In this paper, a finite element-based framework is presented to model the probabilistic progressive failure of fiber-reinforced composite laminates with high fidelity and efficiency. The framework is based on the semidiscrete modeling approach that can be seen as a good compromise between continuum and discrete methods. The enhanced semidiscrete damage model (ESD2M) tool set comprises a smart meshing strategy with failure mode separation, a new version of the enhanced Schapery theory with a novel generalized mixed-mode law, and a novel probabilistic modeling strategy. These three joined components make the model efficient in capturing failure modes such as matrix cracks, fiber tensile failure, and delamination, as well as their interactions with high fidelity, while taking material nonuniformities into account. The model capabilities are demonstrated using single-edge notched tensile cross-ply laminates as an example. The ESD2M was not only capable of capturing the complex damage progression but also provided insights and explanations for some of the failure events observed in the laboratory. The presented framework efficiently integrates failure mode predictions with probabilistic modeling and enables Monte Carlo simulations to predict the ultimate failure strength with good accuracy, as well as its scatter.