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Method for estimating capacity and measures of effectiveness of two-lane highway work zones

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Abstract

The present study proposes a method for determining the capacity and measures of effectiveness of two-lane highway work zones. Therefore, a deterministic mathematical formulation was developed based on Queue Theory and on similarities with the queue discharge flow that occurs with the use of traffic lights, which allows for the estimation of measures of effectiveness such as delay time and platoon size. Equations were also developed to determine the capacity and the maximum length of the work zones based on acceptable values of the chosen measures of effectiveness. To validate the method, a set of traffic data collected along segments of a highway during the execution of construction works was used to calibrate and validate the traffic simulator Aimsun Next. With the simulator calibrated, a set of synthetic data was generated based on the simulation of different hypothetical scenarios, which served to obtain variables of the problem and to validate the proposed method. Finally, measures of effectiveness such as cycle time, platoon size, and delay time – obtained from the proposed mathematical model and the field – were compared, revealing that the model produced very satisfactory results.
TRANSPORTES 1
Method for esmang capacity and measures of
eﬀecveness of two-lane highway work zones
Método para determinação da capacidade e de medidas de desempenho
em zonas de obras de rodovias de pista simples
, José Elievam Bessa Júnior
 !"#\$%&'(&
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Recebido:
%+
Aceito para publicação:
+
,%+
Editor de área:
-.)
ABSTRACT
/01)11&0  &%0 (1(  &) 
2(340%0445"'/0&3(&0&3(
&)341*6))/0&3400#))
(0%740(()400)8(%040(0403&3
&)2(3)(03&1"'9#)34
1&0(1(0&:&)&%0045"*
((1*)0(0&)2(3'/0&0
   8(  (( % %&   0%04 )% 0 :()3 
()(3454)(*08(&);&):'
<0 0 &) (*    03(  4 % *  0
&)3 20103((40(0 * *0
1*&011&0'&)2(3)(0
((3&1"3& *&011&0&3(
&  0 = 4 (&1 % 0 0 & 1)( 
3()'
RESUMO
>1)11?)&&@1&AB(1(&
 &10 & "  *    1 &1' C 
))&&)AB&&-3(&D3(*&/
  &0A (&  1AB  D() #) ( & &-  #)
1&3&%)&&&10(&&01B'
&&*@&#)A?1&(1((&1&
&-:& "*13 (- & &10'
CAB &@)3"))&(E) -%(&
(0)&):()AB*1(*&)
-%;&):'.&&)(*%)&(E)
@3( 13  &)AB(-01@3(#)&
1*%)&-1*&#)1&@11'C
=& & (&1 &  &10 *3  & &&-3(
11  & (&1  (& (( &0  1B    #)
1&)*'
Keywords:
)2(3'
/4)0%04'
/8(&)3'
<5"'
Palavras-chave:
&10'
F1&1'
&)AB-%'
G*'
H>+',IJ1'
+
'
KI
1. INTRODUCTION

     

;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 2


!"#\$"%&'()*
+
,'



\$
-%.etal.&'()*HighwayCapacityManual%/ 0*
        %#1 &'(2*     
" /#3',(')-
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram%4etal.&'(5*/
  / 02         

\$           
% 
/ (66,*   %4 (666*    %4 et al (6627
8et al. &''97.etal.&'()7/et al.&'(6*/
          

 0              


4%4etal.(66278et
al.&''9*
+
.etal.%&'()*/etal.%&'(6*
1
              

1+4:34\$%\$#;43*
 4           
 +%\$#;43
&'(6*           % 
*%
   *   +  % +   * 


,

0   

      /     
\$#;43%&'(6*
+
  5''  <        \$#;43  
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 3



 -     
+
           

2. PROPOSED METHOD

  
=(+

Figure 1'01&%(1(&)(40%0445"

          
     4      

   
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 4
  
,
           
    
\$ " !         
 
           

=


-
3. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
             
      = 2     

<(
               

Figure 2.9:&145"40%04%&P;F/9C+,Q
>%*
1

+
?
G
1
? <(      
<(<&
CT
1
?       < (      

G
2
?<&
<&<(
CT
2
?<&7
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 5
             
+
;         +   
+
3.1 Clearance me


+
?
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 

? <(&7
 ? +


? <(&@
3.2. Cycle and green intervals
G
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G
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
             

8            


             
          


            
           


= ,            
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
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TRANSPORTES 7
1
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
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=            
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                  
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3.4. Average delay
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Figure 4.1%1&
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TRANSPORTES 8
3.5. Capacity
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         +    
+

3.6.2.Maximumworkzonelengthversusaveragedelay
      
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4. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
+
     \$     
+

       

              
    

                

               

%\$4*

4.1. Data obtained in the ﬁeld

0B'5'\$1"B 
            
7-
\$&,&'&(='9?''()?''
=<D ?
8.(?(A6'9?''('?,'7
8.&?())(&?&'(A?&'7
8.,?(9'(5?A5()?,'
=+%*

\$33,3A
           
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 12
=5
+
%*
    %8 . &*  %8 . (  8 . &* 
+%8.,*
PQ
P*Q
P(Q
Figure 5./((((<5PQL<5P*QL<5P(Q

%*
  %       *
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 13
   
0
\$%&'&(*
4.2. TAS data
<\$4\$E3
    43&55   (9)     F  G 
\$4: 0
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TRANSPORTES 14
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5. CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION OF AIMSUN NEXT
0    +      
    H     
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 


      0B'5'        
   =          


+
    
(5
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     *        
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TRANSPORTES 15
          \$ " 
?=
@%=)*
C%&'(9*
        1#'A'    0
B%A))2)*=/3
%55A*+

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al.P+KQ
!
(,
=
(
      % *      

     

Table 1 - ;%1&)&(&1*0&(&(&)
Work Dir.
Passenger Car (km/h) Heavy Vehicle (km/h)
Measured Simulated Difference Measured Simulated Difference
<5

I'I I' +R K' 'I R

' ' R IK' IK', R
<5

,' 'K R ' 'K R

K' ' R ' ' R
<5

I'+ I' +R IK' ' R

,'+ 'K R '+ I' R
+R
+R
+R
+R
+R
I+R
+R
+R
K+R
,+R
++R
+ + + + K+ ++
Cumulative Frequency
Mass (ton)
S%0
)&
T
9:0 +R
+R
+R
+R
+R
I+R
+R
+R
K+R
,+R
++R
+ I+ ++ I+ ++ I+
Cumulative Frequency
Mass/Power Ratio (kg/hp)
S%0
)&
T
9:0
PQP*Q
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 16
6. VALIDATION OF THE PROPOSED METHOD
               

%8etal.
&''97Ietal.&''A*

+
\$"\$&9,5'
+%5''
5'''*%&'' ('''*
%&'J5'J*%5'J)'J*
%'J,J2J*



<
              8  

 +     \$        

Figure 8./(45&%;&):4
4           
&

             
\$%&'&(*
Table 2O)
Saturaon ﬂow Q
1
UQ
2
UKI+1(J0
Total lost me l
s
UK(
Heavy vehicle equivalence factor
P
HV
U+RE
T
U'
P
HV
UIRE
T
U'I
P
HV
U+RE
T
U'+
P
HV
UIRE
T
U'
P
HV
U+RE
T
U'
P
HV
UIRE
T
U',
P
HV
UI+RE
T
U'
#+
      +      
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 17
@

,
Table 3 -;%1P5&J0Q100(4P0J0Q45"%0P&Q/PU+RQ
Heavy vehicle
ﬂow (veh/h)
Work zone length (m)
500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000
I
IK
I,
I,
I,
I,
I,
IK
IK
IK
IK
I+
I
IK
IK
IK
IK
IK
I
I
I
I
I
II
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
II
II
++
I
I
I
I
II
II
II
II
I
I
I
I
II
II
II
II
II
I
I
I
I
I+
I
II
II
II
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
II
II
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
++
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I+
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
++
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Figure 9.S%%((1PQL&)&1"P*QL%P(Q*
0)%0(&)011&0
U+',KK:
FVU+',,,
+
++
++
++
K++
+ ++ ++ ++ K++
Average Cycle (s) -
Proposed Method
Average Cycle (s) - Microsimulation
U'+K:
FVU+',,
+
+
+
+
+
I+
+ + + + + I+
Platoon Size (veh) -
Proposed Method
Platoon Size (veh) - Microsimulation
U+',,II:
FVU+',,,
+
++
++
++
++
+ I+ ++ I+ ++ I+ ++ I+
Average Delay (s/veh) -
Proposed Method
Average Delay (s/veh) - Microsimulation
PQ
P(Q
P*Q
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 18
          +   


==6
?
? 

\$+?

\$?
+


    %#K*  666J       (,J
4
#
&
66J
(9J+'AJ
7. FINAL REMARKS


   =       


  +
            
             

++

            \$ "


=                

+


=
+
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 0 B # =%=\$3;0B  \$3L',9(9(9*7 "
4<% "3,(&25(@&'(9'A,6&5'@&'(99*7
/;3% \$3;4*
;F'6'L!MNM'9' O)&+N&+
TRANSPORTES 19
REFERENCES
\$%&'&'*AimsunNext20:DynamicSimulatorsUser’sManual1;
\$#87<8/7I3 8<B+%&'''*ThecapabilityandenhancementofVDANLandTWOPASfor
\$
simplescomobras<F:0;;>=0B
\$#;43%&'(6*MetodologiaparaObtençãodoNíveldeServiçonoPlanoOperacional\$G ;4:
34:343
1D I7IC=7#B0=%(665*\$\$04>"
Proceedingsofthe2ndWorldCongressonIntelligentTransportSystemsMI:
0IC</%(66,*3+Journalof
TransportationEngineering((6(&)NA&<!?('('2(@%\$4 ;*'),,6A)O%(66,*((6?(%&)*
!"#\$"%&'()*SinalizaçãoTemporária014+F: G  "G
1PD<=
B3B%(69(*\$TransportationResearchPartB:
Methodological(5&('5N(((<!?('('(2@'(6(&2(5%9(*6'',)'
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/O7M878M78.88%&'(6* +
+Sustainability((A52)(N&(<!?(',,6'@((()A52)
I.74 7#I7.#O8%&''A* 
C 07CE=7=\$47I;1I7\$C 7<0 E\$=\$PD%&'(9* +F: 
: 1#'A'F: D EAnaisdo32ºCongressodePesquisae
EnsinoemTransportedaANPET&'(9B#4
4I07I\$17 47147\$/-7 /M7"#7M878.M.%&'(5*
WorkZoneCapacityMethodsfortheHighwayCapacityManual" /#33-',(')" /
#38< 
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TransportationResearchRecord(5&6(,N6<!?('(())@',2((69(62(5&6''('(
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Traffic control is very important for two-lane highway lane-closure work zone traffic management. Control of the open lane’s right of way is very similar to that of a two-phase signalized intersection. Thus, four control strategies including flagger control, pre-timed control proposed by Schonfeld, pre-timed control proposed by Webster, and actuated control are employed for possible use at work zones. Two primary methodologies, the mathematical delay model adopted from signalized intersections, and the simulation model calibrated with field data, are proposed. The simulation and mathematical results show that control strategies for two one-way road intersections could be used for two-lane highway lane-closure work zones. Flagger control after gap-out distance optimization prevails over all the other control strategies in terms of stopped delay, queue length, and throughput, under low or high volumes. Actuated control could be a good alternative for work zone areas due to its small queue length and large vehicle throughput under moderate volume conditions. Our findings may help to optimize the work-zone control strategy and improve operational efficiency at two-lane highway lane-closure work zones.
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A two-lane highway lane-closure work zone is a unique work-zone type because of its traffic impact. When one lane of traffic is blocked, it is necessary to implement a traffic control strategy to effectively serve bidirectional traffic. In the sense that the right of way is allocated between two directions sequentially, traffic control at two-lane highway work zones is similar to signalized intersection traffic control. In order to analyze the problem, this study proposes two primary methodologies: (1) mathematical capacity and delay functions based on signalized intersection theory, and (2) a microsimulation model calibrated using field observed data. After fine-tuning the parameters, the mathematical functions were able to estimate delays with reasonable accuracy. The models developed in this study were applied in the optimization of a two-lane highway lane-closure work-zone control management plan. The resultant delay-capacity diagrams indicate that for pretimed control, roadway capacity should be maintained at a slightly higher level than the traffic demand, whereas the dynamic traffic control scheme is able to achieve lower delay results than the optimal pretimed signal control.
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Aimsun Next 20: Dynamic Simulators User’s Manual
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Aimsun (2020) Aimsun Next 20: Dynamic Simulators User's Manual. Barcelona, Espanha.
Método para determinação da capacidade e de medidas de desempenho em segmentos de rodovia de pista simples com obras