Conference PaperPDF Available

The impact of digital transformation on corporate identity management



Digital transformation concept has emerged as an essential concept within management sciences in recent considering the influence of pandemics on the way how companies provide service, arrange manufacturing, and perform business operations in general. This paper analyzes digital transformation in the context of management of corporate identity by highlighting possibilities of managing individual corporate identity dimensions considering the role and impact of digital transformation and competitive strategy formation. The newly developed framework is based on the synthesis of corporate identity and digital transformation conceptual frameworks. Literature review identifies gaps in how to accelerate and support small and medium enterprises (SME) in their path of digitalization and maximizing their value delivery to customers - while maintaining competitiveness and keeping the active, specific and valuable scorecard of strategic goals. Further exploration and research will indicate potential roadmap solutions and will enable to answer the question of – how to optimize resources, competence, and ability to execute digital transformation in parallel of building strong corporate identity and business strategy.
Human Interaction and Emerging Technologies (IHIET 2022), Vol. 68, 2022, 751–759
The Impact of Digital Transformation on
Corporate Identity Management
Didzis Rutitis and Eduards Aksjonenko
BA School of Business and Finance, Riga, LV-1013, Latvia
Digital transformation concept has emerged as an essential concept within mana-
gement sciences in recent considering the influence of pandemics on the way how
companies provide service, arrange manufacturing, and perform business operations
in general. This paper analyzes digital transformation in the context of management
of corporate identity by highlighting possibilities of managing individual corporate
identity dimensions considering the role and impact of digital transformation and com-
petitive strategy formation. The newly developed framework is based on the synthesis
of corporate identity and digital transformation conceptual frameworks. Literature
review identifies gaps in how to accelerate and support small and medium enterprises
(SME) in their path of digitalization and maximizing their value delivery to customers
- while maintaining competitiveness and keeping the active, specific, and valuable
scorecard of strategic goals. Further exploration and research will indicate potential
roadmap solutions and will enable to answer the question of how to optimize resou-
rces, competence, and ability to execute digital transformation in parallel of building
strong corporate identity and business strategy.
Keywords: Corporate identity, Digital transformation, Management, Business strategy, SME
The concept of corporate identity in the management and marketing sciences
has been known since the 1970s, when the research distinguished between
the concepts of corporate identity and corporate image. The concept of cor-
porate identity is often used in marketing in connection with image building,
corporate brand management, but in public relations it is associated with
the concept of reputation. However, the concept of corporate identity is
interdisciplinary, as it covers the strategic and organizational management
of companies, as well as marketing, corporate communication, personnel
management, other areas (Melewar, 2003).
Digital transformation can cover anything from IT modernization (such
as cloud computing) to digital optimization and the invention of new digital
business models. The term is widely used in public sector organizations to
describe modest initiatives such as the online deployment of services or the
modernization of legacy information systems. Thus, the term tends to be
more reminiscent of “digitalization” than “digital business transformation”
(Gartner, 2022).
© 2022. Published by AHFE Open Access. All rights reserved. 751
752 Rutitis and Aksjonenko
The aim of the research is to assess the topicality of corporate iden-
tity dimension management based on the research of corporate identity
dimension management models and digital transformation concept, and to
develop conceptual framework for management of corporate identity dimen-
sions in the context of tools and solutions enabled by digital transformation
Identified research gaps relate to the lack of data on the extent to which
do executives of SMEs rely on outsourced help from advisors, consultants or
IT support and service management companies involved in daily operations.
Also, there has been little exploration done on what are the main consi-
derations for SMEs in developing strategies with strong base of the digital
transformation. Future strategy development, including digital strategy, is
assumed to be one of corporate identity dimensions.
Building on this discussion, the following propositions are presented and
examined throughout the paper:
P1: Digital transformation is a significant part of corporate identity mana-
gement processes and company strategy on it’s growing path from SME
P2: Value creation for customers is crucial in SME product innovation
process and includes delivery of efficient solutions within digital tran-
P3: Decision making process is more openly oriented towards higher level
digitalization in SME’s but there is a lack of competence how to find
a balance in managing resources and limit the risk exposure while on the
way of disruptive path. Outsourced help or high-level competence from
executives is needed to take bold and smart business minded actions.
P4: There should be strict and adopted balanced scorecard method that indi-
cates the goals reached and areas impacted that can help monitoring and
assuring the success of both, corporate identity management and digital
Disruption happens in various industries because of unstable and fast chan-
ging business environment. C-level executives are investigating opportunities
that digitalization can bring to the strategy, business model and product
Digitalization today is a synonym for broadly used digital transformation
that according to Stolterman E. and Fors A. (2004), refers to “the changes
that digital technology causes or influences in all aspects of human life”. Even
if it covers wider potential of scope the most topics about digitalization are
about technological innovations but it should include different angles as
leading author of the field like Henriette et al. (2015) states in their research.
After research article reviews and case study analysis of various industries
academics agree that business transformation prompted by digital technolo-
gies takes no specific exceptions and can be implemented in various segments
c L., Vuksic V., Vugec D., 2018)
The Impact of Digital Transformation on Corporate Identity Management 753
Bharadwaj N. et al. (2013) expressed that IT should not been viewed as
functional level strategy, but as a part of business level strategy resulting to
digital transformation strategy. But in the literature reviews we find an often
conflict of frameworks’s, concepts and definitions of digital transformation
strategies (Chanias, Myers, & Hess, 2018; Nadeem et al., 2018).
In order for businesses to be efficient and can gain from decision-making
process, Fonstad (2017) defines a digital strategy: A business strategy,
inspired by the capabilities of powerful, readily accessible technologies (like
SMACIT), intent on delivering unique, integrated business capabilities in
ways that are responsive to constantly changing market conditions”, where
SMACIT refers to - social, mobile, analytics, cloud and Internet of things
[IoT] technologies - that present both game-changing opportunities and
existential threats to the companies.
When the value chain of the company is changing (being transformed or
impacted) there are operational and a human element. According to Ismail
et al. (2018) both are important in creating digital management systems
to lead the changes. Digital transformation requires companies to rethink
their business in the path of innovation and specific challenge for SME’s is
shortage of time and resources allowed for experiments (Bouwman H. et al.
Can Management Consulting Services Help in Digital Transformation
for SME’s?
SMEs are a distinct group of organizations. Duan, X., Deng, H., & Corbitt,
B. (2012) stresses out unique characteristics of SMEs that are different from
large sized companies and often face lack of technical expertise, poor infra-
structure, inadequate capital, inadequate organizational planning, strong
executive controlled decision-making system and huge dependence on busi-
ness partners, limited resources. It also indicates and exposes them to external
uncertainty. On the same time SMEs are more responsive to digital disruption
that is even more enabled in digital entrepreneurship: growing access to emer-
ging platform service providers and tools help if the path of digitalization (Li,
L. et al., 2018).
The scholarly interest in SME-focused digitalization and digital transfor-
mation has also grown significantly in recent years. Kraft C. (2022) indicates
growing number of publications in business end entrepreneurship journals.
Studies of SME digitalization and digital transformation explains:
sources of value creation
dynamic capabilities (Cannas, 2021),
digital strategies and innovation strategies/performance
product, services, and process digitalization (Proksch D. et al., 2021)
Company level digital capabilities are based on employee digital skills that
enable use of digital tools and platforms. Currently there is a lack of stu-
dies that indicate employee skills in using the digital tools towards digital
transformation in SMEs (Scuotto D. et al., 2021).
754 Rutitis and Aksjonenko
Figure 1: A conceptual model of digital transformation (Verina and Titko, 2019).
Reviewing literature and summing up opinions of internal factors that
companies at various sizes are in control - Nasiri M. (2020) mentions that
successful theories and practices applied to large companies might not neces-
sarily apply to SMEs even if their exposure for disruptive and digitally
oriented innovation is higher. Larger companies even with decent corpo-
rate and sustainable strategies are afraid of losing their competitive edge and
stable situation.
Disruption happens in various industries because of unstable and fast chan-
ging business environment. C-level executives are investigating opportunities
that digitalization can bring to the strategy, business model and product
innovation. The integration of corporate identity management and digi-
tal transformation frameworks proposes opportunities for new blend of
managerial instruments to emerge to facilitate successful supervision of com-
pany development during times of increasing uncertainty and new kind of
managerial challenges.
Fig. 1 depicts a conceptual model by Verina and Titko (2019) that descri-
bes relationship between drivers of digital transformation and the expected
results that can derived from proper implementation in form of technologies,
management, and people.
This model clearly states why digital transformation is essential for SMEs
since emergence of new markets and opportunities and several other challen-
ges relevant to any manager of SME are among drivers towards numerous
benefits listed within results to be experienced by the SME after successful
implementation of digital transformation. If a more detailed look is taken
at the middle stage (see Fig. 2), then the Management and processes cate-
gory within digital transformation concept contains numerous elements from
corporate identity framework (see Fig. 3).
Also, the category People includes majority of stakeholders (e.g. top and
middle managers, regular employees, customers, and owners) that are directly
The Impact of Digital Transformation on Corporate Identity Management 755
Figure 2: Categories of the concept “Digital transformation” and the elements within
(Verina and Titko, 2019).
Figure 3: Conceptual model for categorization of corporate identity dimensions (Rutitis,
involved in corporate identity management or have indirect impact on its
formation through one of dimensions.
It is important to note that these two conceptual frameworks serve dif-
ferent purposes, but at the same time they can be regarded as important
managerial tools that help company management to navigate company tow-
ards more competitive position in the market and stronger competitive
advantage, which is one the main benefits from proper corporate identity
management (Melewar, 2003).
756 Rutitis and Aksjonenko
The Role of Digital Transformation For Management of Corporate
By blending a concept of digital transformation together with a conceptual
model for categorization of corporate identity dimensions it is possible to
identify several corporate identity dimensions and align them with rele-
vant managerial processes that have certain impact and role within digital
transformation of any SME company.
These correlations and assumptions derived by the authors regarding spe-
cific corporate dimensions and management process having experiencing
impact of digital transformation are depicted in Table 1.
Corporate identity dimension column states the respective fully manage-
able or partially manageable dimension, which can be managed through
one of the management processes listed right next in the middle column.
Next, the impact (high/medium/low) and role of digital transformation is
assessed along with tools for implementation. Authors have also intro-
duced a categorization of role of digital transformation to indicate if it
relates to Management/Processes or People, while Technology is assumed
to be embedded in each dimension as given variable to implement digital
Decision making process is hard when there is little or knowledge for exe-
cutive teams of SMEs of how to digitalize in parallel of creating competitive
strategy. Either internal level competence or external and outsourced help is
needed to be attracted. Challenge is to keep the focus on the business, poten-
tial disruption possibilities and management plus allocation of the resources.
How to maximize value for customers and how to do it in the best way
should be explored in further.
There is a practical necessity to explore potential of roadmap and balanced
scorecard method combination that as a tool can be developed and widely
used by SME in their way of creating competitive strategy within and with
digital transformation. The model proposed by authors to assess impact of
digital transformation on management of corporate identity dimensions and
related management processes serves as the first attempt to bring together two
different conceptual frameworks to introduce such roadmap and balanced
Further research should generate primary data with interviews from lea-
ding experts in the field who both work with business and digitalization
dimensions while consulting and implementing various projects for SMEs.
The questions should include factors influencing and defining roadmap from
practical aspects that can be adjust to specific industries and various levels
of digitalization. Also, they should be asked to discuss possibility of corpo-
rate identity management in the context of digital transformation drivers and
expected results. Next, the approbation and tests should be run on SME com-
panies with respective frameworks, models and methods developed for them
to incorporate them in daily set of managerial tools.
The Impact of Digital Transformation on Corporate Identity Management 757
Table 1. The model assessing impact of digital transformation on management of cor-
porate identity dimensions and related management processes (based on
Rutitis et al., 2014; Rutitis, 2016, Verina and Titko, 2019).
Corporate identity
Management processes The impact and role of
digital transformation
1. Profile,
Development of business plan
Strategic decision-making
Impact: High
Tools: Internal financial and
business analytics, BI
Category: Management
2. Visual identity,
other sensory
Development of visual identity
and other sensory dimension
Visual and other sensory
dimension audit once a year
Impact: Medium
Tools: audit of visual identity
and other sensory dimensions
once a year
Category: Management
3. Scientific research,
Decision-making regarding
investment in R&D once a year
Development of scientific
projects and collaboration with
other research institutions
Impact: Medium
Tools: monitoring of scien-
tific paper databases, use of
database and website craw-
lers, including artificial intel-
ligence (AI)
Category: Management
4.Customer service
Development of patient service
standards and process
Development and
implementation of rules and
guidelines for interaction
between staff and patients
Development and
implementation of service
quality model
Impact: High
Tools: internet environment
monitoring, online customer
surveys and feedback forms,
quality audit and certification
Category: People
Corporate communications
planning, including crisis
Implementation of guidelines for
staff communication over the
Impact: Medium
Tools: external research,
media monitoring, social
media review, website visitor
analytics, customer surveys
Category: Management
6. Internal
Development and
implementation of internal
Impact: Medium
Tools: use of intranet
platform, additional
communication, and
collaboration tools
Category: Management
7. Future
development strategy
Digital strategy
EU fund acquisition for
improvement of infrastructure,
products, and processes
Impact: High
Tools: financial and business
Category: Management
8. Corporate
Strategic decision-making
according to shareholder goals
Impact: Medium
Tools: internal financial and
business analytics, internal
Category: Management
758 Rutitis and Aksjonenko
This researched has been financed by the Project “Rıgas Tehnisk¯
as uni-
ates un Banku augstskolas doktorantu un akad¯
a person¯
ala sti-
ašana strat¯
as specializ¯
acijas jom¯
as”, Nr.
Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O.A., Pavlou, P.A., and Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital
Business Strategy: Toward a Next Generation of Insights, MIS Quarterly Volume
37, No. 2.
Bouwman, H., Nikou, S., de Reuver, M. (2019). Digitalization, business models,
and SMEs: How do business model innovation practices improve performance of
digitalizing SMEs, Telecommunications Policy Volume 43, No. 9.
Cannas, R. (2021), Exploring digital transformation and dynamic capabilities in
agrifood SMEs, Journal of Small Business Management.
Chanias, S., Myers, M. D., and Hess, T. (2018). Digital transformation strategy
making in pre-digital organizations: The case of a financial services provider, The
Journal of Strategic Information Systems, (January).
Duan, X., Deng, H., & Corbitt, B. (2012). Evaluating the critical determinants for
adopting e-market in Australian small-and-medium sized enterprises, Manage-
ment Research Review Volume 35, No. 3/4.
Fonstad, N. (2017). How big old companies navigate digital transformation, MIS
Quarterly Executive Volume 16, No. 3.
Gartner. (April 9, 2022). Digital Transformation. Gartner Glossary,
Henriette, E., Feki, M., Boughzala, I. (2015). The Shape of Digital Transformation:
A Systematic Literature Review, MCIS 2015 Proceedings. Paper 10.
c L., Vuksic V., Vugec D. (2018). “A Preliminary Literature Review of Digital
Transformation Case Studies”, proceedings of the 20th International Conference
on Managing Information Technology, Italy, Rome.
Kraft C. (2022). The digital transformation of Swiss small and medium-sized enter-
prises: insights from digital tool adoption, Journal of Strategy and Management.
Li, L., Su, F., Zhang, W. (2018). “Digital transformation by SME entrepreneurs: A
capability perspective”. Information Systems Journal Volume 28, No. 6.
Ismail, M.H., Khater, M., Zaki, M. (2018). Digital Business Transformation and Stra-
tegy: What Do We Know So Far?, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Service
Meier, A. (2021). “Systematic review of the literature on SME digitalization: multi-
sided pressure on existing SMEs”, in: Digitalization. Approaches, Case Studies,
and Tools for Strategy, Schallmo, D.R.A. and Tidd, J. (Eds), Springer, Cham,
pp. 257–276.
Melewar, T.C. (2003). Determinants of the corporate identity construct: a review of
the literature, Journal of Marketing Communications Volume 9, No. 4.
Mitroulis D., Kitsios F. (2019). (PDF) Digital transformation strategy: a literature
review (
Nadeem, A., Abedin, B., Cerpa, N., Chew, E. (2018). “Editorial: Digital transforma-
tion & digital business strategy in electronic commerce - The role of organizational
capabilities”. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research,
Vol. 13, No. 2.
The Impact of Digital Transformation on Corporate Identity Management 759
Nasiri M. (2020). Shaping Digital Innovation Via Digital-related Capabilities, Infor-
mation Systems Frontiers.
Proksch, D., Rosin, A.F., Stubner, S. and Pinkwart, A. (2021), “The influence of a
digital strategy on the digitalization of new ventures: the mediating effect of digital
capabilities and a digital culture”, Journal of Small Business Management.
Rutitis, D., Batraga, A., Skiltere, D., Ritovs, K. (2014). Evaluation of the Conceptual
Model for Corporate Identity Management in Health Care, Procedia - Social and
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 156.
Scuotto, V., Nicotra, M., Del Giudice, M., Krueger, N., Gregori, G.L. (2021). A
microfoundational perspective on SMEs’ growth in the digital transformation era,
Journal of Business Research Volume 129.
Stolterman E. and Fors A. (2004). Information technology and the good life,
Information Systems Research.
Verina, N., Titko, J. (2019). “Digital transformation: conceptual framework”, pro-
ceedings of the conference Contemporary Issues in Business, Management and
Economics Engineering 2019, Vilnius, Lithuania.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Purpose The study explores the alignment of Swiss small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) managers' understanding of digital transformation, with evidence of digital tool adoption in managerial and operative work. This reveals opportunities for more fully realizing the potential of digital transformation for SMEs. Design/methodology/approach This multiple-case study, with four theoretically sampled cases, analyzes data from the qualitative answers of 1,593 respondents to a survey of Swiss SMEs about digital transformation. The study draws on a convenience sample of Swiss SME managers. Findings The analysis shows little understanding of digital transformation as related to managerial work. However, there are two clear digital tool adoption patterns for managerial work: (1) workflow and workforce management and (2) work-flow and team management. Understandings of digital transformation and operative work focus on the (1) organization of operational work or (2) a combination of organization and changing the way people work. The digital tool adoption in operational work additionally focuses on the digital skills of operational employees. Research limitations/implications The study is only able to identify patters of understanding of digital transformation and digital tool adoption in managerial and operative work. More research is needed to understand why these patterns are observed. Practical implications SME managers need to think far more carefully about aligning their vision for digital transformation and the digital tools they adopt in both managerial and operational work, but especially in managerial work. Originality/value This is the first empirical study of the digital transformation of Swiss SMEs and their digital tool adoption. Significant potential for alignment is revealed, suggesting potential performance gains are possible.
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to explore the conditions under which digital innovation opportunities emerge in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research answered the question of what capabilities are required to shape the exploitation of digital innovation, namely market offerings and the digital business process. To address the research question with a quantitative research method, data were collected through survey questionnaires distributed among 280 SMEs operating in the service and manufacturing industries in Finland. The results revealed that among four digital-related capabilities—namely human, collaboration, technical, and innovation capabilities—human, technical, and innovation capabilities contribute to market offerings, while human, collaboration, and technical capabilities contribute to the business process.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While struggling to succeed in today’s complex market environment and provide better customer experience and services, enterprises encompass digital transformation as a means for reaching competitiveness and foster value creation. A digital transformation process consists of information technology implementation projects, as well as organizational factors such as top management support, digital transformation strategy, and organizational changes. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is little evidence about digital transformation endeavors in organizations and how they perceive it – is it only about digital technologies adoption or a true organizational shift is needed? In order to address this issue and as the first step in our research project, a literature review is conducted. The analysis included case study papers from Scopus and Web of Science databases. The following attributes are considered for classification and analysis of papers: time component; country of case origin; case industry and; digital transformation concept comprehension, i.e. focus. Research showed that organizations – public, as well as private ones, are aware of change necessity and employ digital transformation projects. Also, the changes concerning digital transformation affect both manufacturing and service-based industries. Furthermore, we discovered that organizations understand that besides technologies implementation, organizational changes must also be adopted. However, with only 29 relevant papers identified, research positioned digital transformation as an unexplored and emerging phenomenon in information systems research. The scarcity of evidence-based papers calls for further examination of this topic on cases from practice.
Over the last two decades, the field of SME digitalization has increasingly attracted research interest. This review contributes to extending and synthesizing knowledge by analyzing 77 articles from a broad range of business and management literature. The results confirm that the knowledge in the field is still scattered and immature. The study also reveals that sustaining and generating value through digital transformation is not dependent on exclusive factors but is dependent on a mix of various assets. The THIOMC model provides a framework that seeks to create a recognition and alignment of six major components. These components and sub-components reflected on are dynamically interrelated and refer to various business functions, value processes, and business settings. Moreover, insights from this research suggest that SMEs are composed of firms with a broad range of heterogeneity in the way how they approach the challenges of digitalization. Traditionally established SMEs are increasingly threatened from both sides, large, global acting enterprises as well as the entry of new, small competitors, whose business models are often based on digital affordances.
This research illustrates the relevance of individual digital capabilities for SMEs’ growth and innovation performance. Going beyond Penrosian growth theory, taking a microfoundational perspective demonstrates that these capabilities are crucial for attaining business growth and innovation. From a sample of 2,156,360 European SMEs, our findings highlight SMEs’ need for internal digital capabilities to respond rapidly to market changes. The current workplace requires individual capabilities able to face increasingly complex and interactive tasks. This set of capabilities also drives SMEs towards new perspectives and induces an increasing demand for individual digital capabilities. Employees are thus tasked to be digital literates in the field of information, communication and software. Penrose and others argued that business growth is leveraged primarily by interpersonal relationships based on trust, identification, and mutual obligation. However, today, individual digital capabilities have assumed an equally crucial role for growth and innovation in our increasingly digital competitive reality.
A higher degree of digitalization in new ventures’ product/service offerings and their processes can lead to a faster time to market and the ability to rapidly scale. Hence, it has the possibility to significantly impact the performance. To increase the degree of digitalization in new ventures, they can implement a digital strategy. Currently there is no evidence if this measure has a strong impact on the degree of digitalization. We therefore empirically investigate the influence of a digital strategy on the degree of digitalization in new ventures’ products/services and processes. We analyzed 102 new ventures using SEM. Building on the contingency theory, we show that only having a digital strategy is insufficient to achieve a high degree of digitalization. The digitalization of products/services is partially mediated by digital IT capabilities, and the effect of digital strategy on process digitalization is partially mediated by digital IT capabilities and a digital culture.
The study explores digital transformation in agrifood small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through a framework of dynamic capabilities. The research question is addressed to identify unique firms’ capabilities to face the change in agrifood environments. The study adopts a qualitative approach and is based on in-depth interviews of 21 key respondents such as CEOs, owners, and managers of both public bodies and agrofirms in Sardinia (Italy). As new concepts, the study finds that distinctive dynamic capabilities are led by a sense of belonging in territorial value-oriented enterprises and collaboration among firms’ stakeholders, who feel as members of an extended family. It also shows that personal capabilities are associated with a gender domain and that digitalization reshapes not only organizational structures but also societal ones. The study aims to contribute theoretically and empirically through novel meanings of dynamic capabilities for digital transformation in the context of small and medium-sized agrofirms.
Digital transformation is requiring companies to rethink and innovate their business models (BMs). However, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)have scarce time and resources for experimenting with their BMs and implementing new strategies. This paper examines whether SMEs that undergo digital transformation perform better if they allocate more resources for BM experimentation and engage more in strategy implementation. An empirical study was conducted on 321 European SMEs that actively use social media, big data, and information technology to innovate their BMs. Furthermore, structural equation modelling showed positive overall firm performance effects of more resource allocation to BM experimentation and more engagement in practices of strategy implementation. These effects were mediated by BM experimentation practices and company innovativeness. Moreover, fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)revealed the presence of equifinality by identifying different configurations in which these antecedent conditions affect overall firm overall performance. The results of two methodological approaches showed that SMEs may take different routes to improve their performance when digital transformation is changing their BM. This paper is one of the first to analyse how SMEs can handle the impact of digitalization by spending more time and effort on innovating their BMs. Practical and policy implications are discussed.
The formulation and implementation of a digital transformation strategy (DTS) has become a key concern for many pre-digital organizations across traditional industries, but how such a strategy can be developed remains an open question. We used interpretive in-depth case study research to study how a European financial services provider has formulated and implemented a DTS. By focusing on the underlying processes and strategizing activities, we show that digital strategy making not only represents a break with the conventions of upfront strategic information systems (IS) planning, but reveals a new extreme of emergent strategy making. Specifically, we conclude that a DTS is continuously in the making, with no foreseeable end. By building on theory from IS strategizing and strategy-as-practice literature, we theorize an integrated process/activity model that characterizes DTS formulation and implementation in pre-digital organizations. Our model shows that the crafting of a DTS is a highly dynamic process involving iterating between learning and doing.