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Cyst size variability in invasive American Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) in Asia: a commercial approach

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  • Chengde Medical University, Chengde, Hebei Province, China;

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Artemia is the most common live food that is used in aquaculture worldwide. This study reportson biometrical variation in the cysts of the introduced, originally American Artemia franciscanafrom 24 non-native localities and two native habitats, in Asia and the U.S.A., respectively. Theresults show, that the largest diameter of untreated cysts, the largest diameter of decapsulatedcysts, and a thicker chorion usually are found in invasive populations. Because of the small cysts,which have an effect on an increasing quantity per unit weight and thus could be the cause ofincreased hatching efficiency, commercial productions of A. franciscana cysts from native sourcesshould potentially be considered higher quality than productions from non-indigenous environments.Principal Component Analysis revealed that all cyst batches from San Francisco Bay were classifiedin one group and most of the invasive populations could be arranged in another, separate group.Although the diameter of the decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness showed a negative andsignificant correlation among invasive populations, there was no significant relationship within nativepopulations. These observations contrast with biometrical patterns of parthenogenetic populations.
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Crustaceana 95 (5-6) 573-584
CYST SIZE VARIABILITY IN INVASIVE AMERICAN ARTEMIA
FRANCISCANA KELLOGG, 1906 (BRANCHIOPODA, ANOSTRACA) IN
ASIA: A COMMERCIAL APPROACH
BY
XIAO-FANG WU1,4), CHUN-YANG SHEN2), CHUN-ZHENG FU3), NING YANG1),
PEI-ZHENG WANG4), AMIN EIMANIFAR5)and ALIREZA ASEM1,6)
1)Hainan Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Tropical Marine Fishery Resources,
Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya 572022, P.R. China
2)Department of Biology, Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province,
P.R. China
3)Institute of Sericulture, Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province,
P.R. China
4)College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya, P.R. China
5)Independent Senior Scientist, Industrial District, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, U.S.A.
ORCID iD: Asem: 0000-0002-8991-4903
ABSTRACT
Artemia is the most common live food that is used in aquaculture worldwide. This study reports
on biometrical variation in the cysts of the introduced, originally American Artemia franciscana
from 24 non-native localities and two native habitats, in Asia and the U.S.A., respectively. The
results show, that the largest diameter of untreated cysts, the largest diameter of decapsulated
cysts, and a thicker chorion usually are found in invasive populations. Because of the small cysts,
which have an effect on an increasing quantity per unit weight and thus could be the cause of
increased hatching efficiency, commercial productions of A. franciscana cysts from native sources
should potentially be considered higher quality than productions from non-indigenous environments.
Principal Component Analysis revealed that all cyst batches from San Francisco Bay were classified
in one group and most of the invasive populations could be arranged in another, separate group.
Although the diameter of the decapsulated cyst and chorion thickness showed a negative and
significant correlation among invasive populations, there was no significant relationship within native
populations. These observations contrast with biometrical patterns of parthenogenetic populations.
Key words. Brine shrimp, exotic populations, cyst size, biometrical variation, regression
RÉSUMÉ
Artemia est la nourriture vivante la plus utilisée mondialement en aquaculture. Cette étude porte
sur la variation biométrique des cystes de l’Artemia franciscana américaine originelle provenant de
6)Corresponding author; e-mail: asem.alireza@gmail.com
©KONINKLIJKE BRILL NV, LEIDEN, 2022 DOI 10.1163/15685403-bja10206
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574 XIAO-FANG WU ET AL.
24 localités non–indigènes en Asie et deux habitats indigènes aux U.S.A. Les résultats montrent
qu’un diamètre plus grand des cystes non traités, un diamètre plus grand des cystes décapsulés et un
chorion plus épais sont généralement trouvés dans les populations invasives. Du fait que les petits
cystes ont un effet sur l’augmentation de la quantité par unité de poids et ainsi pourraient être la cause
d’une augmentation de l’efficacité de l’éclosion, les productions commerciales de cystes à partir de
sources indigènes devraient être potentiellement considérées comme de meilleure qualité que les
productions à partir d’habitats non indigènes. L’analyse des composants principaux a montré que les
lots de cystes de la baie de San Francisco ont été classés en un seul groupe et que la plupart des
populations invasives peuvent être arrangées ensemble dans un groupe séparé. Bien que le diamètre
des cystes décapsulés et l’épaisseur du chorion aient montré une corrélation négative et significative
chez les populations invasives, il n’y a pas d’interrelation parmi les populations indigènes. Ces
observations contrastent avec les données biométriques des populations parthénogénétiques.
Mots clés. Artémie, populations exotiques, taille du cyste, variation biométrique, régression
INTRODUCTION
Various productions of the brine shrimp, Artemia, including newly hatched
nauplii and decapsulated cysts, have been widely used in fishery and in the
aquaculture industry for decades already (Sorgeloos et al., 2001). From 1980
to 1994, the annual use of Artemia cysts has rapidly increased from 60 tons to
2000 tons worldwide (Bengtson et al., 1991; Triantaphyllidis et al., 1994). In the
early 21st century, aquaculture development programmes raised the harvesting of
wet Artemia cysts to nearly 9000 tons from Great Salt Lake, U.S.A. (Dhont &
Sorgeloos, 2002). Van Stappen et al. (2020) have estimated that the use of Artemia
cysts in China was 1000 tons in 2016.
Since the 1950s, with the aim at supporting the developing aquaculture industry,
the cysts of American Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906, have been exported
overseas from Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay in the U.S.A. (Van Stappen,
2008; Eimanifar et al., 2014). In order to provide the live food demanded in fishery
and facilitated by the adaptation ability of A. franciscana in extreme environmental
conditions, it has been cultured in non-native habitats and man-made salterns. This
has caused the species’ permanent colonization of numerous geographical regions
across Eurasia, including the Mediterranean area (Amat et al., 2005; Eimanifar et
al., 2014, 2020; Scalone & Rabet, 2013; Saji et al., 2019; Asem et al., 2021; Shen
et al., 2021), and also Australia (Asem et al., 2018).
The aquaculture industry constitutes the basic and main reason for the dispersal
of American A. franciscana in non-native habitats, especially in Asia (Camara,
2020; Shen et al., 2021). Although genetic variation of the invasive A. franciscana
has been well studied (Scalone & Rabet, 2013; Eimanifar et al., 2014, 2020; Asem
et al., 2018, 2021; Saji et al., 2019; Saad & Elsebaie, 2020), there is a lack of
information on the biometrical variation of cysts in new environments. Besides
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CYST SIZE VARIABILITY IN INVASIVE AMERICAN ARTEMIA IN ASIA 575
several biological factors including nutrition and hatching percentage, the hatching
efficiency (the number of nauplii obtained per gram of dry cysts) makes an
important parameter in the evaluation of cyst quality and its marketing (Sorgeloos
et al., 1978). Even if physicochemical conditions can affect hatching percentage as
well as hatching efficiency (Camargo et al., 2004; Sayg, 2004; Salma et al., 2012;
El-Magsodi et al., 2016; Sharahi & Zarei, 2016), Artemia cyst size has an impact
on the number of eggs per unit weight, which thus forms an impressive parameter
of hatching efficiency, regardless of the actual hatching conditions (Asem et al.,
2007, 2010).
The aim of the present study was to investigate the variation of cysts (resting
eggs) in populations of introduced American A. franciscana in Asia. First, we
compared biometrical variability within and between native and exotic populations
to understand alteration patterns of cyst size in non-indigenous environments.
Second, the correlation of untreated cyst size was analysed in comparison with
decapsulated (yolk sac and embryo) size and chorion (outer shell of egg) thickness
to determine the relationships among the various biometrical characters. Gaining a
better apprehension of biometric characterization of Artemia cysts, could provide
insight into the reasons why different batches or, populations, with the same
hatching percentage, represent differences in hatching efficiency.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Biometrical characterizations of invasive American Artemia franciscana cysts
were studied in 24 localities from Asia and two native habitats in the U.S.A. (Great
Salt Lake, Utah and San Francisco Bay, California) (table I).
In each population, cysts were hydrated and decapsulated following Asem et al.
(2007). Diameters of untreated, whole cysts and decapsulated cysts were measured
using a Motic BA210 microscope equipped with a MoticamX camera and software
of Motic Images Plus 2.0v. The thickness of the chorion layer was determined by
the formula:
Chorion thickness =(Mean diameter of untreated cyst Mean diameter of decapsulated cyst)
This value is reported without standard deviations (Vanhaecke & Sorgeloos, 1980;
Asem et al., 2010, 2014).
One-Way ANOVA (Tukey test, p>0.05) was performed to analyse significant
differences among biometrical characters. Three parameters (diameter of untreated
cysts, diameter of decapsulated cysts and chorion thickness) were employed for the
clustering of populations using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The patterns
of cyst variability were analyzed using linear regression and Pearson’s correlation
between the biometrical parameters (p>0.05). The computer program SPSS 22
was utilized for statistical analyses.
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576 XIAO-FANG WU ET AL.
TABLE I
Biometric mean (±SD) of invasive and native populations of Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906
cysts from Asia and the U.S.A.
Location1) Abbr. Untreated cysts
(μm)
Decapsulated cysts
(μm)
Chorion
thickness (μm)
Invasive populations
Tanggu, P.R. China TTA 251.30 ±14.95 fg 233.90 ±14.70 fghi 8.70
Nanpu, P.R. China NAN 265.90 ±15.67 h245.90 ±14.45 l10.00
Yuantong, P.R. China YUA 245.60 ±12.21 cdefg 229.85 ±14.19 defgh 7.88
Zhan hua, P.R. China ZHS 241.70 ±11.94 bcd 218.55 ±10.55 ab 11.58
Wuzhidui, P.R. China WUZ 238.85 ±10.91 bc 229.45 ±13.44 defg 4.70
Bohai Bay, P.R. China BBA 247.63 ±14.38 defg 226.60 ±10.91 cde 10.51
Xinhu, P.R. China XIN 252.05 ±13.65 g237.10 ±10.57 ij 7.48
Yanhua, P.R. China YANH 252.15 ±11.64 g232.53 ±9.93 efghi 9.81
Haixing, P.R. China HAI 245.85 ±12.43 defg 228.65 ±13.52 cdef 8.60
Wudi, P.R. China WUD 244.75 ±12.72 cdef 227.25 ±10.60 cde 8.75
Beidaba, P.R. China BEID 247.45 ±12.03 defg 228.35 ±10.54 cdef 9.55
Leguantai, P.R. China LEG 249.70 ±15.95 efg 232.00 ±13.08 efghi 8.85
Dongying, P.R. China DOG 249.40 ±12.82 efg 228.2 ±13.06 cdef 10.60
Sikou, P.R. China SIK 251.30 ±14.15 fg 235.55 ±12.73 ghij 7.88
Yangkou, P.R. China YAG 267.90 ±19.15 h250.55 ±15.83 ml 8.67
Da Gang, P.R. China DAG 235.90 ±14.34 ab 225.55 ±13.87 cd 5.18
Eryan, P.R. China ERY 249.95 ±14.24 fg 228.2 ±11.09 cdef 10.88
Vinhchau, Vietnam VCH 242.90 ±11.06 cde 222.65 ±8.92 abc 10.13
Sri Lanka SLA 241.50 ±11.23 abc 222.35 ±7.96 ab 9.58
Kelambakkam, India KEL 242.50 ±11.00 bcd 235.90 ±11.51 hij 3.30
Tuticorin, India TUT 249.65 ±10.67 efg 225.20 ±10.27 cd 12.23
Nough catchment, Iran NOG 251.00 ±13.96 fg 255.40 ±15.66 m2.20
Mahshahr port, Iran MAH 246.00 ±14.34 defg 240.60 ±14.24 jk 2.70
Garmat Ali, Iraq GAA 241.05 ±11.13 bcd 224.00 ±8.67 bcd 8.53
Native populations
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.2GSL 262.50 ±13.04 h245.15 ±9.55 l8.68
San Francisco Bay, U.S.A.2SFB 230.85 ±10.71 a216.40 ±12.00 a7.23
San Francisco Bay,
U.S.A.3SFBVS1 224.70 ±12.4 210.00 ±12.7 7.35
San Francisco Bay,
U.S.A.3SFBVS2 224.60 ±11.9 210.50 ±12.3 7.05
San Francisco Bay,
U.S.A.3SFBVS3 223.90 ±11.7 209.70 ±12.8 7.10
San Francisco Bay,
U.S.A.3SFBVS4 224.30 ±11.8 207.70 ±11.1 8.30
San Francisco Bay, U.S.A.3SFBVS5 228.70 ±12.3 212.10 ±11.3 8.30
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.3GSLVS1 252.50 ±13.0 241.60 ±13.2 5.45
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.3GSLVS2 244.20 ±16.1 234.80 ±16.0 4.7
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.4GSLE1 230.99 ±11.32 213.69 ±11.16 8.65
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.4GSLE2 231.92 ±11.80 216.32 ±10.71 7.8
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.4GSLE3 216.17 ±9.15 214.03 ±10.01 1.07
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CYST SIZE VARIABILITY IN INVASIVE AMERICAN ARTEMIA IN ASIA 577
TABLE I
(Continued)
Location1) Abbr. Untreated cysts
(μm)
Decapsulated cysts
(μm)
Chorion
thickness (μm)
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.4GSLE4 232.71 ±11.18 217.58 ±11.93 7.56
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.4GSLE5 233.06 ±9.83 217.65 ±10.90 7.7
Great Salt Lake, U.S.A.4GSLE6 218.30 ±13.12 210.81 ±10.44 3.74
The same letters in each column show non-significant difference (n=100, ANOVA, Tukey test,
p>0.05).
1) Further information of studied localities available in Eimanifar et al. (2014).
2) This study.
3) Vanhaecke & Sorgeloos (1980).
4) Eimanifar et al. (2015).
* These results of Vanhaecke & Sorgeloos (1980) and Eimanifar et al. (2015) have not been used for
one-way ANOVA analyses.
RESULTS
Cyst biometry
The biometrical characters of Artemia franciscana cysts are summarized in
table I. According to the findings, the largest whole cyst of Artemia is found
in the invasive population of YAG (267.90 ±19.15 μm) from China, and this
shows significant differences with samples from the remaining regions, except
the invasive population of NAN (265.90 ±15.67 μm) and a number of native
populations from GSL (262.50 ±13.04 μm). Among the invasive populations,
DAG (235.90 ±14.34 μm) and WUZ (238.85 ±10.91 μm) yield the smallest
sizes of untreated cysts from China. Generally, the native populations (GSL and
SFB) represent the smallest whole cysts.
Two invasive populations, NOG and YAG, reveal the largest diameter of
decapsulated cysts (255.40 ±15.66 and 250.55 ±15.83 μm, respectively). While
among invasive populations, the smallest decapsulated cysts are found in ZHS
(218.55 ±10.55 μm); overall, the smallest decapsulated cysts are observed in the
native population from SFB (from 207.7 ±11.1 to 216.40 ±12.00 μm).
The thinnest chorion layers are observed in one of the native populations of GSL
(1.07 μm), followed by the invasive populations of NOG (2.20 μm) and MAH
(2.70 μm) from Iran. The thickest chorion layer was recorded in TUT (12.23 μm)
from India, followed by ZHS (11.58 μm) from China.
Principal component analysis
Regarding the PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the first and second
components represent 64.18 and 35.66%, respectively, of the variability and in
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578 XIAO-FANG WU ET AL.
total these two components are involved with 99.84% of the distinction. In the first
component, the means of untreated cyst (0.996) and the means of decapsulated cyst
(0.921), have the main influences in the classification of populations, respectively.
The chorion thickness (0.956) is an effective character in the second component.
The PCA shows two separated collections, a group containing all batches of native
populations from SFB and four batches of GSL (Group A), and another consists
of 17 invasive populations (Group B). While 12 populations (five batches of native
populations from GSL and seven batches of invasive populations) show a widely
dispersed distribution on the PCA plot without a clear grouping (fig. 1).
Regression and correlation
The equations of Linear Regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient are
shown in fig. 2. The results confirm a positive and significant correlation between
the sizes of untreated and decapsulated cysts in both native and invasive popula-
tions (r=0.941, p=0.0001 and r=0.969, p=0.0001, respectively). On
the other hand, there are no significant correlations between untreated cysts and
Fig. 1. Scatterplot of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on three biometrical characters of
cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906.
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CYST SIZE VARIABILITY IN INVASIVE AMERICAN ARTEMIA IN ASIA 579
chorion thickness. While the correlation between decapsulated cysts and chorion
thickness is non-significant in native populations (r=0.041, p=0.883), invasive
populations show a negative and significant relationship (r=0.521, p=0.009)
in this respect.
DISCUSSION
The introduction of exotic species to new habitats can reduce biodiversity and
would eventually reorganize the local biological communities (Olden et al., 2004;
Lodge et al., 2006). Though almost 1% of all introduced non-natives species
become invasive (Williamson, 2006), colonizations of exotic species in new
environments have generated extensive economic damage and ecological effects
(Pimentel et al., 2005).
Given the economic value of the brine shrimp Artemia in fishery and aquacul-
ture, and regarding the biological potential and high production fitness of American
Artemia franciscana, it has been introduced in other continents, especially in Asia,
including China (Bohai Bay), Vietnam (Vinhchau) and Iran (Nough catchment)
(Le et al., 2019; Van Stappen et al., 2020; Eimanifar et al., 2020). Numerous stud-
ies have documented ecological effects of exotic A. franciscana, which has been
shown to be able to significantly diminish biodiversity of the native species of
Artemia (Amat et al., 2007; Scalone & Rabet, 2013; Asem et al., 2018; Eimani-
far et al., 2020, Shen et al., 2021). The current survey advances an opportunity, to
our knowledge, to perceive cyst size variation of introduced A. franciscana in Asia
compared to its native populations in the U.S.A.
Generally, A. franciscana has represented a wide range of variation in the
biometry of its cysts. Vanhaecke & Sorgeloos (1980) reported that material from
Great Salt Lake (Utah, U.S.A.) has a larger cyst diameter compared with cysts
from San Francisco Bay (California, U.S.A.). A study on cyst diameters in the
six localities from the Colombian Caribbean populations of A. franciscana have
revealed their cyst characters were more similar to those of Great Salt Lake
(Camargo et al., 2005). Castro et al. (2006) have reported an extensive cyst
variation for Chilean populations (220.5 to 241 μm for untreated cysts and 5.4 to
7.9 μm for chorion thickness) and Mexican populations of A. franciscana (200.4
to 292.3 μm for untreated cysts and 2.11 to 10.78 μm for chorion thickness). It
has been concluded that intraspecific differentiation in cyst size can be attributed
to the seasonal fluctuations in ecological parameters and food availability (Asem
et al., 2010).
It has also been confirmed that critical environmental conditions (salinity =
300 g/l in 2003) in Urmia Lake could affect cyst characterizations of Artemia urmi-
ana Günther, 1899, i.e., to small values for untreated and decapsulated diameter,
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580 XIAO-FANG WU ET AL.
Fig. 2. Correlation among biometric characters in native and invasive populations of Artemia
franciscana Kellogg, 1906 cysts: red and black colours have been used for native and invasive
populations, respectively. A, Regression between diameters of untreated cysts and decapsulated
cysts; B, regression between the diameter of untreated cysts and chorion thickness; C, regression
between the diameter of decapsulated cysts and chorion thickness.
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CYST SIZE VARIABILITY IN INVASIVE AMERICAN ARTEMIA IN ASIA 581
and a thicker chorion layer (Asem et al., 2010). Sankian et al. (2011) have shown
that Artemia nauplii newly hatched from wild cysts that had been harvested in opti-
mum ecological condition from Urmia Lake in 1998 (salinity =180 g/l), had a low
mortality rate and a higher RNA content than a cyst sample from 2003 (see Asem et
al., 2019). This find could challenge the conclusion that smaller cysts should have a
“high quality” owing to their high hatching efficiency. Although there are multiple
reports of cyst size variation of different Artemia species/populations, due to the
lack of comprehensive studies, our knowledge about interspecific and intraspecific
variation of Artemia cysts and their relationship with environmental conditions is,
unfortunately, limited.
Asem & Sun (2014) characterized Chinese parthenogenetic Artemia cysts with
different ploidy levels. The results have documented that all three biometrical
parameters have positive and significant correlations to each other. By contrast,
in the current study there was no significant correlation between the diameter
of untreated cysts and chorion thickness in both native and invasive populations.
Additionally, invasive populations of A. franciscana showed a negative correlation
between the diameter of decapsulated cysts and chorion thickness, while partheno-
genetic populations have exhibited a positive correlation in the sense that with
increasing diameter of the decapsulated cysts, the chorion layer was thicker.
With regard to our results, native populations (Great Salt Lake and San Fran-
cisco Bay) show dissimilar biometrical patterns. Great Salt Lake batches represent
a heterogeneous distribution pattern in the PCA, while San Francisco Bay batches
are clustered in one group. The reason for this differentiation might be referable to
the controlled conditions in the San Francisco Bay saltern(s), as man-made con-
structions, whereas the natural reservoir of Great Salt Lake has been frequently
affected via seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters. Although the
actual origins of invasive A. franciscana populations in non-native environments
are unclear (Eimanifar et al., 2014; Asem et al., 2018; Shen et al., 2021), at least
it has been confirmed that the Vinhchau population in Vietnam originated from
San Francisco Bay (Le et al., 2019). Even so, the Vinhchau population has not
been located in the same group with San Francisco Bay in the PCA, which could
be attributed to the effect of the actual, differing environmental conditions. Also,
a significant biometrical differentiation already exists in the native population of
SanFranciscoBay(U.S.A.).
In conclusion, biometrical characterizations of American A. franciscana cysts
have revealed intraspecific variation. Environmental conditions with effect on
adaptations to biotic and abiotic parameters could also be considered to constitute
an important cause of cyst size variability. Despite the fact that small cysts could
not be the only reason for their high quality, the importance of cyst size on hatching
efficiency and marketing value should be considered. The established interspecific
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582 XIAO-FANG WU ET AL.
and intraspecific variation and regression patterns of Artemia cysts necessitate
comprehensive studies on biological pathways to understand how biotic and abiotic
factors influence cyst size variability.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The first two authors, Xiao-Fang Wu and Chun-Yang Shen, contributed equally
to this study. The authors thank Prof. Gilbert Van Stappen (Artemia Research
Center, Ghent University, Belgium) for preparing Artemia cyst samples for this
study. This study has been supported by 2021 Hebei Province Introduced Foreign
Intelligence Project and Scientific Research Foundation of Hainan Tropical Ocean
University (No. RHDRC202101).
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First received 16 February 2022.
Final version accepted 5 May 2022. Published online 29 July 2022.
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The genus Artemia (Crustacea; Anostraca) is a complex of sibling species and superspecies defined by the criterion of reproductive isolation. Two sexual species are represented in the New World: Artemia persimilis and Artemia franciscana. In Brazil, Artemia franciscana populations are found on a year-round and permanent basis in Rio Grande do Norte as a result of inoculations made in Macau in April 1977 with cysts from a San Francisco Bay (California, USA) stock. Through the years, introduced Artemia dispersed to over 40,000 ha of saltworks and became an important asset in the development of a successful shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture industry in northeastern Brazil. On a yearly basis, a substantial part (approximately 20 %) of the 20 tonnes of cysts currently used by the Brazilian shrimp culture industry is harvested in local saltworks. However, there are growing concerns about the long-term sustainability of current harvesting practices. Not only Artemia is being collected in a reduced area (several hundred hectares of saltworks have been converted to shrimp grow-out ponds), but most importantly, there are indications that overharvesting of cysts has caused a directional reproductive shift to ovoviviparity (direct production of free-living nauplii) in local brine shrimp populations. The sustainable harvesting of Artemia franciscana cysts in Brazilian salterns is critical for ecological, social and economic reasons. Careful management of this essential resource requires a science-based approach with eyes open for the possible effects of exploitation-induced selection before it seriously impacts the viability of this emerging form of extractive aquaculture.
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Up to date, the true phylogenetic relationships among the Artemia species are under debate. In this study, some morphometric and molecular (Inter-simple sequence repeats, ISSR) variations were analyzed to evaluate the biodiversity among some Egyptian Artemia species comparatively with other brine shrimps (A. parthenogenetica, A. salina and A. franciscana). The highest and lowest Wilks' lambda values were calculated for the Length of furca and the abdominal length. The cluster analysis based on the Artemia morphological variations was an agreement with the re-constructed dendrogram based on ISSR markers. The ISSR variations were comparatively analyzed with the Artemia species Cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) sequence variations. Based on the COI consensus sequences, the distance value between A. salina and A. parthenogenetica was higher than the distance value between A. salina and A. franciscana. The ISSR could be an effective method in Artemia molecular characterization and evolutionary studies. The results could be helpful in the conservation of the evaluated Artemia species. The combination of more informative molecular markers with the selected morphometric characters should be carried out to understand the true evolutionary variations in the Artemia resources.
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This paper reports on biometrical variation of parthenogenetic Artemia cysts from 12 saline lakes and salterns of China. The results showed that the largest diameter of untreated and decapsulated cysts of the studied populations belong to Aqqikkol Lake (325.4 ± 13.7 μm; 301.4 ± 14.2 μm, respectively) and the smallest from Xiaotan Saltern (258.7 ± 10.8 μm) and Gaodao Saltern (244.3 ± 15.5 μm). The thickest and the thinnest chorion layers are from Yinggehai Saltern (12.2 μm) and Aibi Lake (3.5 μm), respectively. Our results confirm that the studied biometrical parameters (the diameters of untreated and decapsulated cysts as well as chorion thickness) present a significant correlations (p < 0.05) and also that the populations at very high-altitude locations have the biggest cysts. However, the regression analysis showed that the correlations between altitude and biometrical parameters of cysts were not significant. The relationship between degree of ploidy and cyst size is not clear, so size is more likely due to the combined effect of ploidy degree, physico-chemical conditions, food availability and population-specific parameters. The present results also suggest that the high standard deviations (SD) and coefficients of variation (CV) in cysts of Barkol population may be related to their complex ploidy composition (2n: 27.4%; 3n: 4.9%; 4n: 37.8% and 5n: 29.9%). Cluster analysis and principal components analysis do not reveal correlation between biogeographical distribution and cyst biometrics.
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The invasion process goes through a series of stages, a cascade, such as import, release or escape, establishing a population, spreading, becoming a problem and others. The probability of each transition is generally not large, the overall probability from import to pest usually rather small. The factors important at each stage can be different, with socio-economic factors being generally important initially, biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary later, but all can affect all stages. Quantification both of the process and of the importance of different factors is still rudimentary. The low probability of success gives a low base rate (or prevalence). The effect of this on explanation and prediction is illustrated with German native plants found alien in Argentina. In this case, explanation and prediction are orthogonal. Climatic matching and range size have been used to explain and predict. The variety of algorithms available, the unsatisfactory tests of fit for observed and predicted ranges, the presence of non-native populations contiguous to native ones and the lack of understanding of the cause of range boundaries all cast doubt on the use of climatic matching. That range sizes offer useful explanations but poor predictions of the behaviour of introduced species is illustrated with birds introduced from Britain to Australia and plants introduced from Europe to Canada. Description (relatively easy) is not explanation (much harder); explanation is not prediction (often extremely difficult).
Review of the biogeography of Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) in China
  • B S C Zheng
  • Sun
ZHENG, B. & S. C. SUN, 2013. Review of the biogeography of Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) in China. International Journal of Artemia Biology, 3: 20-50. First received 21 March 2022. Final version accepted 7 May 2022. Published online 29 July 2022.
Characterization of parthenogenetic Artemia populations from Camaltı (Izmir, Turkey) and Kalloni
  • Y Sayg
SAYG, Y., 2004. Characterization of parthenogenetic Artemia populations from Camaltı (Izmir, Turkey) and Kalloni (Lesbos, Greece): survival, growth, maturation, biometrics, fatty acid profiles and hatching characteristics. Hydrobiologia, 527: 227-239.
Mutual effect of light and turbidity on hatching of Artemia franciscana cysts
  • A R S Sharahi
  • Zarei
SHARAHI, A. R. & S. ZAREI, 2016. Mutual effect of light and turbidity on hatching of Artemia franciscana cysts. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 3(2): 3-6.
  • G Van Stappen
VAN STAPPEN, G., 2008. Artemia biodiversity in Central and Eastern Asia: 1-244. (Ph.D. Thesis, Ghent University, Ghent).