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The Effect of Job Crafting and Work Engagement toward Readiness for Change among Millennial Employees

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Abstract

Indonesia has a demographic bonus where the millennial generation of employees is more dominant than the previous generation. Millennial employees as one of the organizational resources must be ready to face changes in order to improve organizational performance. There are various factors that can affect employee readiness for change, including job crafting and work engagement. This study aims to determine the effect of job crafting and work engagement toward the readiness for change among millennial. This study involved 150 employees, male or female, aged 23-39 years. The data collection method in this study used a Likert scale model using the Work Engagement Scale, the Job Crafting Scale, and the Readiness for Change scale. The results showed that partially job crafting and work engagement had a positive effect on readiness for change on millennial employees with t-count values of 6.375 and 2.851 with a significance of 0.000 (p<0.005). Simultaneously, the variables of job crafting and work engagement have a significant effect on the readiness for change of millennial employees with an F-count of 57.443 and a significance of 0.000; p<0.05). Job crafting and work engagement contributed to the readiness for change by 43.9% (R-square=0.439). a https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7949-774X b https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1007-0021 c https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2811-9682
The Effect of Job Crafting and Work Engagement toward Readiness
for Change among Millennial Employees
Ros Patriani Dewi1 a, Nia Kusuma Wardhani1 b and Dian Yudhawati2 c
1Department of Psychology, Mercu Buana University Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2Department of Psychology, University of Technology Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: Readiness for Change, Job Crafting, Work Engagement.
Abstract: Indonesia has a demographic bonus where the millennial generation of employees is more dominant than
the previous generation. Millennial employees as one of the organizational resources must be ready to face
changes in order to improve organizational performance. There are various factors that can affect employee
readiness for change, including job crafting and work engagement. This study aims to determine the effect
of job crafting and work engagement toward the readiness for change among millennial. This study
involved 150 employees, male or female, aged 23–39 years. The data collection method in this study used a
Likert scale model using the Work Engagement Scale, the Job Crafting Scale, and the Readiness for Change
scale. The results showed that partially job crafting and work engagement had a positive effect on readiness
for change on millennial employees with t-count values of 6.375 and 2.851 with a significance of 0.000
(p<0.005). Simultaneously, the variables of job crafting and work engagement have a significant effect on
the readiness for change of millennial employees with an F-count of 57.443 and a significance of 0.000;
p<0.05). Job crafting and work engagement contributed to the readiness for change by 43.9%
(R-square=0.439).
a https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7949-774X
b https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1007-0021
c https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2811-9682
1 INTRODUCTION
Human resources are dynamic so that changes occur
consistently with the retirement of older workers and
being replaced by younger millennials (Ozcelik,
2015). In reality, it is unlikely that at one time it
would consist of individuals with the same age or
habits, at the same time will consist of senior and
junior employees (Wibowo & Haryanti, 2017), in
other words there will be several generations in the
same period. Currently, there are several millennial
generations in the workforce, namely baby boomers
(1946-1964), generation X (1965-1980), and
millennial generation (1981-2000) (in Delcampo,
Haggerty, Haney, & Knippel, 2011). When the baby
boomers start to retire and leave their jobs, members
of the millennial generation enter the workforce.
Aini (in Hidayati, Jufri, & Indahari, 2017) states
that human resources in several industries have
currently been starting to be dominated by the
millennial generation and estimated to have twice
size as large as generation X. Millennials are capable
of accessing information quickly, have broad
knowledge and high multitasking ability (Tay,
2011). The millennial generation also has high
confidence and optimism and likes challenges so
that when they feel bored and less challenged in
their work, the millennial generation tends to look
for other jobs (Ozcelik, 2015; Saril, Seniati, &
Varias, 2017). According to several studies, the
results show that millennials are twice as likely to
leave their jobs as Generation X after one year of
working (Swiggard 2011; Meister, 2012). Loyalty
and meaningfulness of work have a significant
relationship with work engagement (Geldenhuys,
Laba, & Venter, 2014) so that the millennial
generation is indicated to experience lower work
engagement compared to the older generation
(Coetze & de Villiers, 2010).
Actually, when viewed from another perspective,
the millennial generation is a generation who has big
ambitions, and as fate would have it, the presence of
Dewi, R., Wardhani, N. and Yudhawati, D.
The Effect of Job Crafting and Work Engagement toward Readiness for Change among Millennial Employees.
DOI: 10.5220/0010809000003347
In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Psychological Studies (ICPsyche 2021), pages 75-84
ISBN: 978-989-758-580-7
Copyright c
2022 by SCITEPRESS Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved
75
this generation is welcomed by the advances in the
development of information technology. The
availability of a million information about job
opportunities, experiences and new challenges as
well as the offer of various benefits are used as the
main consideration factors in the world of work. On
the other hand, the millennial generation also has
high confidence in their abilities. Although when
viewed from the experience side, this generation
tends to be lacking, but with the availability of many
opportunities, the millennial generation has the
opportunity to get experience much faster than the
previous generation. The positive side of this
generation's love to move from one company to
another is actually an advantage factor in gathering
experience (KPPA & BPS, 2018).
The existence of an increasingly rapid change
requires organizations to be able to adapt to change.
Employees must also be more flexible in carrying
out their work and able to adapt to the demands of
the organization. Adjusting to work requires more
effort from employees. They need to think about and
work out how their resources can be used to manage
the current demands. In this situation, what they can
do is that they can freely change their jobs by
choosing tasks, negotiating job content and
assigning meaning to their work (Parker & Ohly in
Bakker & Leiter, 2012). Bakker and Leiter, (2012)
consider this effort to be carried out by employees
who are very engaged with their work. According to
Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2001), the effort to
change the work done by employees is job crafting.
Job crafting has the potential to improve
employees balance between job demands and job
resources (Bakker & Leiter, 2012). Bakker and
Leiter (2012) also reveal that job crafting helps
employees in the process of adjusting to their work
(person job-fit). Job crafting is the process of
changing the way/design of work done by
employees both physically and psychologically
(Wrzesniewski, & Dutton, 2001). It is a proactive
behavior and initiative of employees aimed at
aligning their work with their own preferences,
motives, and interests, employees can structure their
work by changing various aspects of their work such
as tasks, relationships at work, and their view of the
work (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). Job crafting
as a proactive attitude of employees in adapting to
the work environment can help them face an
uncertain and rapidly changing work environment
(Kira, van Eijnatten, & Balkin, 2010). So that it can
be said that employees who do job crafting will have
readiness for change.
Readiness for change, beliefs, intentions,
attitudes, and behaviors regarding the extent to
which change is needed and the extent to which the
organization's capacity can achieve it successfully
(Susanto, 2008) are important for employees to have
and need to be considered by the organization.
Bernerth (in Shah, 2009) defines that readiness for
change is a state of mind during the change process
that reflects a willingness to change one way of
thinking. Shah (2009) also adds that before
developing a positive state of mind towards
organizational change, employees should be able to
visualize the current organizational situation and
organizational environment by comparing the past
and anticipating it with a future perspective.
Employees see themselves as necessary to make
changes to themselves to be ready for changes that
will occur in the organization.
Harvey (in Bandaranaike & Willison, 2015)
states that the ability to work is not only about how
to get a job but also about how to develop attributes,
techniques, or experiences for life. Research
conducted by (Holt, et al, 2007) shows that
employees’ attitudes and behaviors need to be
developed for successful organizational change.
They also add that organizational change affects
employees attitudes and behavior because they are
transferred from a known situation to an unknown
situation, which can cause uncertainty, tension, and
anxiety among employees. Change can take place at
any time. Without making changes, organizations
will lose their ability to compete without introducing
adequate changes in a timely and ethical manner,
organizations will face difficult times and
significantly reduce their chances for long-term
survival. Employees who cannot survive will be
displaced by those who can survive. Employees who
can survive in changing conditions in this study are
referred to as employees who have readiness for
change.
Change certainly requires employees to make an
effort to deal with uncertain situations that can drain
their energy and mind (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter,
2001). This condition shows that, currently, the
success of changes carried out by organizations
increasingly depends on employees who can take
personal responsibility for making changes
independently through effective adaptation to
changing conditions and proactively anticipating
new challenges (Ghitulescu, 2013). It is because
when employees are unable to adapt to change they
will tend to resist and trigger negative reactions that
cause the goals of change and the organization
cannot be achieved (Armenakis, Haris, &
ICPsyche 2021 - International Conference on Psychological Studies
76
Mossholder, 1993). In these situations, job crafting
can play an important role because it allows
employees to flexibly emerge new work roles which
can then be used to deal with relatively unknown
situations as a form of adaptation (Berg, Grant, &
Johnson, 2010; Griffin, Neal, & Parker, 2007). With
the ability of job crafting, employees can adapt to
the demands of a very dynamic workplace (Grant &
Parker, 2009), they can make changes based on their
initiatives that allow them to have a balance between
job demands and work resources with their needs
and needs capabilities of employees (Tims, Bakker,
& Derks, 2012). It will make them feel more
comfortable in doing their job, willing to adapt and
more open to change (Demerouti, Xanthopoulou,
Petrou, & Karagkounis, 2017).
Based on the results of previous research, there
are several factors that affect readiness for change,
including: psychological climate (Martin, et.al,
2005), work engagement (Saks, 2006), and
organizational justice (Foster, 2010). Work
engagement has a significant and positive
relationship to readiness for change (Astelita, 2012).
Employees who have high work engagement tend to
be more ready to change, while employees who have
low work engagement tend to be resistant or less
ready to change. The most compatible work
engagement model for the millennial generation
workforce is the key to the organization's success in
winning the highly competitive business world in the
industrial era 4.0 (Mulyati, et al., 2019).
Macey and Schneider (2008) say that work
engagement is a positive psychological state related
to work which is characterized by a genuine desire
to contribute to organizational success. Schiemann
(2011) states that work engagement describes how
far employees are willing to go beyond the
minimum requirements of their role to provide
additional energy or advocate (defend) their
organization against other companies as a good
place to work or invest. Employees who are engaged
will work harder and stay with the company longer,
satisfy more customers and have a stronger positive
influence on company results. Various research
sources state that work engagement is the main
antecedent that affects the success of the initiation of
organizational change (Saks, 2006). In addition,
Zulkarnain & Hadiyani (2014) also found that work
engagement contributes to employee readiness to
change, namely: personal resources and job demand.
Based on the description above, it can be
concluded that job crafting and work engagement
have a contribution to readiness for change,
especially for millennial generation employees. The
results of this study can be used as a reference to
develop other studies related to readiness for change
in millennial generation employees, as well as
developing appropriate forms of intervention to
increase readiness for change in millennial
employees. The hypothesis formulated in this study
is that there is an effect of job crafting and work
engagement toward the readiness for change among
millennial employees in Yogyakarta.
2 METHOD
2.1 Participants
The subjects in this study were 150 employees aged
24-39 years in the Yogyakarta area and have worked
for at least one year, selected by using purposive
sampling technique. This is because there is a
difference between involvement in the work of
employees with new tenures and employees with long
tenures (Kurniawati, 2014). In line with that,
according to Sedarmayanti (2017), employees who
have worked for a minimum of one year or more than
one year are assumed to have had work experience
and interacted with the workplace environment.
2.2 Research Design
The research design of this research was quantitative
research which referred to an ability to conduct
generalization toward the result of the reseatch, the
degree of generalizability within population, and
belong to one of systematic, planned, and structured
research method. This type of the research belongs
to non-experimental research which measure the
effect of independent variable toward dependent
variable without giving special treatment to the
dependent variable. This research used correlational
type because it was aimed to explore the description
of each variable, which were: work engagement
toward readiness for change among millenial
employees in Yogyakarta.
2.3 Measure
The data in this research was collected using a scale
with likert model. The scale used to investigate job
crafting, work engagement, and readiness for change
were: job crafting scale, work engagement scale, and
scale of readiness for change which was constructed
by the researcher according to each aspect from
every variable. Job crafting scale refers to the
The Effect of Job Crafting and Work Engagement toward Readiness for Change among Millennial Employees
77
following aspects, such as: task crafting, relational
crafting, and cognitive crafting from Wrzesniewski
and Dutton (2001). Work engagement scale refers to
the following aspects, such as: vigor, dedication, and
absorption which was modified from Utrech Work
Engagement Scale (UWES) from Schaufeli &
Bakker (2004). Scale of readiness for change was
constructed according to the following aspects, such
as: self-efficacy, appropriateness, principal support,
and personal balance from Holt (2007). The data
was collected by sending a scale via Google Form to
respondents. This way is done because it is easier
and faster to implement. The readiness for change,
job crafting, and work engagement scales were
prepared using a scale model consisting of four
alternative answers, namely SS (Very Appropriate),
S (Suitable), TS (Not Appropriate), and STS (Very
Unsuitable).
Before the job crafting scale was distributed in the
study, it was first tested on a group of subjects with
the same characteristics to determine the value of the
item's distinguishing power and reliability. Among 17
items, all items are declared valid. The coefficient of
discrepancy among items moves from 0.384-0.554
with a reliability coefficient alpha (α) of 0.851. Before
the work engagement scale was used in research, it
was first tested on a group of subjects to determine
the value of the item's distinguishing power and
reliability. There are no items that fall from 24 items.
The coefficient of discriminating power of items
moves from 0.310 to 0.842 with a reliability
coefficient of alpha (α) of 0.948. Before the readiness
for change scale is distributed in the study, it was first
tested on a group of subjects with the same
characteristics to determine the value of the item's
distinguishing power and reliability. Among 20 items,
all items are declared valid. The coefficient of item
discriminating power moves from 0.317-0.644 with a
reliability coefficient alpha (α) of 0.838.
2.4 Data Analysis Technique
Analysis of the data used in this study is the classical
assumption test and hypothesis testing. Classical
assumption test consists of normality test,
multicollinearity test, and linearity test. Hypothetical
testing in this study using Multiple Linear
Regression Test using SPSS Version 21.0 program.
3 RESULT
This study aims to examine whether job crafting and
work engagement have an effect on readiness for
change. Based on the scale distributed via Google
Form, it can be seen that the characteristics of the
research subjects include gender, age range, years of
service, employee status, and education level, as
shown in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Distribution of research respondents.
Characteristics Amount % Total
Gende
r
Male 66 44
150
Female 84 56
Age
< 30
y
ears ol
d
76 51
150
31
39
y
ears ol
d
74 49
Years of service
1
5
y
ears 80 53
150
> 5
y
ears 70 47
Education
Senior Hi
h School 15 10
Associate degree 15 10
150
Bachelo
r
110 70
Maste
r
15 10
The data obtained from the scale of job crafting, work
engagement, and readiness for change were used as
the basis for testing the hypothesis. The description of
job crafting, work engagement, and readiness for
change data can be seen in Table 2 below:
Table 2: Data Description of the Job Crafting Scale, Work Engagement Scale, and Readiness for Change (N=150).
Variable Hypothetical Score Empirical Score
Min Max Mean SD Min Max Mean SD
J
ob Cra
f
tin
g
17 68 42.5 8.5 38 68 54.11 6.967
Work En
g
a
g
emen
t
24 96 60 12 38 96 78.25 11.914
Readiness
f
or Chan
g
e 44 76 62.17 7.522 20 80 50 10
ICPsyche 2021 - International Conference on Psychological Studies
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The results of job crafting categorization show
that subjects who have a high score or fall into the
high category are 104 subjects (69%) with 46 people
(31%), and 0 people (0%) in the low category. From
these results it can be concluded that most of the
subjects have a high level of job crafting. The results
of the categorization of work engagement show that
there are no subjects who have high scores or are in
the high category (0%), subjects with medium
categorization are 110 people (73%) and 40 subjects
are in the low category (27%). From these results it
can be concluded that most of the subjects have
work engagement at a moderate level. The results of
the categorization of readiness for change showed
that subjects who had a high score or were included
in the high category were 88 people (59%), subjects
with moderate categorization were 61 people (41%)
and no subject was in the low category. From these
results it can be concluded that most of the subjects
have readiness for change at High and Medium
levels.
The research data were analyzed using Multiple
Linear Regression Test. Before testing the
hypothesis, the assumption test consists of normality
test, multicollinearity test, and linearity test.
Normality test is an analysis conducted to determine
whether each variable has a normal distribution.
This normality test uses the Kolmogrov Smirnov
model analysis (KS-Z). The guideline used to
determine whether the distribution is normal or not,
if p>0.05 then the data distribution follows the
normal distribution and if p<0.05 then the data
distribution does not follow the normal distribution.
On the job crafting scale, the K-S-Z value is 0.855
with a significance of 0.458 (p>0.05). On the work
engagement scale, the K-S-Z value is 0.993 with a
significance of 0.278 (p>0.05). Thus, the three
variables have a normal data distribution. On the
readiness for change scale, the K-S-Z value is 1.249
with a significance of 0.088 (p>0.05).
The results of the multicollinearity test show that
there is no collinearity between the predictor
variables in the study. This conclusion is obtained by
looking at the tolerance value of 0.620 0.10 and the
VIF value of 1.614 10. Thus, it can be concluded
that there is no multicollinearity problem in the
variables used. Linearity test results obtained Fbeda
value of 104.338 with sig. = 0.000 (p <0.05) which
indicates the variable job crafting with readiness for
change is linear. The work engagement variable with
readiness for change is also linear through the
linearity test which obtained the Fbeda value of
66,056 with sig. = 0.000 (p <0.05).
Based on the results of the simultaneous
significance test (F test) obtained an F-count of
57.443 with a significance value of 0.000 (p <0.05),
it can be concluded that there is a simultaneous
influence between job crafting and work
engagement on readiness for change. From the
results of this calculation, the hypothesis in this
study is accepted.
Based on the partial significance test (t test), it
can be seen that job crafting has a partial but
significant effect on readiness for change, which can
be seen from the t-count job crafting value of 6.375
with a significance value of 0.005 (p < 0.05). In
addition, work engagement has a partial effect on
readiness for change, which can be seen from the t-
count value of job crafting of 2.851 with a
significance value of 0.000 (p<0.05). Furthermore,
based on the table above, a linear regression
equation can be arranged as follows:
Y= Y=21,884 +0,540 X1+0,141 X2
Y = Readiness for change
X1 = Job Crafting
X2 = Work Engagement
The regression equation shows that a constant of
21.884 indicates that if job crafting and work
engagement are considered constant, then the value
of readiness for change is 21.844. The ob crafting
regression coefficient of 0.540 with a significance of
0.000 provides an understanding that every increase
in one unit of job crafting has an impact on an
increase in readiness for change of 0.540 units as
well. The WE regression coefficient of 0.141 with a
significance of 0.005 provides an understanding that
each increase of one RFC unit has an impact on an
increase of 0.141 units of WE as well.
Regression test on each dimension of job crafting
was conducted to find out which dimension had the
greatest contribution in predicting work engagement.
The result of the coefficient of determination test
shows that the R value of 0.662 indicates that there
is a correlation between job crafting and work
engagement on readiness for change. The value of
the coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.439, which
means that the contribution or contribution of the
influence of job crafting and work engagement to
readiness for change in employees is 43.9% while
the remaining 56.1% is influenced by other variables
not examined in this study.
The Effect of Job Crafting and Work Engagement toward Readiness for Change among Millennial Employees
79
4 DISCUSSION
In this study, it was found that job crafting and work
engagement had a positive and significant
relationship with readiness for change. The
relationship between job crafting and work
engagement on readiness for change can be caused
because these two variables are included in the main
antecedent of creating readiness for change in the
organization. Both are important factors for
organizations to have so that employees can have
readiness to change. High job crafting for millennial
generation employees will increase the meaning of
work for employees (Dvorak, 2014) therefore it will
lead to work engagement. In addition, considering
that millennial generation employees like challenges
and need self-development and will leave their
workplace if they feel their work is stagnant
(Weyland, 2011), high job crafting is needed and
millennial generation employees will be more
attached to their work. An employee is also
considered to have a high level of readiness to
change if the employee is engaged with his work.
Based on the results of the regression analysis, it
can be concluded that job crafting and work
engagement contribute significantly to readiness for
change. It shows that there is a significant effect
between job crafting and work engagement toward
readiness for change for millennial employees in
Yogyakarta as revealed in this study. The effective
contribution given by the variable job crafting and
work engagement is 43.9% towards readiness for
change in millennial generation employees in
Yogyakarta. Meanwhile, the remaining 56.1% is
influenced by other factors not measured in this
study, such as: transformational leadership style and
personality type (Narulita & Meiyanto, 2014).
Nugraheni (2013) also found that self-efficacy and
transformational leadership factors affect readiness
for change. In addition, organizational commitment
also has a relationship that can affect readiness for
change (Pramadani & Fajrianthi, 2012).
Change requires employees to make efforts to
deal with uncertain situations, one of which is a
proactive strategy. According to Munhonen &
Torkelson (2003), individuals who do not use
proactive strategies during organizational change
will easily experience more pressure, which makes
individuals less effective in dealing with change and
less open to change (Liu & Perrewe, 2005). One of
the proactive strategies proposed in dealing with
change is job crafting (Petrou, 2013). Job crafting is
a proactive attitude of employees in adapting to the
work environment that helps them to deal with an
uncertain and rapidly changing work environment
(Kira, et.al, 2010).
Change can be implemented properly if employees
are able to adapt to the changes that occur, however,
the habits that have been carried out so far sometimes
become an obstacle for individuals to make changes,
they tend to choose to be in their comfort zone and
avoid feelings of insecurity and uncertainty at work that
can generated after a change (Gray & Wilkinson,
2016). The desire to stay in the comfort zone makes
employees not want to start new things, including in
terms of adjusting to the new policies that have been set
(Suratinoyo, 2016). With the ability of job crafting,
employees can adapt to the demands of a workplace
that is currently moving very dynamically (Grant &
Parker, 2009), they can make changes based on their
initiatives that allow them to have a balance between
job demands and work resources with their needs
and needs the capabilities of employees (Tims et al.,
2012).
Employees who are able to change aspects of
their duties (task crafting), such as choosing to do
additional activities both at work and outside the
workplace that can increase their productivity (doing
other jobs that support their main job). In addition,
taking training to improve their abilities at work or
focusing on doing their tasks according to the
resources they have by seeing the urgency of their
respective jobs (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001)
allows them to adapt and know that any changes
made are appropriate and needed by the company
(appropriatness) (Demerouti et al., 2014). They are
also able to establish positive relationships with
colleagues or the wider community (relational
crafting) they can feel the support from various
parties (principal support) (Robinson & Griffiths,
2005) and when they can change perceptions of their
role in the workplace becomes more meaningful
(cognitive crafting) (Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001)
they can eliminate feelings of incompetence that
threaten their adjustment during change. Thus, they
can change feelings of burden (personal valance) or
feelings of inadequacy (self-efficacy) at work
becomes more positive so that it can foster self-
confidence and make them feel greater benefits
when doing work for themselves (Terry &
Jimmieson, 2003). The results of this study support
the findings of Hardono & Kurniawan (2017) which
states that there is a positive influence between job
crafting and readiness for change, where according
to them, workers with high initiative related to work
can increase their readiness to face change, because
employees with job crafting skills will have the
ability to solve problems and find solutions to
ICPsyche 2021 - International Conference on Psychological Studies
80
difficulties at work in order to be better prepared for
work.
In this study, it is also proven that work
engagement has a contribution to readiness for
change. It means that the higher the level of work
engagement, the more ready employees will be to
change. It is in line with the results of research
conducted by Hewitt (2004) which says that engaged
employees have greater readiness to change than
other employees. Employees who feel ready to
change will show the behavior of accepting,
embracing, and adopting the planned change (Holt et
al, 2007). Mangundjaya (2012) said that employees
are an important element for organizational success,
this is because employees are actors who carry out
daily organizational activities. In addition, Saks
(2006) also sais that employee engagement is one of
the things that determines the success or failure of
implementing organizational change. This is in line
with the results of research by Piderit (2000) which
states that employee engagement has a significant
relationship with employee readiness to change,
especially in the process of organizational change.
The latest research supports research from
Mangundjaya (2012), Prasad (2014) and Hung et.al
(2013) which found that work engagement is
positively related to readiness to change. The
statement shows that employees who support change
are generally more enthusiastic at work, feel
connected to their work, and have a better ability to
deal with job demands. The results of research by
Bakker (2009) say that engaged employees have
certain characteristics that are useful for
organizational success. The results of research from
Schaufeli et al (2002) which say that employee
engagement is a characteristic needed by the
organization. Hewitt (2004) also found that engaged
employees have greater readiness to change than
other employees.
Based on the results of the regression analysis, it
was found that there are two of the three aspects of
job crafting that make a significant positive
contribution to readiness for change, namely aspects
of relational crafting and cognitive crafting. Between
these two aspects, it is the cognitive crafting aspect
that contributes the most to readiness to change.
Employees who understand and live up to the goals
of the organization are physically, mentally and
psychologically prepared to participate in
organizational change. Furthermore, two of the three
dimensions of work engagement that provide a
significant positive contribution to readiness for
change, namely the dedication dimension and the
absorption dimension.
Between these two dimensions, the absorption
dimension provides the greatest contribution to
readiness for change. Dedication is a strong
identification with work, including feelings as well
as enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge
(Schaufeli & Bakker, Chunghtai and Buckley, in
Peng-Lin, 2009). Absorption can be described as a
concentration of blissful feeling, which is felt by the
person doing his work, when he feels that time
passes so quickly and it is difficult to get to work.
(Schaufeli & Bakker, Bakker and Demerouti, in
Peng-Lin, 2009). All dimensions of work
engagement will affect individual readiness to
change. The higher the work engagement, the higher
the readiness to change.
Meanwhile, Weiner (2009) found that when
readiness for change is high, organizational
members are more likely to initiate change, exert
greater effort, and exhibit more cooperative behavior
so that the result is an effective change
implementation. Organizational change will not
succeed without changing the individual. Managing
organizational change is actually managing the
human aspects involved in the organizational change
process because humans are the source and tool in
change (Smith, 2005).
The limitation of this research is the data
collection method that uses a scale/questionnaire
whose filling cannot be monitored by the researcher
so there is a possibility that the subject does not fill
out the scale with the instructions given. In addition,
the number of research subjects, which was only 150
people, may still not describe the real situation.
5 CONCLUSION
The results of this study indicate that job crafting
and work engagement are factors that affect the
readiness for change of millennial employees. It
means that the higher the job crafting and work
engagement of employees, the higher the readiness
for change for millennial employees. Job crafting
and work engagement simultaneously have a
significant positive effect on readiness to change in
millennial employees in Yogyakarta. The amount of
the effective contribution of job crafting and work
engagement to the readiness for change of millennial
employees is 43.9% while the remaining 56.1% is
influenced by other variables not examined in this
study. Thus, the higher the job crafting and work
engagement, the better readiness for change for
millennial employees.
The Effect of Job Crafting and Work Engagement toward Readiness for Change among Millennial Employees
81
In further research, it is recommended to take
more sample, it aims for better data accuracy in the
research, conducting continuous research. It is in
order to see and assess any changes in respondent
behavior from time to time, and it is expected that
additional variables which may also influence many
things in this study.
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