Relations Between Minority Status Stress, the Testing Eﬀect, the Late Positive Potential,
and the Feedback Related Negativity
Salvador R. Vazquez1, Jaquelin Aquino2, Maddie Ward2, Joel P. Diaz3, & Jennie K. Grammer1,4
1UCLA School of Education & Information Studies, Human Development and Psychology; 2UCLA Department of Psychology, 3UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior,
4University of Virginia School of Education and Human Development
Testing Eﬀect Task & Procedures
•Participants completed a Japanese vocabulary learning task during which EEG data was recorded using an ActiChamp system with 32 Ag/AgCl
electrode cap (ActiCap)."
•The Japanese vocabulary task consisted of 60 Japanese nouns and their English translations. Participants were exposed to both conditions—30
translation pairs and 30 multiple choice questions—for re-study 3 times."
•Participants’ learning was assessed by a test 5 minutes after the
learning task and again 1 week later.
•There is no consensus on the relation between
stressors and cognition in educational settings."
•Among Latinx college students, race-based
stressors can be motivating factors in academic
performance, but research also indicates those
stressors may obstruct cognitive performance."
•We can investigate underlying cognitive
processes for students who report having
experienced race-based stressors by
measuring EEG during a learning task.
•This study aims to establish relations between
race-based stress, the feedback related
negativity (FRN) and the late positive potential
(LPP) as measured during a testing eﬀect
language learning task among students who
report experiencing race-based stressors."
•83 undergraduate students (Mage = 19.96, SDage =
•73.5% female, 21.7% male, 3.6% non-
conforming, 1.2% questioning"
•57.8% Latinx, 42.2% White"
•All participants reported not knowing Japanese.
•FRN: 300ms to 500ms after performance
•Associated with feedback valence: negative
feedback > positive feedback."
•LPP: 500ms to 1000ms after learning feedback"
•Thought to indicate attention to emotional
stimuli and memory encoding.
•Minority status stress did not mediate or
moderate the relationship between test
performance and either the FRN or LPP."
•There was a signiﬁcant relation between
testing eﬀect and the LPP diﬀerence wave for
only the Latinx sample. Yet, the LPP during
incorrect trials was not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent
from correct trials."
•There was no signiﬁcant relation between the
testing eﬀect and the LPP diﬀerence wave for
White participants, but their LPP during
incorrect trials was signiﬁcantly larger than
during correct trials. "
•The FRN diﬀerence relates to overall test
performance among White participants only,
with larger diﬀerences between positive and
negative feedback related to worse task
•On average, White participants reported fewer (M =
0.62) instances of Minority status stress than Latinx
participants (M = 2.49), F(1, 79) = 102.3, p < .001.
Testing Task Results
•Testing eﬀect was present such that both groups remembered signiﬁcantly more
test words than study words 1-week later (p’s < .001)"
•Only Latinx had a signiﬁcant interaction indicating that performance between
both conditions was larger at 1-week (~8%) than at 5-minutes (~4%), F(1, 47) =
5.35, p < .05."
•Visual inspection indicated an FRN at Fz after receiving negative feedback and
an LPP at Pz after receiving learning feedback for both correct and incorrect
•No signiﬁcant diﬀerence in the FRN when examined by race or gender."
•Signiﬁcant diﬀerence between LPP such that White participants had larger LPP
at Pz, F(1,81) = 7.24, p < .01, and also larger diﬀerence between LPP during
correct and incorrect trials with LPP after incorrect trials being greater.
Testing Eﬀect Predicts LPP for Latinx
•Testing eﬀect was a signiﬁcant predictor of LPP
diﬀerence waves only for Latinx participants, F(1,
46) = 6.41, p < .05."
•Larger LPP diﬀerence waves correlates with
stronger testing eﬀect.
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Testing Overall Performance Diff
FRN Diff at Fz
•Findings indicate associations between
learning and both the FRN and LPP."
•At the moment it is diﬃcult to provide any
context as to why these diﬀerences exist."
•One possible reason could be language skills.
Multilingualism does explain some diﬀerences
above and beyond race."
•This may be in part because the task involves
language learning or because speaking
multiple languages has been associated with
cognitive control in the form of inhibition and
•These analyses are part of a larger eﬀort to
examine a range of race-based stressors
including experiences with racial
microaggressions and acculturative stress."
•Further investigation is needed to assess if
these relations are a function of attention and/
or aﬀective processes related to learning and
Region of Interest
Feedback Related Negativity (FRN)
Late Positive Potential (LPP)