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Comparative Histology and Histometry of the Renal Capsule in Dromedary She Camel (Camelus dromedarius), Cow (Bos indicus) and Ewe (Ovis aires)

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Abstract

Kidneys from adult she camels, cows and ewes (eight from each) were investigated using histologic and histometric techniques to study the renal capsule. The capsule in the kidney of the three species was made up of two layers, outer and inner. The outer layer of the renal capsule was composed mainly of dense collagenous fibres arranged in wavy bundles. The outer layer was the thicker in she camel (396 µm) as compared to cow (39 µm) and ewe (36 µm). The outer layer represented about 82% of the total thickness of the capsule in she camel and cow whereas it was only 37% in ewe. The inner layer in the three species was mainly formed of smooth muscle fibers, and fine collagen and reticular fibres. The reticular fibres in the inner layer of the renal capsule were markedly extensive in ewe and cow compared to she camel. Smooth muscle fibres formed a distinct thick layer in ewe and a thin one in cow; however, in her camel they were randomly distributed. No elastic fibres were present in all capsules studied. The inner layer was observed to be thick in ewe as it constituted about 63% (61.2 µm) of the total thickness of the capsule compared to only 18% in both cow (8.4 µm) and she camel (84.3 µm). The study revealed that the renal capsule was thickest in she camel (480.4 µm) compared to ewe (97.5 µm) and cow (47.3 µm). It is concluded that the renal capsules of she camel, cow and ewe showed remarkable variation in thickness as well as the amount of the histological components. It is suggested that such variation might influence the function of the renal capsule.
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Morphological characteristics of the kidneys in the two-humped camels were investigated using the anatomical and histological methods. The 2 kidneys in the camel contributed about 0.6% of the body weight. The ratio of thickness of the renal medulla to the cortex was 4:1, which indicated that Henle’s loops in camel’s kidneys were very long. In cortex, there were more juxtamedullary nephrons and mid-cortical nephrons which had longer Henle’s loops. Proximal convoluted tubules were far longer than the distal ones. In the outer medullary zone, the vasa recta were grouped obviously into specific vascular bundles which alternated with the bundles of Henle’s loops and collecting tubules. The inner medullary zone was thicker than the outer one. Specialised fornices were formed by projecting of either side of the pelvis and extended between renal pyramids to medullary outer zone where second pyramids clearly occurred. The characteristics above showed that kidneys in bactrian camels possessed a strong reabsorption and hence promoting the production of high concentrated urine.
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