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Online learning attitudes and basic computer literacy of teacher education students

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Abstract

div> This study was conducted to evaluate the online learning attitudes and the basic computer literacy of the College of Teacher Education of the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College, Philippines during the school year 2021 - 2022. The descriptive survey method that employed inferential statistics with a self-constructed questionnaire as the data gathering instrument with a reliability coefficient of 0.83. Total enumeration was used with 351 respondents. The findings revealed that the majority are females, they are in their first year, pursuing a degree in secondary education, lived in rural areas, and belonged to low-income families. Most of them were using smartphones, prepaid cards for their internet subscription which they sometimes experienced high-frequency signals, and were very proficient in their basic computer literacy. Along with cognition, students often experienced difficulties focusing their minds. The main problems in affective were feelings of isolation and lack of interaction. The psychomotor attitudes arise from the elimination of the actual practice. The income of parents and the location of the residence are factors in online resources. The variables in the online resources can affect their attitudes toward learning. Keywords : Learning attitudes, Online resources, Computer literacy, Learning attitudes </div
Premiere Educandum: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar dan Pembelajaran
Volume 12 (1) 106 124 June 2022
ISSN: 2088-5350 (Print) / ISSN: 2528-5173 (Online)
Doi: 10.25273/pe.v12i1.12883
The article is published with Open Access at: http://e-journal.unipma.ac.id/index.php/PE
Online learning attitudes and basic computer literacy of
teacher education students
Joel Cayabyab Ferrer , Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College
Joy C. Corres, Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College
joelferrer1970@gmailcom
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the online learning attitudes and the basic
computer literacy of the College of Teacher Education of the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College,
Philippines during the school year 2021 - 2022. The descriptive survey method employed
inferential statistics with a self-constructed questionnaire as the data gathering instrument with a
reliability coefficient of 0.83. Total enumeration was used with 351 respondents. The findings
revealed that the majority are females, they are in their first year, pursuing a degree in secondary
education, lived in rural areas, and belonged to low-income families. Most of them were using
smartphones, prepaid cards for their internet subscription which they sometimes experienced
high-frequency signals, and were very proficient in their basic computer literacy. Along with
cognition, students often experienced difficulties focusing their minds. The main problems in
affective were feelings of isolation and lack of interaction. The psychomotor attitudes arise from the
elimination of the actual practice. The income of parents and the location of the residence are
factors in online resources. The variables in the online resources can affect their attitudes toward
learning.
Keywords: Learning attitudes, Online resources, Computer literacy, Learning attitudes
Received 15 June 2022; Accepted 28 June 2022; Published 30 June 2022
Citation: Ferrer, J. C. & Corres, J.C. (2022). Online learning attitudes and basic computer literacy of
teacher education students. Premiere Educandum : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar dan Pembelajaran,
12(1), 106 124. Doi.org/10.25273/pe.v12i1.12883
Published by Universitas PGRI Madiun. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-
ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Ferrer & Corres
107
INTRODUCTION
The world was caught unprepared due to the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. It has a
deep impact on many aspects of life, such as work, leisure time, the daily basic activities of
normal life, the economy, and much worst, the health of the people was even com-
promised including the established practices in the educational system.
For the education sector, the drastic change of mode of learning from face-to-face to
remote learning, online learning, modular learning, and/or flexible learning, whatever the
authorities call it, what is clear is that the absence of physical contact in the teaching and
learning process created big challenges. It is, however, lamenting to note that the training
of teachers along with the new skill requirements in pursuing the different modes of
teaching efficiently and effectively, through online learning was seemingly inadequate due
to the strict health care protocols. Therefore, the theory which was endorsed by
Archimedes which in part states the really ‘… water seeks its level”, i.e., inadequate
training received by teachers in using the new mode of teaching, has resulted in a more
questionable quality of learning from the learners along with the three domains of
learning in all levels of the educational system. As stipulated by (Ferrer, 2021) the
knowledge and abilities of students, particularly how they organize and conduct the
teaching-learning process, reflect the type of institution they came from and the type of
instructors who imparted the information to them.
As a result, paradigm adjustments in the teaching and learning processes in Philip-
pine higher education demanded collaboration and strengthening among stakeholders.
The initial step of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) adopted and implemented
Commission en Banc, Resolution No. 412-2020 regarding the Guidelines on Flexible
Learning for private and public Higher Educational Institutions. With the given resolution,
an institution may adopt an innovative model of learning relative to its present situation.
However, it was clearly stated to have a flexible modality in the teaching-learning process.
On the other hand, UNICEF expressed that “schools must be the last to be closed and first
to be opened”. This statement reminds us that institutions of learning should continue to
deliver their mandate to educate the citizenry despite pandemics. One way to come up
with a policy on the changes in the curriculum, an institution may articulate and innovate
changes in the curriculum by assessing the learning experiences of the students during
this pandemic. In the same instance, (Galang, 2021) specified that in the new normal
classes, schools need varied changes such as in the curriculum and instruction, teacher,
leadership, and engagement or participation that is adaptive and flexible.
In online learning, one of the basic requirements is to have an internet connection.
However, the internet connection signal may vary from location. In Canada, (Sawada et al.,
2006) remote or isolated places do not have broadband internet access. This situation
does not only affect the speed of the internet signal but rather no signal at all. With these,
we can say that location may affect the internet activity of the people. With the given
premise, we are sure that this is not only true in Canada, likewise in Romania (Voineagu et
al., 2016), which found out there were few numbers computers in rural areas due to low
income, lack of access to the new method of marketing tools and mindsets,
In far-flung areas where geographical locations contribute to many problems such
as lack of internet facilities, different mindsets of the people on how ICT improves their
lives, where landline services could not be reached, and where cellphones were used
usually used for social interaction and not for work purposes (Alampay, 2006) confirmed
that due to these reasons, people preferred to have a “prepaid load” as their mode of
payment to access internet signals where they find more affordable and convenient for
them to transact.
On the use of modern devices or gadgets used during online activities, Ally & Wark
(2018) confirmed that mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are commonly
Ferrer & Corres
108
used technology among higher education students in conducting online classes that even
provide the continuity of formal learning. In all aspects of education today, Neffati et al.
(2021) likewise confirmed that the use of smartphones become widely accepted. To
(Setyawan et al., 2020) another problem was reflected in the online classes, this is the
incompatibility of gadgets used.
In the basic curriculum of Information Technology, word processing is the major
topic. According to Bujdoso (2011), word processing is one of the most prevalent activities
undertaken by computer users which includes the editing of text which is also popular.
However, PDF files are primarily used for viewing and preserving document formats and
not for editing purposes and can be easy to access and read. According to (Barrett, 2000),
converting a PDF to a word document or vice-versa is suitable for high school and older
students. Relative thereto, Buzdar et al. (2016) stipulated that students' preparedness to
embrace a digital learning strategy is linked to their success in online learning settings.
Nowadays, because most classes are held online, Lari (2014) revealed that students
taught utilizing a video projector and a PowerPoint presentation performed better than
those taught using traditional techniques such as the usage of books. In addition, the use of
tables, graphs and charts, and other graphical representation. Escalona (2019) revealed
that it can help students better and clearer understanding of the lesson in the school and
can even enhance motivation and promotes retention of learning.
On the cognitive aspects of learning, Chua & Luyun (2019) highlighted that online
learning has a negative impact if it is not given enough attention owing to the significant
cognitive load caused by the incorrect design of online learning activities. Parallel to this
(Ginns & Leppink, 2019) the students' learning has a negative effect when the cognitive
load or working memory is overburdened by conflicting demands of various processes.
Thus, this research primarily determines the extent of compliance with the
requirements of online teaching and learning in the end because of assessing statistically
how those identified variables affect the implementation of the attitudes of learning such
as cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Thus, provide empirical data that might
investigate and create learning modalities that will suit the present situation of our
institution from the traditional to flexible teaching and learning alternatives.
Further, the result of this study will likewise give information specifically to
instructions and research. The school administrators, faculty members, and curriculum
planners will benefit from the results of this study. It is from the actual survey of the
educational environment, and the feedback from the respondents that a planner can
design and introduce the most acceptable revisions in the policies and standards of a
program, specifically in the curriculum content.
METHODS
Research Design
The study used the descriptive method of research as it attempts to determine the profile
of respondents, the online resources and information, and the learning attitudes of
students such as the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Specifically, the study also
employed the correlational method to determine the relationship between the, a) profile
and the online resources and information; b) profile and the learning attitudes; and c)
learning attitudes and the online resources and information.
Participants
The study involved all students of the College of Teacher Education students from the first
year up to the fourth year taking up the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED),
Bachelor of Technology and Livelihood Education (BTLED), and Bachelor of Secondary
Education with different specializations such English, Filipino, Mathematics, Science, and
Ferrer & Corres
109
Social Studies of the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College Main Campus, Academic year
2021 - 2022. Total enumeration was considered with 351 students.
Data Gathering
The primary tool used in the study is a self-constructed survey questionnaire with a
reliability coefficient of 0.83. The survey questionnaire consists of three parts. Part I of the
questionnaire is the profile of the respondents such as the course, curriculum year, sex,
location, and combined monthly income of parents. Part II is the online learning
resources/information which includes, a) gadgets/devices used, b) internet subscription,
c) availability of the frequency/internet signal, and d) commonly used basic digital
literacy. Part III is the attitudes of learning such as the cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor. The questionnaire was sent to the respondents through a google form. In
cases where internet connectivity is a concern, the researchers personally distributed a
hard copy of the questionnaire. The constructed questionnaire was validated by experts.
However, to test the reliability, the said questionnaire was floated to another campus that
acted as try-out respondents. Before the questionnaire was distributed/sent through
google forms, the researchers sought permission through channels and the proper
coordination with the head of the department was done.
Data Treatment
The data collected were tabulated and analyzed as bases for interpretation. Frequency
counting, percentages, weighted means, and Pearson “r” were the statistical tools
employed.
RESULTS
Table I presents the profile of the respondents along the course, curriculum year, sex,
location of the residence, and the combined monthly income of parents.
It is noticeable that out of 351 students of the College of Teacher Education (CTE)
was dominated by the students taking up Bachelor in Secondary Education (BSED) with
178 or 51%, followed by the Bachelor in Elementary Education (BEED) with 102 or 29%
and Bachelor in Technology and Livelihood Education (BTLED) with 74 or 20%. The BSED
program comprises different majors/specializations offered such as majors in Math,
Science, English, Social Studies, and Filipino.
A large number of enrollees in the third year would imply that adding the number of
students enrolled in the different specializations would simply consist of a greater number
of enrollees as compared to the BEED and BTLED programs. When students were asked
why they wanted to take up secondary education, their common answer was it is difficult
to teach the elementary pupils compared to high school students, and it’s their personal
choice to enroll in the BSED or BTLED programs. In the study by (Rico-Briones & Bueno,
2019) that students today play a significant in their decision-making process.
The data on curriculum year reveals that many of the student-respondents were in
the first year with 123 or 35%, followed by the second year with 81 or 23% while the
third with 78 or the third year got the lowest enrolment with 69 or 20%.
As shown on the said table along “curriculum year” there was an increase in the
number of students in the fourth year with 78 or 22% compared to the third-year college.
The increase of students would imply that those who stopped during the previous
semesters/school year continued their studies at present.
The distribution of sex shows a remarkable difference between the number of male
and female student-respondents. There are 66 or 19% of males as against the 285 or 81%
females. This manifest and overwhelming acceptance that the teaching profession attracts
more females rather than males.
Ferrer & Corres
110
As to the number of enrollees in tertiary education, the Commission on Higher
Education (CHED) data in the Philippines as of October 2020 showed that there were 1,
870, 291 female students as compared to 1, 538, 134 male students. It is expected
however that up to the present, it can still be said that students in tertiary education in the
Philippines are dominated by the female group.
As revealed in the same table along “location”, most of the student-respondents
live in a place or barangay near the town with 235 or 67% followed by 62 or 18% who
lived in a place/barangay located in an urban place or city. This manifested that in terms
of geographical location, most of them can access the internet signal. On the other hand, 54
or 15% of the student-respondents who lived in mountainous places have a problem with
the internet signal in which we all know that the signal in the interior community of
mountainous places may have slow speed/signal due to geographical barriers.
TABLE 1. Profile of the respondents
Course
F
%
BEED
102
29
BSED
178
51
BTLED
74
20
Total
351
100
Curriculum Year
First
123
35
Second
81
23
Third
69
20
Fourth
78
22
Total
351
100
Sex
Male
66
19
Female
285
81
Total
351
100
Location
Barangay in an Urban/City
62
18
Barangay in a Rural/Town
235
67
Barangay in an Interior
Community/Mountainous Place
54
15
Total
351
100
Combine Monthly Income of Parents
Below 10,000
265
75
10,001 20, 000
50
14
20, 001 30, 000
25
7
30, 001 40, 000
5
1
40, 001 50, 000
3
.8
50, 001 60, 000
2
.5
60, 001 70, 000
0
70, 001 80, 000
1
.2
80, 001, and above
0
Total
351
100
The combined monthly income of parents falls below Php. 10 000.00 with 265 or
75%. This indicates that this amount shows that students belonged to low-income
families. Since poverty remains a persistent fact of life not only in poor countries but also
in rich countries. It is surprising that despite having a low income, their parents still send
their children to school. It can be said that this might be the best gift that they can give to
their children and finish a college degree. Parents feel that obtaining a better education
will provide them with possibilities to have a better future and finally pull them out of
poverty. Access to education is likewise the best that a nation can give to its citizenry. In
the Philippines, the basic and tertiary/college education in public schools is free. Just like
Ferrer & Corres
111
other countries, Philippines likewise identified that education is a significant factor in
economic progress.
Table 2 presents the gadgets/devices used by the student-respondents in online
learning. It is noted on the said table that most of them, 315 or 89.7% used
cellphones/smartphones.
It is not surprising that most of the respondents used cell phones/smartphones the
fact that before the pandemic most of them have already these kinds of gadgets. Using or
acquiring other gadgets such as laptops/computers would be considered another expense
the fact that the combined monthly income of their parents in this study as shown in the
previous table was below Php. 10, 000.00. According to Akpan (2017), students used cell
phones because it is convenient for them, they love to interact with, and it is affordable to
purchase. College students today as stipulated by Lepp (2014) are one of the first
generations of young people raised as users and rapid users of cell phone technology in
this digital era and aside from using it in their studies, students used it for their leisure
which would drive this leisure for their studies. For (Asio et al., 2021) smartphone ranks
first on the list of learning gadgets available to college learners.
TABLE 2. Description of gadgets/devices used in online learning
F
%
315
89.7
2
0.6
24
6.8
10
2.9
351
100
Table 3 shows the kind of subscription used by the students to access any
information specifically on their online learning. As shown in the table, out of 351
students, 255 or 72.65% or a majority of them have a “prepaid card/load for their
connection”, and some had a “monthly subscription” with 61 or 17.4% while only a few
were connected to the free internet of the barangay.
Since most of them are using cell phones, this may conclude that to access the
internet connection, students preferred a pre-paid card/load. This result would simply
agree with the idea of Arthur & Brafi (2013) that the cost of accessing the internet
connection is expensive. In the same vein, students only open their internet connection if
they need to use it, that is why they chose to have a prepaid internet load. On the other
hand, the use of a laptop or personal computer as explained by Sarkar et al. (2021) had
higher favorable attitudes toward online learning than those who are using mobile
phones.
TABLE 3. Internet subscription
Statements
F
%
I have my monthly subscription (postpaid)
61
17.4
I use a prepaid card/load for my connection
255
72.6
I am connected to the internet of our neighbors
29
8.2
I am connected to the free internet of the barangay/municipality
during my scheduled online learning
6
1.8
Total
351
100
Table 4 presents the data on the availability of internet signal/frequency in our
place. It is noticeable that 165 or 47% of students experienced the signal/frequency
“sometimes with high frequency but not available all the time” followed by “often available
with high frequency” with 87 or 25% of the students experiencing this type of signal and
Ferrer & Corres
112
some students with 22 or 6% of them experienced “always available with high frequency
and despite some problems in their signal, this can be concluded that students can access
or attend their online classes.
The strong or weak connectivity/internet signal as postulated by (Sawada et al.,
2006), can be traced or vary from location and this may affect the speed internet signal.
The problems with internet signals are not only happening in the Philippines but also
other rich countries. Further, the speed of the internet that can be accessed by certain
students or internet subscribers depends on the amount a certain subscriber has paid. The
bigger the amount/subscription being paid, the fastest the speed. However, if the bulk of
the students as mentioned by (Sarkar et al., 2021) could not access the internet due to
technical and monetary problems, online learning could not get its desired learning
outcomes. With a poor internet connection, everyday work can be disrupted and may
leave students having online classes academically behind. Moreover, students cannot
access online learning if there is no signal no matter how advanced their cell phone or
computer.
TABLE 4. Availability of internet /frequency signal in our place
Statements
F
%
Always Available with high frequency
22
6
Often available with high frequency
87
25
Sometimes with high frequency but not available all the time
165
47
Seldom high with intermittent/irregular frequency
8
2.2
Poor Connectivity
68
19.4
No Trace of Internet signal at all time
1
0.4
Total
351
100
TABLE 5. Basic computer literacy
Statements
Mean
Description
1. Ability to use a word processing program
3.60
Very Proficient
2. Ability to format/edit documents
3.71
Very Proficient
3. Ability to create tables
3.49
Very Proficient
4. Ability to create shapes/Smart Art’s/charts/graph
3.39
Proficient
5. Ability to create a PowerPoint presentation
3.73
Very proficient
6. Ability to create/use basic functions in excel (row/column
/formula)
3.24
Proficient
7. Ability to convert word documents to PDF files or vice versa
3.55
Very Proficient
8. Ability to download and upload documents/assignments in
the email/google
3.83
Very proficient
9. Ability to navigate the internet and conduct searches
3.09
Proficient
Grand Mean
3.51
Very Proficient
Legend: Proficient 2.61-3.40; Very Proficient- 3.41-4.20
The knowledge of the basic computer digital literacy of the students is presented in
Table 5. As shown in the said table their digital literacy, in summary, are “very proficient”
with 3.51 as the mean rating. The student-respondents are naturally knowledgeable in
applying these skills. This only shows that these skills were taught and practiced during
high school years and followed up in their basic courses/subject during their succeeding
years in college. With these results, we can conclude that this will help the students to be
prepared for their life beyond higher education and might serve them well in their chosen
careers.
Since most of the classes are conducted online, students are very much attuned and
knowledgeable in using basic digital literacy skills. With their experiences in online
learning, the academic experience was more important than technical experiences in
digital literacy competency. Buzdar et al. (2016) specified that students' preparedness to
Ferrer & Corres
113
embrace a digital learning strategy is linked to their success in online learning settings.
Parallel to this, (Deursen et al., 2017) that people who lack one type of digital skill may
consequently lack another skill. They likewise concluded that a lack of digital skills leads
to a lack of interaction with the internet, which reduces the possibility of an individual
attaining real results.
It is said that to develop the learners in their totality, they should be taught to
improve the domains in learning such as the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
Table 6 presents their attitudes cognitively in their online learning. The findings in
the table showed that student-respondents are sometimes affected cognitively in their
online classes and this is shown in the result with a grand mean of 3.08, described as
“sometimes”. However, items 5, 6, and 7 got a mean rating of 3.45, 3.44, and 3.443
respectively, all described as “often.” These three items are related to describing a
situation in their mental aspects such as difficulties in focusing the mind, preoccupied
mind, and mentally blocked.
On the cognitive aspects of learning, Chu (2014) explained that the negative impact
of online learning can be attributed to the cognitive load caused by the inappropriate
online learning activities. Concerning this, the number of challenges confronted by the
students in attending their online classes according to Malik & Javed (2021) can increase
the level of stress among the students and prolonged stress over time can affect their
academic performance, mental, and physical health. Contrary to the findings, Heersmink
(2016) argued that the existing empirical data in cognitive psychology does not support
strong conclusions concerning the Internet's adverse effects on memory. He added that
ecologically-valid evidence is needed before giving a judgment that really, online learning
has a negative effect.
TABLE 6. Cognitive attitudes
Statements
Mean
DR
1. Discussions were more on receptivity rather than creativity
2.94
Sometimes
2. Presentation of concepts appeals only to limited senses (e.g.,
hearing)
3.0
Sometimes
3. Limited validation by the teachers concerning the
understanding of concepts by the students.
2.89
Sometimes
4. There was a decrease in the accumulation of learning.
2.97
Sometimes
5. Difficulties in focusing the mind or paying attention to the
requirements that need to be completed due to some
environmental distractions at home.
3.45
often
6. My mind is preoccupied or loaded with activities to think
about and finish.
3.44
often
7. I feel mentally blocked.
3.41
often
8. I am free to learn progress through the topics/lessons at my
pace of learning
2.87
Sometimes
9. I am encouraged to direct my responsibility or become
independent of my learning.
2.74
Sometimes
Grand Mean
3.08
Sometimes
Legend: Sometimes- 2.61 3.40; Often 3.41 4.20 .
Table 7 presents the affective sides experienced by the students in their online
learning. As shown in said table, it can be concluded that most of the students' affective
attitudes are often affected by their online classes. As indicated in criteria number 2
“Reflective, abstract, and creative thinking are difficult to develop”, criteria number 3
“Appreciation and analysis are difficult to develop (e.g., Desirable emotional outcomes),
and criteria 6 “I feel a lack of interaction and isolation” were all “often” affected with a
descriptive rating of 3.45, 3.44 and 3.41 respectively. The said findings can be attributed to
students’ motivation and discipline, accountability, and responsibility for learning. Parallel
to the findings, affective domains must be taught with compassion, honesty, motivation,
Ferrer & Corres
114
confidence, communication, time management, teamwork, advocacy, and respect (Mirza
& Mahboob, 2021) Moreover, (Bali & Musrifah, 2020) emotional aspects of the
students that are affected are related to student learning interests, the implication of
honesty, and a sense of responsibility.
TABLE 7. Affective attitudes
Statements
Mean
DR
1. Stimulus-response is too difficult to establish
2.75
Sometimes
2. Reflective, abstract, and creative thinking are difficult to
develop
3.46
often
3. Appreciation and analysis are difficult to develop (e.g.
Desirable emotional outcomes)
3.44
often
4. Assessment of the readiness of senses to accumulate learning
is limited
2.88
Sometimes
5. I become quickly irritated or upset.
2.90
Sometimes
6. I feel a lack of interaction and isolation.
3.41
often
7. I am relaxed and become an active learner.
2.94
Sometimes
8. I have developed self-discipline.
3.11
Sometimes
9. I am confident enough in handling my work.
2.45
sometimes
Grand Mean
3.03
Sometimes
Legend: Sometimes- 2.61 3.40; Often 3.41 4.20
Table 8 reveals the psychomotor attitudes in learning. As indicated in the said table,
item number 1 “online learning eliminates actual practice and motor coordination got the
highest mean of 4.0 described as “often” and followed by item number 3 “outcomes of
skills and habits cannot be measured immediately as in actual practice” with a mean of
3.50 described as often”, and the grand mean fall within the range of 2.94 described as
“sometimes”. The findings corroborate with the result in the study of (Seymour-Walsh et
al., 2020) that the psychomotor domain is easy to teach in face-to-face classes. The
problem with the implementation of the psychomotor domain as found out by Bali &
Musrifah (2020) is the application of the assessment of student skills.
TABLE 8. Psychomotor attitudes
Statements
Mean
DR
1. Online learning eliminates actual practice and motor
coordination
4.0
often
2. Limited explanation on how to relate symbols with meaning
2.90
Sometimes
3. Outcomes of skills and habits cannot be measured
immediately as in actual practice.
3.50
often
4. Manipulative skills/abilities have limited use/relevance in
online teaching and learning due to the needed application
for counterchecking.
2.93
Sometimes
5. Actual usage of tools and equipment is eliminated in online
learning
2.93
Sometimes
Grand Mean
2.94
Sometimes
Legend: Sometimes- 2.61 3.40; Often 3.41 4.20
Table 9 presents the relationship between the profile variables and the devices
used in online learning. It can be gleaned that profile variables were significantly
correlated to a location with -0.52 (r) “moderate correlation” and income with 0.98 (r)
“very high correlation”. It can be said that since schools could no longer avoid conducting
classes online and students could no longer use just an ordinary cellphone today the fact
that during online classes most of them stayed in their houses/residences where a location
can be one of the factors. However, the use and purchase of smartphones and laptops can
Ferrer & Corres
115
be easily produced by the parents if income is not limited. This is supported by the idea of
Talandron-Felipe (2020) that geographic location and income are both aspects of
ownership that could affect internet access and can even be factors to own online devices.
According to Konstan et al. (2012) low-income families often share technology devices.
The gap between those with or without the Internet such as affordability, quality, and
access or the so-called digital divides experienced by the whole world according to
Mubarak et al. (2020) is significantly caused by income.
TABLE 9. Relationship between the profile and the devices used in online learning
Profile of the Respondents
r- value
Relationship
Course
-.031
No relationship
Year
0.06
No relationship
Sex
0.10
No relationship
Location of Residence
-0.52
Moderate Relationship
Monthly Income of Parents
0.98
Very high relationship
Legend: Moderate - +- 0.40 0.69; Very High +- 0.90-1.0
A thorough grasp of Table 10 shows that out of the five (5) pairings done, there were
two (2) found to be significantly correlated to internet subscription such as the monthly
income of parents and location of residence both with “r” value of 0.99 marked as a “very high
relationship. This implies that these two variables lead to the idea that location can identify if a
specific place can be reachable by an internet signal and if it is reachable, how much are you
going to pay for a subscription. (Agarwal et al., 2005) stipulated that those who are living
nearby urban/city or nearby internet sites have a direct impact on every individual to go
online. Consequently, living nearby rural and city does not mean that internet access is no
longer a problem, this is still dependent on the subscription rate. As explained by (Reddick et
al., 2020) that socioeconomic status such as low-income families noticeably subscribes lower
internet speed due to its affordability. In the same vein, a household with a higher income
(Hatfield et al., 2003) preferred a high-speed internet connection.
TABLE 10. Relationship between the profile and internet subscriptions
Profile of the Respondents
r- value
Relationship
Course
0.09
No relationship
Curriculum Year
-0.02
No relationship
Sex
0.10
No relationship
Location of Residence
0.99
Very high Relationship
Monthly Income of Parents
0.99
Very High relationship
Legend: Very High +- 0.90-1.0
TABLE 11. Relationship between the profile and availability of internet signal in our place
Profile of the Respondents
r- value
Relationship
Course
-0.11
No relationship
Curriculum Year
-0.17
No relationship
Sex
0.10
No relationship
Location of Residence
0.57
High Relationship
Monthly Income of Parents
-0.18
No relationship
Legend: High +- 0.70-0.89
The relationship between the profile variables and the availability of
frequency/internet signal in our place is shown in Table 11. As presented in the said
table, it shows that only “location” with an “r” value of .57 is significantly correlated
marked with “high correlation”. This implies that the availability of internet signals may
vary in a different geographical location. The internet speed may fluctuate if users move or
Ferrer & Corres
116
change locations/directions which may also depend on the coverage areas and barriers of
a certain location. The difficulties in obtaining/finding internet signals and/or limited
internet access according to Simamora (2020) are caused by geographical location and
financial aspects.
Table 12 shows the relationship of the profile variables to the basic digital literacy
skills of the students in which in this study digital literacy skills refers to the use of
Microsoft applications. As noted, there was no relationship between the profile variables
and the basic digital literacy skills. This finding implies that regardless of their status such
as in their degree programs, curriculum year, gender, residential location, and economic
aspects do not hinder learning the basic digital skills needed in the conduct of online
classes. It also connotes that the students today are considered the millennial generations
who have grown up with the influence of modern information technology and the constant
impact of the internet. Further, Shopova (2014) explained that for the students to
efficiently and effectively enhance the learning process, their digital skills and competence
should be developed for them to adjust to the changing labor market. However, (Meyers et
al., 2013) to be digitally literate includes concerns such as intellectual ability, security,
privacy, creativity, and ethical accountability for the use and re-use of digital media.
TABLE 12. Relationship between the profile and basic digital literacy
Profile of the Respondents
r- value
Relationship
Course
0.20
No relationship
Curriculum Year
0.12
No relationship
Sex
0.01
No relationship
Location of the residence
0.189
No Relationship
Combined Monthly Income of
Parents
0.18
No relationship
TABLE 13. Relationship between the profile and the learning attitudes
Learning Attitudes
Profile of the
Respondents
r - value
Relationship
Cognitive
Course
0.07
No relationship
Year
0.05
No relationship
Sex
0.10
No relationship
Location
0.19
No Relationship
Income
0.16
No relationship
Affective
Course
0.05
No relationship
Year
-0.05
No relationship
Sex
0.01
No relationship
Location
0.07
No Relationship
Income
0.13
No relationship
Psychomotor
Course
0.10
No relationship
Year
0.19
No relationship
Sex
0.07
No relationship
Location
0.01
No Relationship
Income
0.16
No relationship
The relationship between the profile variables and the attitudes of learning such as
the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor is shown in Table 13. All items listed in the
profile variables like course, curriculum year, sex, location of the residence, and combined
monthly income of parents were not found to be significantly correlated with the attitudes
toward learning. This may imply that the given profile variables do not influence or affect
any of the attitudes in learning. This study, further implies that the listed profile variables
Ferrer & Corres
117
are not factors that might intervene with the three domains of learning. Having the “no
relationship” between the given variables and the three domains of learning might
conclude the “self-efficiency” among the students. However, it can also be said that not all
students have high efficacy. In the study by Cahapay (2021) gender/sex and monthly
income had a substantial impact on self-efficacy.
Table 14 reveals the relationship between the online learning resources and the
cognitive attitudes. The table shows that all of the four items listed on the online learning
resources are found to be significantly correlated to the cognitive attitudes of the students.
As manifested in the table item number 3 “availability of the frequency/internet signal in
our place” and item number 2 “Online subscription” marked with a “high relationship and
with an “r” value of 0.74 and -0.71 respectively. The findings agree with the idea of
Mamolo (2022) that unstable and slow internet connections are some of the reasons why
it is difficult to attend and learn online classes. Item number 3 was marked as a “moderate
relationship” with an r” value of -.068 while item number is also correlated with an “r”
value of 0.30 marked as a “low relationship”. With the findings, it is concluded that online
learning resources have something to do with cognitive attitudes. How can students join
online classes without resources used such as devices, internet subscriptions, signals, and
digital literacy skills? How can teachers develop the cognitive aspects of the students in an
online class without those resources mentioned?
TABLE 14. Relationship between the online learning resources and cognitive attitudes
Online Learning Resources
r- value
Relationship
Devices Used in Online Learning
-0.68
Moderate relationship
Internet Subscription
-0.71
High relationship
Availability of the Frequency/Internet Signal in our
Place
0.74
High relationship
Basic Digital Literacy
0.30
Low relationship
Legend: Moderate - +- 0.40 0.69; High +- 0.70 0.89; Low +- 0.20 0.39
TABLE 15. Relationship between the online learning resources and affective attitudes
Online Learning Resources
r- value
Relationship
Devices Used in Online Learning
0.61
Moderate relationship
Online Subscription
-0.41
Moderate relationship
Availability of the Frequency/Internet Signal in our
Place
-0.31
Low relationship
Basic Digital Literacy
0.36
Low relationship
Legend: Moderate - +- 0.40 0.69; Low +- 0.20 0.39
Table 15 presents the relationship between the online learning resources and
affective attitudes. The table shows that the four items in online resources are
significantly correlated to the affective attitudes toward learning. Item numbers 1 and 2
were ‘moderately correlated” towards the affective attitudes in online learning with “r”
values of .61 and -0.41 respectively while item number 4 with 0.36 (r) and item number 3
with -0.31(r) were both marked as ‘low relationship. Thus, the resources mentioned can
influence the affective aspects of learning. The results also connote the findings of
Delicano (2021) that internet accessibility and subscription or connectivity including
financial constraints were among the downsides of online classes. It was also mentioned in
his study that the sudden shift in the mode of learning significantly affects the emotional
and mental conditions of the students.
The unexpected modification of learning due to Covid 19 according to Bali &
Musrifah (2020) greatly influences the affective domains of students learning like the
learning interests, the value of honesty, sense of responsibility, and discipline of students
in general. Considering this effect, according to Sari & Rahmah (2019) the conduct of
Ferrer & Corres
118
virtual learning can increase the cognitive domain; however, it does not follow an
increased result in the affective sides.
Table 16 shows the relationship between the online learning resources and
Psychomotor Attitudes. As indicated, item number 1 with -0.68 (r), item number 2 with
0.57 (r), and item number 3 with -0.45 (r) were all marked with a “moderate relationship”
while item number 4 with 0.26 (r) with a “low relationship” but still significantly
correlated. This means that online resources can affect and influence the psychomotor
attitudes of learning.
The three domains/attitudes in learning are the major factors in the teaching-
learning process. However, of the said domains (Apacible et al., 2018) stated that the
psychomotor domain is the most important since it analyzes how individual acts
depending on what he has learned. Relative thereto, (Mukhtar et al., 2020) stressed that
faculty members should learn other online modalities and instructional materials/devices
that can reduce cognitive load and should be more on interactive learning activities.
TABLE 16. Relationship between the online learning resources and psychomotor attitudes
Online Learning Resources
r- value
Relationship
1. Devices Used in Online Learning
-0.68
Moderate relationship
2. Internet Subscription
0.57
Moderate relationship
3. Availability of the Frequency/Internet Signal in our
Place
-0.45
Moderate relationship
4. Basic Digital Literacy
0.26
Low relationship
Legend: Moderate - +- 0.40 0.69; Low +- 0.20 0.39
DISCUSSIONS
The presence of a coronavirus led to a pandemic that haunted the whole world.
This pandemic has remarkably and continually affected the present status of the economy,
social and cultural practices, political decisions of the leaders, specifically the health and
lives of the people that should not be compromised, and even the established practices in
the educational policies practically on the teaching and learning process were also
drastically changed. Thus, the retrogressive and disastrous effects of this phenomenon on
the citizenry, young and old, employed or unemployed entrepreneur workers, rich or
poor, school administrators, teachers or students redound to the development of the
different modes of teaching the domains of learning in a manner which can safeguard the
health and welfare of the younger generation. As a result, the shift in the paradigm of the
teaching-learning processes.
As mentioned in the previous data, students' reasons for taking up a bachelor's
degree in secondary education "is their personal choice." Aside from this mentioned
reason, the study (Balyer & özcan, 2008) states that students selected teaching for
various unselfish reasons and intrinsic motivations. Since it is their personal choice, it can
be concluded that they considered teaching to be a socially valuable and vital job. Parallel
to this, students' decisions making, according to (Rico-Briones & Bueno, 2019) played
an essential role in choosing what they liked. As to the "curriculum year," many enrolled
students were in the first year of college. This can be attributed to the fact that first-year
students flock to attend state-owned colleges to avail themselves of free tertiary
education.
It was also found that more females were enrolled in the teacher education, which
implies it attracts females and is said to be a female-dominated profession. The female
group dominated data for students-enrollment in the year 2020, according to Commission
on Higher Education in the Philippines. Most students live where they can access an
internet signal, but those who live in mountainous places experience a slow speed of
internet signal. It can be explained that geographical location is a factor that affects the
speed of the internet that can even affect the activity of the students attending their online
classes. The speed may fluctuate because the signal varies depending on the coverage area.
Ferrer & Corres
119
Once it is difficult to access the internet or digital media devices, this may cause digital
divides or geographical isolation. Once this happens (Correa & Pavez, 2016) this
geographical isolation forms personalities and attitudes toward new experiences.
Moreover, (Alampay, 2006) explained that geographical location is an issue
specifically in remote places and contributes to various challenges such as a lack of
internet facilities and diverse people's perspectives on how ICT affects their life. Another
challenge confronting how they attend their online classes is the parents' income. In this
situation, parents find it challenging to buy gadgets for their children. However, as
stipulated by (Rajakumar et al., 2020) since modern e-gadgets are essential for the
student's academic life and become part of everyday life, it is also the buying pattern.
Further, to have this gadget, students emotionally blackmail their parents. It is interesting
to note that despite having low-income parents, they persist in sending their children to
school. It only shows that Filipinos give high value to education.
On top of the list of gadgets the students use are the cellphone/smartphones. It is
evident that before the start of the pandemic, students already had this gadget for their
entertainment used. For (Ally & Wark, 2018) the most commonly used gadget among
higher education students in online classes is the use of a cellphone. (Asio et al., 2021)
confirmed that smartphone ranks first on the list of learning gadgets used by college
students. (Gitumu Mugo et al., 2017) likewise agreed that the smartphone is the most
popular mobile device used today. In the same instance (Neffati et al., 2021) specified that
smartphones have become widely accepted. (Akpan, 2017), students use cell phones
because they are convenient, love interacting, and affordable. As specified by (Lepp, 2014),
in this digital era, young people are rapid users of cell phones. According to (Jacob et al.,
2008) the new breed of university students can easily connect to online classes using
technology and innovative mobile gadgets. However, compatibility is one of the problems
that confront students today in online classes' use of these gadgets.
Most students used the prepaid card for their internet subscription/connection. This
can be implied by the idea that having a monthly subscription is expensive considering the
low income of their parents. This result would agree with the idea of(Arthur & Brafi,
2013) that the cost of accessing the internet connection is expensive. In the same vein,
students only open their internet connection if they need to use it; that is why they choose
to have a prepaid internet load. (Stork et al., 2013) Prepaid mobile internet access gives
governmental initiatives to increase internet access for low-income families because it
requires less financial resources and does not rely heavily on electricity at home. With
these findings and observations, students in the Philippines usually buy prepaid cards and
register to a different network for their connections.
In the conduct of online classes, students experienced high frequency but were not
available all the time. According to (Sawada et al., 2006) the high and low internet signals
vary from location. At the same time, (Lakhal et al., 2017) mentioned it is true that
nowadays, it is vital to reduce education's reliance on location and time and promote
learning adaptability, but how we can arrive at the desired learning outcomes if students
cannot access the internet (Sarkar et al., 2021)
In terms of basic computer literacy, students are "very proficient." This implies that
students know how to use computer and application software for practical purposes.
Digital competency in learning is a significant factor in the success of online classes
(Buzdar et al., 2016). Although students have this literacy in computers, seemingly, it does
not solve the problem of students if they have learned in the conduct of online learning. In
the study of (Bacolod, 2022), it was revealed that both students and teachers still find
learning difficulties in their online classes, and this can be traced to their previous learning
environment, in which they got direct face-to-face instruction and were aided by the
teacher compared to the online learning which is most of the time is self -learning.
Students’ cognitive attitudes were affected by online learning. This cognitive aspect
described difficulties in focusing their mind, pre-occupied mind, and feeling blocked
Ferrer & Corres
120
mentally. The problems encountered by the students in their online classes, as explained
by ((Malik & Javed, 2021) can affect academic performance and mental and physical
health and increase stress among the students. Contrary to the findings (Ismail et al.,
2010) mobile learning can influence students' motivation, metacognition, and
psychological need fulfillment. In a different scenario, (Heersmink, 2016) specified that
strong judgments about the adverse effects of the internet on memory are not supported
by current empirical research in cognitive psychology.
The affective attitudes of the students are often affected by online learning, as
revealed in the results. In addition, the findings would agree on the definition as stated in
the taxonomy of objectives that affective attitudes of learning as defined in the teaching
and learning consist of the feeling, emotions, and attitudes of the learners, including values
and categorized into the five levels such as receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and
characterization. To that are the findings in the study by (Mirza & Mahboob 2021), in
which affective domains must be taught with compassion, honesty, motivation, confidence,
communication, time management, teamwork, advocacy, and respect. Similar to this is the
results in the study of (Bali & Musrifah, 2020) that affective and psychomotor domains
are concerned with how students learn, value honesty and accountability, and behave in
class.
The psychomotor domains of learning involve using motor skills, physical
movement, body coordination, and skills development measured in speed, distance,
procedure, accuracy, procedures, and techniques. The results revealed that "online
learning eliminates the actual practice and motor coordination. In the study of (Seymour-
Walsh et al. 2020), the psychomotor domain is easy to impart in face-to-face classes. The
findings also agree with Edgar Dale's cone of experience that "learners retain more
information by what they do, as opposed to what they heard or observed.”
Geographical location and income can affect the quality of internet access. According
to (Alampay, 2006), remote areas contribute to many challenges like lack of internet
facilities, different people's mindsets on how ICT improves their lives, where landline
services cannot be reached, and where cellphones are used for social interaction and not
for work purposes. The so-called "digital gaps," which affect everyone in the world and
include differences in access, cost, and quality of the internet, are primarily a result of
income, as explained by (Mubarak et al., 2020). Moreover, (Lu & Yu, 2009) states that
location significantly modifies the mobile data service acceptance model, and income
affects how mobile data service admission choices are made. To (Reddick et al., 2020) low-
income families, internet connection is noticeably slower because of its cost, while a
household with a higher income (Hatfield et al., 2003) subscribes to a high internet
connection(Simamora, 2020) geographical location and financial aspects contribute to
challenges in obtaining/finding quality internet signals.
There was no found relationship between the profile and basic digital computer
literacy and the relationship between the profile and the attitudes in learning. Regardless
of the profile of the respondents, such as their degree program, curriculum year, gender,
residential location, and economic status do not influence their basic computer/digital
literacy and learning attitudes.
The three (3) learning attitudes/domains in learning were found to be significantly
correlated to the online learning resources. The fundamental question is, "How can
teachers and students conduct online learning classes without these resources such as the
devices used, internet subscription, internet signal, and basic computer/digital
literacy?”As a result, the resources indicated can impact the emotional components of
learning. The findings also support the conclusions of (Delicano, 2021) that internet
access, subscription or connectivity, and budgetary restrictions were among the
disadvantages of online classes. His research also shows that abrupt changes in learning
mode substantially impact students' emotional and mental health. However, according to
the study by (Sari & Rahmah, 2019), the conduct of online learning can increase the
Ferrer & Corres
121
cognitive aspect but not the affective side in some instances. However, according to
(Apacible et al., 2018) the psychomotor domain is the most essential since it examines
how an individual responds based on what he has learned.
The study revolves around the following theories such as cognitive load (CLT), self-
determination (SDT), and progressivism. Students today are now overburdened with
learning activities in this online learning. In his cognitive load theory, John Sweller
suggests that human working memory can only contain a certain amount of knowledge at
any given moment, and instructional approaches should avoid overloading it to maximize
learning. Along the line of progressivism theory by John Dewey, this theory claims that
changes are a process of transformation, an unavoidable and lasting force like reality. In its
natural condition, progressivism believes that education is always in the process of
advancement and growth; hence, it must be prepared to adjust methods and policies to
correspond to new information, ideas, and changes in educational laws/policies. Edward
Deci and Richard Ryan introduced the self-determination theory. According to this theory,
the satisfaction of three primary intrinsic human psychological needs (autonomy,
competence, and relatedness) is required for healthy human functioning. Self-
determination theory (SDT) (Jones & Issroff, 2007)) is aided by m-learning. The usage of
mobile devices allows for student choice, which fosters feelings of accessibility, ownership,
enjoyment, and fulfillment.
CONCLUSION
The respondents manifest different backgrounds, they used smartphones and pre-
paid for their internet connections, and are proficient in applying their basic
computer/digital literacy. Students often experienced difficulties in focusing their minds
due to being mentally blocked, burdened with activities to think about and finish, feeling
of isolation and lack of interaction, and the elimination of actual practice which cannot be
measured immediately. The income of parents and the location of the residence are
factors in determining the online materials/resources used. The resources used in online
learning can affect/influence the attitudes of learning such as the cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor.
To ease the negative effects of online learning, teachers should be retooled to learn
and use various online modes of instruction, implement blended learning, comply with the
requirements/protocol to conduct face-to-face classes, and conduct stress debriefing
among teachers and students. Values must be taught with utmost concern.
Since the study is purely descriptive, it may also employ a qualitative part to
validate and accommodate other problems and issues that affect their learning attitudes.
Likewise, the said study may also correlate their grades to their attitudes in learning.
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PROFILE
Dr. Joel C. Ferrer is a lecturer at the College of Teacher Education and Graduate
School of the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College, Philippines. He has been in the academe
for more than two decades. His research interests include quantitative and qualitative
research on management and pedagogy.
Dr. Joy C. Corres is a lecturer at the College of Teacher Education of the Ilocos Sur
Polytechnic State College, Philippines. She has been in the academe for almost 10 years.
She is also a guest lecturer at the Universitas PGRI Madiun. She is an active researcher in
the field of mathematics and pedagogy.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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