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Medical students’ perception towards mental health recovery: a descriptive qualitative study

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Self-stigma is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes in Serious Mental Illness (SMI). There has been no review of self-stigma frequency and correlates in different cultural and geographic areas and SMI. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to review the frequency, correlates, and consequences of self-stigma in individuals with SMI; (2) to compare self-stigma in different geographical areas and to review its potential association with cultural factors; (3) to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current body of evidence to guide future research. A systematic electronic database search (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Ovid SP Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL]) following PRISMA guidelines, was conducted on the frequency, correlates, and consequences of self-stigma in SMI. Out of 272 articles, 80 (29.4%) reported on the frequency of self-stigma (n = 25 458), 241 (88.6%) on cross-sectional correlates of self-stigma and 41 (15.0%) on the longitudinal correlates and consequences of self-stigma. On average, 31.3% of SMI patients reported high self-stigma. The highest frequency was in South-East Asia (39.7%) and the Middle East (39%). Sociodemographic and illness-related predictors yielded mixed results. Perceived and experienced stigma—including from mental health providers—predicted self-stigma, which supports the need to develop anti-stigma campaigns and recovery-oriented practices. Increased transition to psychosis and poor clinical and functional outcomes are both associated with self-stigma. Psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery-oriented early interventions could reduce self-stigma and should be better integrated into public policy.
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This study aimed to explore how mental health professionals and users perceive recovery-oriented intersectoral care when comparing mental health hospitals and community mental healthcare. Methodological design: Five audio-recorded focus group interviews of nurses, other health professionals and users were explored using manifest and latent content analysis. Ethical issues and approval: The study was designed in accordance with the ethical principles of the Helsinki Declaration and Danish law. Each study participant in the two intersectoral sectors gave their informed consent after verbal and written information was provided. Findings: From the health professionals' perspective, the main theme informed by subthemes and categories was formulated: 'Recovery-oriented intersectoral care requires more coordination and desire for collaboration'. Two subthemes were subsequently formulated: 'The users´ perspective of the centre' and 'Need for a common agenda and understanding of recovery-oriented intersectoral care'. From the users´ perspective, the main theme was formulated as: 'Recovery-oriented intersectoral care in tension between medical- and holistically oriented care'. This theme was informed by two subthemes: 'The users´ perspective is not in focus' and 'A trusting relationship and a holistic approach brings coherence'. Conclusions: This study reveals that health professionals want to work in a recovery-oriented manner in intersectoral care, but several challenges appear which make achieving this aim difficult. A common understanding of recovery and how it should be carried out in intersectoral care does not exist. Care decisions are primarily made paternalistically, where the users' and relatives' voices are ignored. In an attempt to create coherence across sectors, intersectoral network meetings have been established with health professionals from both sectors. However, the meetings are characterised by a lack of a clear purpose regarding the meeting structure and content, and users are only minimally involved. Our results can contribute to dealing with the challenges of incorporating recovery-oriented intersectoral care as an ideology in all psychiatric and municipal contexts and is, therefore, important for health professionals and users.
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The concept of recovery is used by different disciplines. In the mental health field, various definitions are encountered for recovery. The meaning of recovery is unique for every individual with mental illness and there is no universal definition for it. In the field of mental health, it seems to have more than one sense of recovery from the view of the person, his/her family, health professional and clinic perspective. It is of great importance to clarify the concept of recovery in order for health professionals to construct practical, concrete interventions that are built on the definition of recovery and also specific to the individual with mental illness. The aim of this study is to analyze the concept of recovery in mental illnesses. Concept of recovery was examined by Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. By reviewing the literature; between May -September 2018, in Pubmed, Science Direct, Ovid and Google Academic databases with key words of “recovery, healing, wellness, mental health, concept analysis” and 5 Turkish and 18 English articles, 2 books, Turkish Language Institution dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary were reached and examined. The analysis is carried out according to Walker and Avant’s concept analysis method and in the first step, the concept is selected as 'recovery' and in the second step the purpose of concept analysis is determined. In the third step, lexical definition of the concept of recovery determined and all uses of concept that may be discovered is identified. In the fourth step, the defining attributes of the concept are determined as individual, hope, meaning, relationship, support, empowerment. In the fifth and sixth steps, the concept is discussed in terms of defining attributes in a model case, in borderline case and contrary case. In the seventh step, the anteceden factors leading to the emergence of the concept are trust, acceptance, respect, human rights, culture and recovery programs; the consequences that emerged after recovery has been identified as insight, coping, responsibility and functionality. In the last step, empirical referens are defined and various measurement tools were introduced to evaluate recovery. It is thought that a detailed concept analysis of recovery in mental illnesses will contribute to both clarification of the concept and presentation of recovery-focused services in the mental health field.
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Public stigma is one barrier to accessing behavioral health care among Vietnamese Americans. To explore and identify features of culture and acculturation that influence behavioral health-related stigma, six focus groups were conducted with Vietnamese American participants in three generational groups and eleven key informant interviews were conducted with Vietnamese community leaders, traditional healers, and behavioral health professionals. Data were analyzed using Link and Phelan's (Annu Rev Sociol 27(1):363-385, 2001) work on stigma as an organizing theoretical framework. Findings underline several key cultural and generational factors that intersect to affect perceptions, beliefs, and stigma about mental health treatment. In particular, participants in the youngest groups highlighted that while they recognized the value of mental health services, they felt culturally limited in their access. This appeared to be closely related to intergenerational communication about mental health. The findings suggest avenues for further research as well as interventions to increase mental health treatment access and adherence.
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A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage.
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Though the recovery model has been implemented widely in outpatient mental health settings, there are no large sample evaluations of recovery oriented psychiatric rehabilitation programs that address both serious mental illness (SMI) and co-occurring disorders (COD) using a more comprehensive Medicaid reimbursable approach. This study examined preliminary hospitalization outcomes, for adults with SMI and COD enrolled in the NYS Personalized Recovery Oriented Services (PROS) program. McNemar’s chi-square test was used to examine changes in hospitalization rates from pre-PROS admission to post-PROS discharge in a sample of 12,006 adults discharged from PROS. Negative binomial regression models were used to calculate adjusted rates of hospitalizations and hospital days. Demographic, psychosocial, and diagnosis predictor variables were extracted from the OMH web-based Child and Adult Integrated Reporting System. Hospitalization data were extracted from the Mental Health Automated Recordkeeping System, and Medicaid. From pre-admission to post-discharge, psychiatric hospitalization rate decreased significantly, from 24% to 14%. Substance related hospitalizations also decreased significantly, from 5% to 3%. Average number of hospitalizations and number of days hospitalized decreased even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. PROS serves a high number of COD patients, and the number of psychiatric and substance related hospitalizations decreased after an episode of PROS, as did the number of days hospitalized. Findings support the maintenance of psychiatric rehabilitation models that include recovery oriented components. Further analyses with control samples are proposed.
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Saturation has attained widespread acceptance as a methodological principle in qualitative research. It is commonly taken to indicate that, on the basis of the data that have been collected or analysed hitherto, further data collection and/or analysis are unnecessary. However, there appears to be uncertainty as to how saturation should be conceptualized, and inconsistencies in its use. In this paper, we look to clarify the nature, purposes and uses of saturation, and in doing so add to theoretical debate on the role of saturation across different methodologies. We identify four distinct approaches to saturation, which differ in terms of the extent to which an inductive or a deductive logic is adopted, and the relative emphasis on data collection, data analysis, and theorizing. We explore the purposes saturation might serve in relation to these different approaches, and the implications for how and when saturation will be sought. In examining these issues, we highlight the uncertain logic underlying saturation—as essentially a predictive statement about the unobserved based on the observed, a judgement that, we argue, results in equivocation, and may in part explain the confusion surrounding its use. We conclude that saturation should be operationalized in a way that is consistent with the research question(s), and the theoretical position and analytic framework adopted, but also that there should be some limit to its scope, so as not to risk saturation losing its coherence and potency if its conceptualization and uses are stretched too widely.
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Field notes are widely recommended in qualitative research as a means of documenting needed contextual information. With growing use of data sharing, secondary analysis, and metasynthesis, field notes ensure rich context persists beyond the original research team. However, while widely regarded as essential, there is not a guide to field note collection within the literature to guide researchers. Using the qualitative literature and previous research experience, we provide a concise guide to collection, incorporation, and dissemination of field notes. We provide a description of field note content for contextualization of an entire study as well as individual interviews and focus groups. In addition, we provide two “sketch note” guides, one for study context and one for individual interviews or focus groups for use in the field. Our guides are congruent with many qualitative and mixed methodologies and ensure contextual information is collected, stored, and disseminated as an essential component of ethical, rigorous qualitative research.
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Failure to reach data saturation has an impact on the quality of the research conducted and hampers content validity. The aim of a study should include what determines when data saturation is achieved, for a small study will reach saturation more rapidly than a larger study. Data saturation is reached when there is enough information to replicate the study when the ability to obtain additional new information has been attained, and when further coding is no longer feasible. The following article critiques two qualitative studies for data saturation: Wolcott (2004) and Landau and Drori (2008). Failure to reach data saturation has a negative impact on the validity on one’s research. The intended audience is novice student researchers. © 2015: Patricia I. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness, and Nova Southeastern University.
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Geographically and demographically Asia is a huge region with a large number of societies and cultures, each affected by their own unique problems including over-population, major natural disasters, poverty and changing social and economic factors. Inevitably this means that different mental health needs have developed across the region. Colonialism, globalization, industrialization and urbanization have brought major demographic and cultural shifts in the region but clinical mental health practices and services and societal attitudes to mental health issues vary enormously. This handbook surveys the state of the current psychiatric care field across the whole Asia-Pacific region. Focusing on individual countries, each chapter will include: A summary of factors affecting the practice and provision of psychiatric care, including cultural attitudes to mental health issues Coverage of the conceptualisation, causation and prevalence of mental health issues in society An overview of mental health care services and systems available and workforce training Coverage of country specific innovative practices and folk therapies As the first major reference work on psychiatric care in Asia this book is an essential resource for scholars and students researching mental health in Asia as well as psychiatrists and other mental health professionals working in the region. © 2016 selection and editorial material, Dinesh Bhugra, Samson Tse, Roger Ng and Nori Takei. All rights reserved.
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This paper is an initial attempt to collate the literature on psychiatric inpatient recovery-based care and, more broadly, to situate the inpatient care sector within a mental health reform dialogue that, to date, has focused almost exclusively on outpatient and community practices. We make the argument that until an evidence base is developed for recovery-oriented practices on hospital wards, the effort to advance recovery-oriented systems will stagnate. Our scoping review was conducted in line with the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (commonly referred to as PRISMA) guidelines. Among the 27 papers selected for review, most were descriptive or uncontrolled outcome studies. Studies addressing strategies for improving care quality provide some modest evidence for reflective dialogue with former inpatient clients, role play and mentorship, and pairing general training in recovery oriented care with training in specific interventions, such as Illness Management and Recovery. Relative to some other fields of medicine, evidence surrounding the question of recovery-oriented care on psychiatric wards and how it may be implemented is underdeveloped. Attention to mental health reform in hospitals is critical to the emergence of recovery-oriented systems of care and the realization of the mandate set forward in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada.
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Guidelines for determining nonprobabilistic sample sizes are virtually nonexistent. Purposive samples are the most commonly used form of nonprobabilistic sampling, and their size typically relies on the concept of “saturation,” or the point at which no new information or themes are observed in the data. Although the idea of saturation is helpful at the conceptual level, it provides little practical guidance for estimating sample sizes, prior to data collection, necessary for conducting quality research. Using data from a study involving sixty in-depth interviews with women in two West African countries, the authors systematically document the degree of data saturation and variability over the course of thematic analysis. They operationalize saturation and make evidence-based recommendations regarding nonprobabilistic sample sizes for interviews. Based on the data set, they found that saturation occurred within the first twelve interviews, although basic elements for metathemes were present as early as six interviews. Variability within the data followed similar patterns.
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Aims: To generate a short version of a newly developed inventory that adopted the conceptual framework of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) consensus statement on recovery. Methods: Through Rasch analysis, this paper presents how this recovery inventory (SAMHSA-RIC), with its original 111 items, can be reduced to a much shorter version with only 41 items. Results: Although internal consistency is slightly lowered because of item reduction, the short version maintains satisfactory and significant correlations with quality of life measures. Overall, the canonical correlation between the scale and WHOQOL-BREF was virtually the same, with only a 0.2% decrease. Conclusions: SAMHSA-RIC (short version) has strong potential to become a general tool for evaluating rehabilitative services for persons with persistent and severe mental illness. A validation study of the short version with clinical samples is warranted.
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Background: There is an increasing global commitment to recovery as the expectation for people with mental illness. There remains, however, little consensus on what recovery means in relation to mental illness. Aims: To contribute to current efforts to tease apart the various aspects of recovery appearing in the psychiatric literature by describing two conceptualizations of recovery from and recovery in mental illness. Method: Review of empirical literature on recovery and use of the term in clinical and rehabilitative practice. Results: Two potentially complementary meanings of recovery were identified. The first meaning of recovery from mental illness derives from over 30 years of longitudinal clinical research, which has shown that improvement is just as common, if not more so, than progressive deterioration. The second meaning of recovery in derives from the Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Movement, and refers instead to a person's rights to self-determination and inclusion in community life despite continuing to suffer from mental illness. Conclusions: The implications for practice of each of these concepts of recovery, as well as for that group of individuals for which neither concepts may apply, are discussed. Declaration of interest: None.
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To design a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity with practical applicability to analytic design and clinical practice. Existing literature on patient complexity has mainly identified its components descriptively and in isolation, lacking clarity as to their combined functions in disrupting care or to how complexity changes over time. The authors developed a cumulative complexity model, which integrates existing literature and emphasizes how clinical and social factors accumulate and interact to complicate patient care. A narrative literature review is used to explicate the model. The model emphasizes a core, patient-level mechanism whereby complicating factors impact care and outcomes: the balance between patient workload of demands and patient capacity to address demands. Workload encompasses the demands on the patient's time and energy, including demands of treatment, self-care, and life in general. Capacity concerns ability to handle work (e.g., functional morbidity, financial/social resources, literacy). Workload-capacity imbalances comprise the mechanism driving patient complexity. Treatment and illness burdens serve as feedback loops, linking negative outcomes to further imbalances, such that complexity may accumulate over time. With its components largely supported by existing literature, the model has implications for analytic design, clinical epidemiology, and clinical practice.
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No systematic review and narrative synthesis on personal recovery in mental illness has been undertaken. To synthesise published descriptions and models of personal recovery into an empirically based conceptual framework. Systematic review and modified narrative synthesis. Out of 5208 papers that were identified and 366 that were reviewed, a total of 97 papers were included in this review. The emergent conceptual framework consists of: (a) 13 characteristics of the recovery journey; (b) five recovery processes comprising: connectedness; hope and optimism about the future; identity; meaning in life; and empowerment (giving the acronym CHIME); and (c) recovery stage descriptions which mapped onto the transtheoretical model of change. Studies that focused on recovery for individuals of Black and minority ethnic (BME) origin showed a greater emphasis on spirituality and stigma and also identified two additional themes: culturally specific facilitating factors and collectivist notions of recovery. The conceptual framework is a theoretically defensible and robust synthesis of people's experiences of recovery in mental illness. This provides an empirical basis for future recovery-oriented research and practice.
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Patient-centered care has now made it to center stage in discussions of quality. Enshrined by the Institute of Medicine’s “quality chasm” report as 1 of 6 key elements of high-quality care,1 health care institutions, health planners, congressional representatives, and hospital public relations departments now include the phrase in their lexicons. Insurance payments are increasingly linked to the provision of patient-centered care. Lost in many of the discussions of patient-centered care, however, is the essential and revolutionary meaning of what it means to be patient centered. The originators of client-centered and patient-centered health care were well aware of the moral implications of their work, which was based on deep respect for patients as unique living beings, and the obligation to care for them on their terms. Thus, patients are known as persons in context of their own social worlds, listened to, informed, respected, and involved in their care—and their wishes are honored (but not mindlessly enacted) during their health care journey.2–6 There have been concerns that patient-centered care, with its focus on individual needs, might be at odds with an evidence-based approach, which tends to focus on populations. Fortunately, that debate has been laid to rest; proponents of evidence-based medicine now accept that a good outcome must be defined in terms of what is meaningful and valuable to the individual patient.7 Patient-centered care, as does evidence-based medicine, considers both the art of generalizations and the science of particulars.8
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While the term "recovery" is routinely referenced in clinical services and health policy, few studies have examined the relationship between recovery-oriented service provision and client outcomes. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between recovery-orientation of service provision for persons with severe mental illnesses and outcomes in Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Client, family, staff, and manager ratings of service recovery-orientation and outcomes across a range of service utilization and community functioning indicators were examined among 67 ACT teams in Ontario, Canada. Significant associations were found between ratings of recovery-oriented service provision and better outcomes in the domains of legal involvement, hospitalization days, education involvement, and employment. Results were not uniformly positive or consistent, however, across stakeholder Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) ratings or outcomes. These findings provide some preliminary support for an association between recovery-oriented service delivery for persons with severe mental illnesses and better outcomes. In line with the current practice commentary, this association would suggest the importance of evaluating and cultivating recovery-oriented values and practices in ACT contexts. This is a particularly salient point given that ACT standards minimally address key domains of recovery-oriented service provision. Further study is required, however, to determine if these findings apply to the implementation of ACT in other jurisdictions or generalize to other community support programs.
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Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.
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Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (in depth interviews and focus groups). We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess were removed. Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings, method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings, analysis and interpretations.
Article
BACKGROUND Recovery in mental health remains inconclusive where the two most prevailing definitions “clinical” and “personal” remain. In nursing schools, students are predominantly taught straightforward concepts of clinical recovery, which result in only a perfunctory and rudimentary understanding of recovery among the undergraduates. AIMS To explore the perceptions of nursing undergraduates on recovery for people experiencing mental health conditions. METHOD A descriptive qualitative study was conducted on 14 nursing undergraduates from Years 1 to 4 of the study. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling, and the required sample size was determined by data saturation. Semistructured questions were used during the individual face-to-face interviews from October and December 2019. Recordings were transcribed verbatim; the transcripts were then subjected to thematic analysis. RESULTS Three themes were identified to support the research questions: (1) semantics of major terms used in mental health care—where participants provided the description of terminologies used; (2) the meaning of recovery—where participants explained their views on “recovery”; and (3) sources of conceptualization—where participants explained their conceptual understanding on mental health conditions and recovery. CONCLUSION The findings suggest that the need for a more holistic approach encompassing personal recovery should be included in the nursing curriculum. This is necessary to promote enabling support in the recovery of people experiencing mental health conditions beyond medical interventions.
Article
The growing demand of mental health services among the population and the stigma associated with mental health conditions have resulted in a shortage of skilled nurses competent in delivering quality care to persons experiencing mental health conditions. This suggests the need to develop a systematic and comprehensive curriculum to prepare nursing students for a career in mental health nursing. An integrative review on empirical studies was conducted based on Cooper’s five‐stage integrative review framework to investigate the different pedagogies and to highlight the elements of an effective curriculum for teaching mental health nursing. All quantitative, qualitative, and mixed‐method studies published between 2009 and 2019 that examined pedagogies in mental health nursing for nursing undergraduates were included in this review. Databases of interest included PubMed, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. To ensure methodological rigour and validity, the 23 included studies were independently evaluated by two authors through critical appraisal tools developed by Joanna Briggs Institute for quantitative and qualitative studies. Results from this review were categorized into three themes: (i) the deployment of simulation; (ii) pedagogies in enhancing critical thinking; and (iii) importance of consumer‐oriented educational experiences. These results suggested that students would benefit substantially from in‐depth discussions, critical reflections, and real‐life experiences. Mental health nursing curricula should incorporate simulations, pedagogies for critical thinking, and consumers’ lived experience to supplement the clinical rotations.
Article
According to the recovery model, mental healthcare should be aimed towards a conception of recovery articulated by a patient or service user in accord with his or her own specific values. The model thus presupposes and emphasises the agency of the patient and opposes paternalism. Recent philosophical work on the relations between respect, self-respect, self-esteem, shame, and agency suggests, however, two ways in which mental illness itself can undermine self-respect, promote shame and undermine agency, suggesting a tension within the recovery model. I argue, however, that this is a tension rather than a fatal flaw by distinguishing between paternalist and non-paternalist clinical responses to this failure of agency.
Article
Perpetuated by negative perceptions of mental illnesses, mental health has remained a taboo subject in Asia. This in turn leads to perceived discrimination among people experiencing mental health conditions, due to which they become withdrawn and secretive, making it more challenging for them to seek help. Studies have explored possible reasons affecting societal perception of those with such conditions. The results, however, have been inconclusive on how young adults would perceive them. Through a qualitative descriptive approach and one‐to‐one interviews, this study explored societal perception towards people experiencing mental health conditions in Singapore by involving 22 adults aged 21 to 29 residing locally. The interviews were conducted with a semi‐structured question guide developed through a literature review. Data were analysed through Braun and Clark’s six‐step thematic analysis. The results reveal three distinctive themes that have influenced such societal perception: (i) how views are formed; (ii) the illness does not represent the person; and (iii) complex experiences of family and loved ones. The holistic analysis herein enriches the current understanding of societal perceptions on how stigma is formed towards people experiencing mental health conditions. This would equip mental health professionals with the necessary information in devising measures to reduce stigmatization. Furthermore, families, employers, and students who constitute the future generation should be more engaged in this process, since a more tolerant and less discriminatory society will mean fewer obstacles for those with such conditions when attempting to reintegrate into the society. The study followed the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies 32‐item checklist.
Article
This study aimed to investigate attitudes toward personal recovery in a sample of 436 healthcare professionals and students of psychiatric rehabilitation techniques through the Italian version of the recovery knowledge inventory (RKI). The sample in our study showed a good global orientation toward recovery. Statistically significant differences were found among mental health professionals based on gender difference, professional role, and level of experience. Women seemed more inclined to accept users’ decision-making processes, including therapeutic risk-taking. Nurses seemed more cautious in considering the users able to “live beyond their illness”. Professionals with fewer than 15 years of experience had more favorable attitudes and expectations than the more experienced respondents. Students had more optimistic expectations regarding recovery than nurses and social workers. Academic curriculum development for students and training courses for mental health professionals could further improve the homogeneity in attitudes and skills in the support of users’ “unique” recovery processes.
Article
Purpose of review: To understand the current situation, needs and challenges in the area of postgraduate training in psychiatry in Asia and identify implementable solutions.Leaders in psychiatric education from nine Asia Pacific countries prepared country reports, based on a suggested list of items and met for a day to discuss and identify implementable solutions to improve the current unsatisfactory status of postgraduate training in psychiatry. Recent findings: Except Japan, all the other countries have a very low number of psychiatrists per 100 000 population - far lower than the global target of 10 psychiatrist per 100 000 population. The undergraduate teaching in psychiatry in majority of the countries is restricted to 20 h of lectures given during the 4-6 semester and 2-3 weeks of clinical ward placements. The duration as well as the overall quality of postgraduate training and methods of assessment and accreditation varies widely across and within countries. Summary: Numerous gaps that need to be addressed to enhance the quality of psychiatrists trained in Asia were identified. There is a need to have uniform minimum standards of training and mechanisms of mutual support, for not only training but also academics and research activities in Asia.
Article
Objective To examine stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders among primary care professionals and to identify potential factors related to stigmatizing attitudes through a systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline, Lilacs, IBECS, Index Psicologia, CUMED, MedCarib, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, WHOLIS, Hanseníase, LIS-Localizador de Informação em Saúde, PAHO, CVSO-Regional, and Latindex, through the Virtual Health Library portal ( http://www.bireme.br website) through to June 2017. The articles included in the review were summarized through a narrative synthesis. Results After applying eligibility criteria, 11 articles, out of 19.109 references identified, were included in the review. Primary care physicians do present stigmatizing attitudes towards patients with mental disorders and show more negative attitudes towards patients with schizophrenia than towards those with depression. Older and more experience doctors have more stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness compared with younger and less-experienced doctors. Health-care providers who endorse more stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness were likely to be more pessimistic about the patient’s adherence to treatment. Conclusions Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders are common among physicians in primary care settings, particularly among older and more experienced doctors. Stigmatizing attitudes can act as an important barrier for patients to receive the treatment they need. The primary care physicians feel they need better preparation, training, and information to deal with and to treat mental illness, such as a user friendly and pragmatic classification system that addresses the high prevalence of mental disorders in primary care and community settings.
Article
Purpose Hope and meaning in life are essential components of personal growth and happiness. Built on the recovery model, this study attempted to evaluate the effects of a recovery-oriented cognitive–behavior approach (CBA) in enhancing hope and meaning in life among a group of people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong. Method A matched-pair comparison approach was adopted. Twenty-seven experimental group participants received recovery-oriented CBA, while 25 participants received standard counseling services. Assessments were administered at preintervention and at 6 and 12 months of intervention. Results Repeated measures analyses of covariance indicated that the recovery-oriented CBA was more effective than the control condition in improving the mental health recovery process (basic functioning, finding new potentials, and spirituality) and a sense of hope (planning in achieving goals). Conclusion Given these initial positive results, more vigorous studies and refinement of this recovery-oriented CBA are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of this combined intervention approach.
Article
Saturation is a core guiding principle to determine sample sizes in qualitative research, yet little methodological research exists on parameters that influence saturation. Our study compared two approaches to assessing saturation: code saturation and meaning saturation. We examined sample sizes needed to reach saturation in each approach, what saturation meant, and how to assess saturation. Examining 25 in-depth interviews, we found that code saturation was reached at nine interviews, whereby the range of thematic issues was identified. However, 16 to 24 interviews were needed to reach meaning saturation where we developed a richly textured understanding of issues. Thus, code saturation may indicate when researchers have ?heard it all,? but meaning saturation is needed to ?understand it all.? We used our results to develop parameters that influence saturation, which may be used to estimate sample sizes for qualitative research proposals or to document in publications the grounds on which saturation was achieved.
Article
Background: The way people who experience mental illness are perceived by health care professionals, which often includes stigmatising attitudes, can have a significant impact on treatment outcomes and on their quality of life. Objective: To determine whether stigma towards people with mental illness varied for undergraduate nursing students who attended a non-traditional clinical placement called Recovery Camp compared to students who attended a 'typical' mental health clinical placement. Design: Quasi-experimental. Participants: Seventy-nine third-year nursing students were surveyed; n=40 attended Recovery Camp (intervention), n=39 (comparison group) attended a 'typical' mental health clinical placement. Methods: All students completed the Social Distance Scale (SDS) pre- and post-placement and at three-month follow-up. Data analysis consisted of a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) exploring parameter estimates between group scores across three time points. Two secondary repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to demonstrate the differences in SDS scores for each group across time. Pairwise comparisons demonstrated the differences between time intervals. Results: A statistically significant difference in ratings of stigma between the intervention group and the comparison group existed. Parameter estimates revealed that stigma ratings for the intervention group were significantly reduced post-placement and remained consistently low at three-month follow-up. There was no significant difference in ratings of stigma for the comparison group over time. Conclusions: Students who attended Recovery Camp reported significant decreases in stigma towards people with a mental illness over time, compared to the typical placement group. Findings suggest that a therapeutic recreation based clinical placement was more successful in reducing stigma regarding mental illness in undergraduate nursing students compared to those who attended typical mental health clinical placements.
Article
Treatment effects on health-related quality of life (QOL) often differ depending on whether they are measured prospectively (before and after treatment) or retrospectively (after treatment only). These two approaches can be subject to different sorts of bias: Prospective evaluations may be biased by scale recalibration (a changed understanding of the response scale), and retrospective evaluations may be biased by recall bias (a wrong assessment of former QOL). On the basis of an analysis of the literature, we present an overview on possible biases in prospective and retrospective measurement of QOL and how these biases are named and defined in the literature. The definitions of different biases are inconsistent. Many authors do not clearly distinguish measurement bias from true change. Furthermore, some consider only scale recalibration or only recall bias. Much of the current discussion on bias in prospective and retrospective QOL measurement suffers from unclear definitions, especially of "response shift" and "recall bias," or from neglecting one of the possible biases. We suggest more elaborate definitions for different types of bias and recommend taking both kinds of bias into consideration when measuring change in QOL. The relevance of the different biases depends on the type of study, and so either prospective or retrospective assessment may be more appropriate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Article
Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation.
Article
Distinguishes between recovery and rehabilitation. It is argued that psychiatrically disabled adults do not get rehabilitated, but rather they recover a new and valued sense of self and of purpose. Through the recovery process they become active and responsible participants in their own rehabilitation project. The experiences of recovery as lived by a physically disabled man and a psychiatrically disabled woman are discussed. Recommendations for creating rehabilitation environments that facilitate the recovery process are given. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
he implementation of deinstitutional- ization in the 1960s and 1970s, and the increasing ascendance of the com- munity support system concept and the practice of psychiatric rehabilitation in the 1980s, have laid the foundation for a new 1990s vision of service delivery for people who have men- tal illness. Recovery from mental illness is the vision that will guide the mental health system in this decade. This article outlines the fundamental services and assumptions of a recov- ery-oriented mental health system. As the recovery concept becomes better understood, it could have major implications for how future mental health systems are designed. The seeds of the recovery vision were sown in the aftermath of the era of deinstitutionalization. The failures in the imple- mentation of the policy of deinstitutionalization confronted us with the fact that a person with severe mental illness wants and needs more than just symptom relief. People with severe
Article
This is the second of a two-part series on qualitative research. Part 1 in the December 2011 issue of Journal of Graduate Medical Education provided an introduction to the topic and compared characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research, identified common data collection approaches, and briefly described data analysis and quality assessment techniques. Part II describes in more detail specific techniques and methods used to select participants, analyze data, and ensure research quality and rigor. If you are relatively new to qualitative research, some references you may find especially helpful are provided below. The two texts by Creswell 2008 and 2009 are clear and practical.1,2 In 2008, the British Medical Journal offered a series of short essays on qualitative research; the references provided are easily read and digested.3–,8 For those wishing to pursue qualitative research in more detail, a suggestion is to start with the appropriate chapters in Creswell 2008,1 and then move to the other texts suggested.9–,11 To summarize the previous editorial, while quantitative research focuses predominantly on the impact of an intervention and generally answers questions like “did it work?” and “what was the outcome?”, qualitative research focuses on understanding the intervention or phenomenon and exploring questions like “why was this effective or not?” and “how is this helpful for learning?” The intent of qualitative research is to contribute to understanding. Hence, the research procedures for selecting participants, analyzing data, and ensuring research rigor differ from those for quantitative research. The following sections address these approaches. table 1 provides a comparative summary of methodological approaches for quantitative and qualitative research. TABLE 1 A Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Methodological Approaches Data collection methods most commonly used in qualitative research are individual or group interviews (including focus groups), observation, and document review. They can be used alone or in combination. While the following sections are written in the context of using interviews or focus groups to collect data, the principles described for sample selection, data analysis, and quality assurance are applicable across qualitative approaches.
The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model
  • G L Engel
Engel GL. The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. Am J Psychiatry; 1980;138(5):535-544.
The effects of recovery-oriented cognitive-behavior approach for Chinese with severe mental illness
  • Dfk Wong
  • V Chan
  • P Ip
Wong DFK, Chan V, Ip P, et al. The effects of recovery-oriented cognitive-behavior approach for Chinese with severe mental illness. Res Soc Work Pract. 2017;29(3):311-322.
Routledge handbook of psychiatry in Asia
  • Dinesh Bhugra
  • S Roger
  • N Takei
Dinesh Bhugra S, Roger N, Takei N. Routledge handbook of psychiatry in Asia. Abingdon: Routledge; 2015.
Young adult's perception towards the formation of stigma on people experiencing mental health conditions: a descriptive qualitative study
  • N L Roslee
  • Y-S Goh
Roslee NL, Goh Y-S. Young adult's perception towards the formation of stigma on people experiencing mental health conditions: a descriptive qualitative study. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2020;30(1):148-157.
Rasch analysis of the SAMHSA Recovery Inventory for Chinese (SAMHSA-RIC)
  • Myl Chiu
  • Fht Wong
  • H Wwn
Chiu MYL, Wong FHT, Wwn H. Rasch analysis of the SAMHSA Recovery Inventory for Chinese (SAMHSA-RIC). Int J Social Psychiatry. 2013;60 (3):254-262.
Nursing students’ perception toward recovery in mental health: a descriptive qualitative study
  • W W Chua
  • Jhl Kuek
  • Y S Goh
Exploring pedagogies used in undergraduate mental health nursing curriculum: an integrative literature review
  • Y S Goh
  • Ow Yong
  • Jqy Seetoh
Goh YS, Ow Yong JQY, Seetoh MYT, et al. Exploring pedagogies used in undergraduate mental health nursing curriculum: an integrative literature review. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2021;30(1):47-61.