basic needs listed on the
hierarchy in order," with requirements like immediate and long-term safety being met before
higher-level needs like love, respect, or self-actualization can even be considered. Maslow's
original presentation of the hierarchy of needs included a breakdown into five levels, from
first to fifth, based on his personal priorities. The subsequent popularity of the pyramidal
representation of his idea is largely attributable to him. There are "lower tier" needs, "middle
tier," and "higher tier" needs, and these are the categories that correspond to them.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been roundly criticized, yet it also has significant
advantages. This approaches "truly takes into consideration our deepest shortcomings and
struggles, as well as our finest capabilities," as Kaufman puts it. According to Maslow's
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hierarchy of needs, "humans are full of numerous demands, and some of them are more
important than others, but ultimately we are capable of fully reaching our potential."
Maslow wrote in his 1943 paper, "It is certainly true that man lives by bread alone when
there is no bread," about the importance of material wealth to the survival of humans. But
when there is always enough food to satisfy hunger, what happens to man's appetites?
Maslow believed that when people's basic needs were addressed, they naturally aspired to
greater and greater heights.
As per Maslow, "without a moment's delay other" (and "higher") needs arise, and they,
instead of physiological cravings, overwhelm the creature [person]. The fulfilment of each
progressive arrangement of requests leads to another arrangement of requirements, every one
of which is considered "more prominent" than the one preceding it. This is the very thing we
mean when we say there is an order of significance among the most major human needs.
Source: http://nmprod.s3.amazon.com
2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
A fresh perspective on human needs has emerged as a result of Maslow's work. Maslow's
hierarchy of needs, for instance, is commonly utilized in health and social work as a means of
evaluating a client's requirements. A person's future happiness might be negatively impacted
if they let problems or challenging circumstances at one point in their life to force them to
become overly focused on a specific set of requirements. Maslow's theory of needs seems to
describe needs that everyone has. However, studies suggest that the fulfilment of these
requirements has little to do with the order in which they are supplied. The purpose of this
research is to determine whether or not Maslow's hierarchy of needs is still relevant in the
twenty-first century.
3. METHODOLOGY
This investigation strikes a balance between a descriptive style and an analytical one. In order
to do so, it relies heavily on secondary sources like newspaper and magazine articles, reports
based on investigations, and similar research. Individual observations also form the basis of
an analysis, alongside the aforementioned element. With a focus on secondary sources and a
thematic analysis, this study took a qualitative approach.
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4. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS
Maslow's progressive system of necessities is a famous mental hypothesis for inspiration, and
many individuals are know about it with regards to human turn of events. In a review
distributed in 1943 and developed in his book Motivation and Personality distributed in 1954,
Abraham Maslow acquainted this thought with the world. Rather than zeroing in on the
people who were harmed by his speculations, Maslow took a gander at the existences of those
he considered "praiseworthy," like Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt. A great many
people are know about a pyramidal portrayal of Maslow's ordered progression of
prerequisites, in which physiological, security, and having a place/love needs sit at the base,
trailed by development needs (regard and the zenith of self-completion). For extra data on
Maslow's progressive system of necessities, look at this article from Psychology Today. A
Lean Advisor named Greg Stocker cases that Maslow never really introduced the pecking
order as a pyramid. Rather, the pyramid shape was concocted a lot later as an improved on
way to deal with show the thought.
4.1 A look at the world via Maslow's eyes
Maslow wrote in his 1943 paper, "It is certainly true that man lives by bread alone when
there is no bread," about the importance of material wealth to the survival of humans. But
when there is always enough food to satisfy hunger, what happens to man's appetites?
Maslow believed that when people's basic needs were addressed, they naturally aspired to
greater and greater heights.
4.2 That which is good
Taking this stance toward human beings and psychology is a significant step in the right
direction. This "opened the path for later movements such as humanistic psychology and
positive psychology," according to a BBC World Service news article. "Maslow also
presented the idea that our wants always change: if one need is met then so we desire the
need above it," wrote P&MM, a motivational firm, about applying Maslow's theory to HR
tasks.
The raise we got last year won't keep us spurred for the following five years, the honor we
got quite a while back will not fulfill our requirement for appreciation at this moment, and the
instructional class we required a long time back will not satisfy our craving to acquire new
abilities and information at the present time.
4.3 Results from actual studies
Maslow compiled his findings through extensive interviews and observations of successful
persons he chose. According to an assessment of the theory's empirical backing,
"Longitudinal studies evaluating Maslow's gratification/activation proposal showed no
support, and the meagre support garnered from cross-sectional studies is doubtful due to
various measurement issues."
Coming up next were underscored in the BBC World Service article: At Maslow's place of
graduation, Brandeis University in Massachusetts, his replacement, clinician Margie
Lachman, uninhibitedly surrenders that her ancestor gave no exact confirmation to his
speculation. He needed "the wide hypothesis, the stupendous goals," and he needed another
person to "carry it to the hardest logical test," she says. It "never fully happened as expected."
Other flaws were pointed up by Simply Psychology, such as the "biased sample of self-
actualized persons, mainly limited to highly educate white males" (including Thomas
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Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, William James, Aldus Huxley, Gandhi, and
Beethoven).
They continue by saying that while Maslow did do research on women who had achieved
self-actualization, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Mother Teresa, these women were in the
minority in his sample. This complicates the application of his theory to women and people
of lower socioeconomic status or of various ethnic backgrounds.
4.4 A view from TJ's camp
In the L&D On Trial piece of the July TJ web recording, Editor Jon Kennard and I analyse
this issue. As indicated by Jon, "a whole verifiable worth of painters and writers will let you
know that this request is trash. Self-completion, the most elevated level, can be considered
"understanding one's possible by many methods, including imaginative ones." I'm certain any
semblance of Vermeer, Rembrandt, Toulouse-Lautrec, Van Gogh, Elgar, Mozart, and
Debussy, every one of whom were destitute sooner or later in their lives, would have a
remark about it! To be sure, Jon proceeds, "history is packed with instances of this," to the
degree where "poor people craftsman" is perhaps of the most predominant generalization:
"totally realized yet without sufficient food, cover, close associations, or a considerable lot of
the guaranteed staples of the lower levels of the Maslow scale." Insufficient observational
examinations are the issue, as I would like to think. I figure Maslow worked really hard by
noticing individuals he thought had worked really hard in their area and pulling some
arguments from it. The scarcity of after war logical exploration and the subsequent
predisposition against Western white guys are relics of the post bellum time, yet additionally
neglect to hold up to the examination of and application in the globalized, interconnected
universe of today. Go ahead and utilize Maslow's order of prerequisites in your ventures,
however do as such while taking other factors into consideration and a feeling of point of
view.
4.5 Hierarchy of needs
We begin with our PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS since they are the groundwork for everything
else. Air, food, water, sleep, and a safe place to live are all necessities. All rather
fundamental, but of the utmost significance no matter who we are or what we do. According
to Maslow's theory, these must be met before moving on to the next level of needs. (I can't
argue with that; it's hard for me to pay attention to anything when I'm hungry, and don't hold
your breath for me to be even remotely logical or insightful when I'm exhausted.)
After these requirements are met, we can shift our attention to our desire for safety. Our
insatiable desire for a sense of safety and security. When we're young, it's probably as simple
as being in the same room with our parents or a special relative. In later years, these are more
likely to include things like financial stability, a steady job, and good health.
Have you settled that matter? Great! If Maslow is correct, then we will priorities our desire
for LOVE AND BELONGING, which includes our relationships with our loved ones, our
community, and the world at large. As a species, humans are naturally sociable. (Although, I
will admit, I do have an ex that doesn't agree with that!)
Then follows our ESTEEM, which encompasses our respect for and belief in oneself as well
as our esteem of others. Maslow stated there are two parts to these requirements. Being
confident in ourselves comes first. The second is having the sense that other people
appreciate and acknowledge us and our efforts.
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Source: @careershodh
4.6 A Diagnosis of Drafts and Plots
Research has not borne out Maslow's hierarchy of wants.
Even though it's undeniable that humans require food and water to survive, it's been
impossible to pin down precisely what those needs are for every person on the planet. "There
is no reason to suppose that there is a universal order that they should be satisfied in,"
Daramus argues, referring to the lack of consensus on the nature of basic human wants.
According to studies in personality and social psychology, there is significant individual and
culture diversity in the importance placed on the satisfaction of basic needs.
Counsellor for social skills development Viktor Sander explains that "The number of
unknowns prevents a thorough scientific investigation from being carried out at this time.
Exactly how does one recognize when a requirement has been satisfactorily met? When
deciding the needs at a specific level to assess, how do you know which ones to focus on? If
someone is promoted, when does that happen?"
From 2005 to 2010, researchers from 123 countries attempted to demonstrate this with the
help of 60,865 people. In order to test the validity of Maslow's hierarchy, participants were
asked a series of questions concerning their own needs. The findings corroborated what has
been said about universal needs, showing that satisfying them is not necessary to move on to
what Maslow considers less pressing needs.
The idea additionally presupposes that people will act solely in response to their own
requirements. "Today we know that we humans do not simply act on our needs," Sander
explains. "Many of our actions are in direct opposition to what our bodies actually require.
How does Maslow's hierarchy of needs apply to the case of a monk or nun setting herself on
fire as a form of protest?" The attacks on Maslow's hierarchy have only just begun.
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Source: Wikipedia.org
4.7 Opposition to Maslow's theory of motivational needs and motivational needs'
hierarchy.
Sometimes the order of importance doesn't apply to needs.
When presenting Maslow's hierarchy, it is common to assume that a person must satisfy all
needs at each level before moving on to the next. Everyone who has ever experienced desire
or love can tell you that this isn't accurate. Daramus argues that even in dire circumstances,
the need for respect or love can push people to take action. "College students have high rates
of homelessness and food hardship, but they keep showing up to class and doing their best
anyhow. As a result of their deep love for their children, some parents may opt to forego
eating in order to provide for their kids."
Daramus urges us to consider it from a work-related angle as well. Taking a job you enjoy
over one that pays more but you find less stimulating also goes against this hierarchical drive.
Logic dictates that the most basic requirements be satisfied first, but since people are not
dispassionate, this is not how it actually works in practise.
4.8 Implications of superiority and superiority complexes are inherent in the structure
of authority.
The fact that the theory doesn't work for everyone is the main point of criticism. "Maslow's
hierarchy of wants is essentially based on Maslow's personal observations of primarily white,
Western, successful men," adds Sander. "I worry that spreading this idea without discussing
its flawsnamely, its Western ethnocentric biasescould have unintended negative
consequences. It can cause one to form an inaccurate impression of the complexity of human
beings and other cultures." For instance, according to Maslow's hierarchy, those who struggle
to meet their basic needs (i.e., the poor) place less value on achieving higher levels of
psychological well-being such as a sense of belonging and self-worth, as well as on realizing
their full potential. It suggests that only the wealthy can afford to pursue their own dreams of
self-expression, success, and improvement. Of course, this is not the case.
Unlike other motivational theories, Abraham Maslow's did not take the form of a pyramid.
According to recent research, the concept of a hierarchical pyramid is deeply flawed. Neither
a triangle nor a pyramid was ever drawn by him to symbolize it, as Kaufman puts it. "Many
people portray things in this linear fashion, as though necessities follow a precise hierarchy.
Compared to what I've seen from Maslow, he was considerably more relaxed about that." As
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a result, although the pyramid is commonly linked with his work, Maslow never actually
employed it.
Consulting psychologist Charles MacDiarmid is credited by some scholars as the original
creator of the pyramid. In an article published in 1960, he utilized a pyramid to illustrate the
concept, which quickly gained traction.
4.9 Is it still relevant to consider Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been roundly criticized, yet it also has significant
advantages. This approaches "truly takes into consideration our deepest shortcomings and
struggles, as well as our finest capabilities," as Kaufman puts it. According to Maslow's
hierarchy of needs, "humans are full of numerous demands, and some of them are more
important than others, but ultimately we are capable of fully reaching our potential."
Maslow's hierarchy of needs can still be useful in modern society if it is viewed as a guide to
our numerous demands rather than an order in which they must be addressed. Everyone has
their own unique set of goals and motivations for prioritizing certain demands over others.
Such adaptability is a hallmark of personality and ultimately defines how each of us makes
our way through the world, meeting our many requirements as we go.
At last, at the highest point of that splendidly hued pyramid is something many refer to as
SELF-ACTUALIZATION. This is, more or less, feeling satisfied and accepting that we are
all that we can be. The detail of this is different for everyone, as a few of us are satisfied by
having the option to help other people, a few by innovative or imaginative pursuits and
accomplishments, some by arriving at the highest point of their picked field, and some by
long lasting learned, to give some examples. Maslow was a piece miserable on this one,
hypothesizing that moderately not many of us at any point accomplish self-actualization.
5. CONCLUSION
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the first scientifically accurate model of behaviour in humans.
He clarified how human needs affect behaviour. He used psychoanalysis to understand
human behaviour because he was a psychologist. Maslow's theory of motivation can be
summed up as follows: there is a hierarchy of wants; humans are satisfaction-seeking
animals; people are motivated by a never-ending search for greater satisfaction of needs; and
a need that has been satisfied no longer drives behaviour. Maslow asserts that people often
work to fulfill their psychological needs first. Once they are content, they stop influencing
how people behave. Humans work to satiate their needs in a sequential order and step-by-step
way because they are motivated by the next higher level need. As a result, the development of
need is a slow process.
Therefore, it is both evident and intriguing that feedback and recognition may make such
significant contributions to those same two critical layers. Maslow emphasised that having a
sense of "belonging" includes both feeling loved and having love for other people. Therefore,
it has never been more crucial for both recipient and sender to express gratitude to peers,
praise direct reports or colleagues, recognize others' accomplishments, and generally
acknowledge the positive stuff. Hey, it's beneficial to your health. Personally, I believe
Maslow was right on the money. Prove him wrong by showing some love to your coworkers
and yourself so that you can both reach the dazzling top of self-actualization. I think the view
is amazing from up there! I believe that the problem is a dearth of empirical research.
Maslow, in my opinion, did a nice thing by examining those individuals he thought had
performed admirably in their fields and gleaning some talking points from it. In addition to
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being a holdover from the 1940s and 1950s, the lack of subsequent scientific study and the
predominance of Western white males are also unsuitable for usage in today's globalised
society. Use Maslow's hierarchy of needs in your business without a doubt, but do it with
caution and a healthy dose of balance. Maslow's hierarchy of needs can still be applicable in
today's culture when viewed as a guide to meeting our many demands rather than as a set
order. Everyone has distinct priorities and justifications for prioritizing certain demands over
others. Our originality depends on this flexibility, which affects how each of us progresses
through life, determining our needs and all.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT & FUNDING
The author affirm that he has no known financial or interpersonal conflicts that would have
appeared to have an impact on the research presented in this study.
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