Article

Learning by Expanding: An Activity-Theoretical Approach to Developmental Research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

First published in 1987, Learning by Expanding challenges traditional theories that consider learning a process of acquisition and reorganization of cognitive structures within the closed boundaries of specific tasks or problems. Yrjö Engeström argues that this type of learning increasingly fails to meet the challenges of complex social change and fails to create novel artifacts and ways of life. In response, he presents an innovative theory of expansive learning activity, offering a foundation for understanding and designing learning as a transformation of human activities and organizations. The second edition of this seminal text features a substantive new introduction that illustrates the development and implementation of Engeström's theory since its inception.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Ante esto, Engeström propone el concepto de aprendizaje expansivo, desde una postura que se denomina teoría de la actividad (Engeström, 1999a(Engeström, , 1999b(Engeström, , 2007(Engeström, , 2009(Engeström, , 2014a(Engeström, , 2014b(Engeström, , 2016. La teoría de la actividad surge de nociones filosóficas, nutridas posteriormente por nociones psicológicas. ...
... La teoría de la actividad surge de nociones filosóficas, nutridas posteriormente por nociones psicológicas. La complejidad de esta teoría y todos sus fundamentos es bastante extensa para ser expuesta aquí (Engeström, 2014b). No obstante, se hace referencia a algunos conceptos que permiten enmarcar la noción de aprendizaje expansivo. ...
... En un primer momento, los individuos cuestionan las dinámicas propias de su actividad. En la medida en que otros participantes se unen, se genera una red colaborativa que desemboca en la implementación de un nuevo modelo de actividad que implica a todos los miembros y elementos del sistema de actividad (Engeström, 2014b;Sannino et al., 2009b). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
La innovación educativa se genera a partir de procesos de investigación que se dirigen al mejoramiento de las condiciones para la educación. Entre la generación de la innovación y la adopción e impacto de esta, hay un elemento sin el cual la conexión no sería posible: la comunicación científica. Esta se da cuando los investigadores entregan los hallazgos a través de distintas formas, entre las que destaca el texto escrito. En las últimas décadas, las dinámicas en torno a la escritura, publicación y difusión de la producción científica se han transformado. En primer lugar, las instituciones generan políticas, lineamientos o normas en torno a la producción académica, acordes con las necesidades de reconocimiento e impacto. En segundo lugar, la llegada de la ciencia abierta que propone nuevas formas de difusión y de medición del impacto. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo examinar los procesos de escritura, publicación y difusión del texto científico en comunidades de práctica de investigadores educativos y su relación con las nuevas dinámicas que estos procesos adoptan por las exigencias de las instituciones de investigación y la llegada de la ciencia abierta. Desde esta exploración se busca identificar aspectos para fortalecer la producción científica. A partir de un enfoque cualitativo etnográfico se aplican entrevistas y se realiza análisis documental, así como de políticas y/o lineamientos sobre producción académica de la institución a la que pertenecen. Los resultados del estudio piloto y del estudio principal revelan distintos elementos notables en el proceso de producción académica. Se encuentra que los procesos de escritura, publicación y difusión del conocimiento científico están influidos por factores institucionales como valores y normas que los dirigen. Se identifica que las comunidades de investigadores educativos están institucionalizadas, y es en función de esta institucionalización que ellos producen los textos científicos. De igual manera, los factores institucionales también son manifiestos en el reconocimiento a la trayectoria y la identidad de los investigadores. Finalmente, se analizan distintas formas en la que las instituciones pueden aportar para cultivar las comunidades de práctica de investigadores educativos. Por último, se concluye el trabajo identificando los aportes, las limitaciones y potenciales líneas para futuros estudios.
... Driven by the need to understand how pre-study abroad education received in Chinese international high schools impacts the life and academic achievement of Chinese international students studying in the US, and how they employ their linguistic and learning resources to overcome adversity, the current study focuses on two tertiary students who attended international high school in China before entering a university within the United States. Adopting an activity theory framework (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 2001, we analyzed data from multiple sources (e.g. background survey, interviews, observations of both classrooms and writing center consultations, media artifacts) to understand how the educational experiences of these two Chinese international students shaped the ways in which they went about navigating social encounters at their US university. ...
... To fully examine how Chinese international students' high school experience informed their participation in a foreign English-speaking country, we use Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 2001Leont'ev, 1978) as it provides us with a useful lens to unpack the interactions within the socioenvironmental contexts that these students are within. Leont'ev (1978) developed activity theory based on Vygotsky's (1978) ideas regarding how an individual interacted with their social reality in relation to their mental understanding. ...
... Leont'ev's (1978) version of activity theory explicitly concerns how individuals interact with one another to achieve an activity. However, Leont'ev's activity theory does not consider how the object necessarily transforms into the outcome and whether activities can change and morph into other activities over time (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 1999. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the higher education landscape transforms into an international and borderless market (Altbach, 2012), the number of international students continues to grow within the United States, increasing by 67% since the turn of the century (Bound et al., 2016: 2). According to the Institute of International Education (2019), China sends the largest number of international students to the US, with Chinese students accounting for 33.7% (369,548 students) of all international enrollments (1,095,299 students) in the US. To meet the demand of this large influx of Chinese citizens wishing to receive education abroad, many international high schools and international education programs in public high schools have been established in the last twenty years. These schools prepare students explicitly for the college application process and for higher education by exposing them to the curricula found in the US and in Britain (S. Liu, 2018), which cater to both students’ desires and parents wanting their child(ren) to study abroad. Driven by the need to understand how pre-study abroad education received in Chinese international high schools impacts the life and academic achievement of Chinese international students studying in the US, and how they employ their linguistic and learning resources to overcome adversity, the current study focuses on two tertiary students who attended international high school in China before entering a university within the United States. Adopting an activity theory framework (Engeström, 1987, 2001), we analyzed data from multiple sources (e.g. background survey, interviews, observations of both classrooms and writing center consultations, media artifacts) to understand how the educational experiences of these two Chinese international students shaped the ways in which they went about navigating social encounters at their US university.
... These questions deserve investigation as teachers' learning process and outcomes would greatly influence the quality of language teaching, ultimately impacting student learning [28]. Therefore, this study explores the complex process of teacher learning for TPACK development situated in real-world learning environments within the framework of activity systems analysis [29,30]. ...
... One important characteristic of teacher learning complexity is that it evolves as "a nested system involving systems within systems" [44]. For investigation into language teachers' learning as a coherent whole, Johnson [16] calls for application of activity theory [29,47] in the account for social influences and relationships, and multiple elements involved in the networks of these teachers' professional world. ...
... These components, serving as mediating resources, either constrain or facilitate the subject's action toward the object, and consequently affect the outcome of the activity. Tensions and contradictions arising from interactions between system components, another important concept in activity theory, are "the motive force of change and development" [29] (p. 9). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how Chinese college teachers developed their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) by situating the learning process in three interactive activity systems during teaching English as foreign language (EFL) online in China. Data were collected from teachers’ diaries, in-depth interviews, and various records of online teaching. Findings indicated that teachers employed cultural artifacts, social relations, and beliefs and concepts to cope with difficulties that confronted their online teaching. They also performed sideways moves to new activities that provided systemic implications for the previous form of activity. Hence, the teachers constructed their TPACK through bi-directional learning within and between an online teaching activity system and its two interactive systems. This study highlighted the situativeness and distribution of TPACK development, and assumes significance in sustainable teacher development and further integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in English language teaching.
... To answer these questions, I drew on Engeström's (1987Engeström's ( , 2001Engeström's ( , 2015 activity theory and Ivanič's (1998Ivanič's ( , 2005 analytic framework of writers' construction of identity. The sociocultural approach to conceptualizing writing from sources and the social constructionist view of writer identity complement each other and offer a multidimensional account of the complex and heterogenous activity systems in which novice L2 students set their feet upon arriving in a new discourse community in a foreign country. ...
... An examination of each of the individual elements in Engeström's (1987Engeström's ( , 2015 reformulation of Vygotsky's activity system is crucial to the understanding of not only how each component contributes or impedes the activity system but also how contradictions arise within each node of the activity. It is important to note that the communities and activities within those micro-interactional actions occur are "rarely stable and smoothly functioning entities" (Lantolf & Genung, 2002, p. 193). ...
... Lantolf and Thorne (2006) pointed out the significance of the relations between the elements in the activity system, and these relationships form the basis for analysis of the activity system and offer useful information to the researchers and educational practitioners for guiding necessary interventions and supporting possible transformations. Engeström (1987Engeström ( , 2000Engeström ( , 2001Engeström ( , 2015 Contradictions in an individual student's activity system of fulfilling an assignment (Li, 2013, p. 78) ...
Thesis
With a skyrocketing international student population from Asia at Canadian universities in recent decades, second language (L2) students’ abilities to adapt to the (inter)textual practices of their prospective discourse communities have received increased attention in L2 writing research. This thesis study aimed to uncover the complexities and heterogeneity inherent in L2 student writers’ uses of textual sources. Through a multi-case study design (Stake, 2006), I examined the textual borrowing practices of 3 first-year international graduate students from China studying Education at an English-medium university in Canada. Drawing on Engeström’s (2001) activity theory and Ivanič’s (1998, 2005) analytic framework of writers’ construction of identity, I answered 2 research questions: (1) What activity systems do students from China experience while learning to read and write in China and writing assigned papers for master’s courses in Education in Canada? and (2) What challenges do these students encounter while writing papers from sources and how do the students address these challenges, with what consequences in their writing and identities? The instruments for this multi-case study were learning history and text-based interviews with each student along with data from their written assignments and certain source texts, a learner profile questionnaire, and a reading-writing questionnaire. My analysis revealed tensions and contradictions within and between the students’ former literacy learning activity systems in China and their current writing-from-sources activity systems in Canada. These tensions and contradictions posed challenges for the students to (a) effectively process source information and accurately and appropriately present that information to demonstrate comprehension and critical thinking, evident in their patchwriting, direct copying, inappropriately quoting, transposing from Chinese sources, and paraphrasing abstracts as purported summaries of their own; (b) cultivate a genuine interest in what they wrote and manifest deep or extended learning in their writing, evident in their tendencies to cite secondary sources without reading the originals of those sources; and (c) take ownership of the knowledge co-constructed through dialogic interactions between the source authors and the students or accept their roles in shaping the double-voiced discourse in the process of writing despite their (imprecise) uses of quotations, paraphrases, summaries, and syntheses to do so.
... Through formative interventions (Virkkunen and Newnham 2013), we examined a series of changes in PSTs' practical knowledge through their performance in a mandatory learning module, Curriculum and Instruction (which includes two courses and seven credits), in a bachelor-level ITE programme at a Chinese Normal university in Beijing. Drawing on expansive learning theory (Engeström 2015), we explored a multicyclical learning trajectory of theory and practice during the thirteen-month period of the interventions. We posed the following research questions to guide this study: ...
... Criticising both theories, Paavola and Hakkarainen (2005) argued that neither examines knowledge creation as being critical to the continuous professional development of teachers. Expansive learning, on the other hand, emphasises the practice of collaborative knowledge creation (Engeström 2015). Expansion denotes 'the multidirectional movement of learners' construction and the implementation of new objects in their practice' (Engeström and Sannino 2010, 2). ...
... Hereinafter, we discuss the consecutive process in these three cycles, the expansive learning actions, and the critical turning points in PSTs' learning. First, at the process level, the formative interventions were composed of three cycles concerning the reconfiguration of objects (Engeström 2015). A change in the object, for example, from the improvement of quasi-practical competence in cycle 1 to the strengthening of teaching competence, called for a change in the location of the interventions, which might be challenging to achieve under the present conditions. ...
Article
This longitudinal study examines the use of a mandatory learning module in an initial teacher education (ITE) programme that aims to develop the practical knowledge of pre-service teachers (PSTs) in a Chinese Normal university. Guided by formative interventions, data were collected from videotaped discussion meetings, teaching activities, and reflective journals of PSTs. The data were then analysed from the theoretical perspectives of expansive learning and the components of teachers’ practical knowledge. The results identified the intervention trajectory as three consecutive cycles and the intervention outcomes as different development trends among knowledge components in PSTs’ practical knowledge. This study contributes to the methodology of formative intervention and its empirical utility, and therefore has global implications for ITE transformation by regarding teacher practical knowledge as a complex knowledge system with evolutionary dynamics.
... The core value of the CHAT model is that as an activity constantly grows through collective actions over time, an analysis of complicated practices of professional work needs to be done in such a way of grasping the entire nature of the work, both at the particular time of investigation and over time, and not just considering it as discrete or separate components (Foot, 2014). In view of the humanistic and ecological perspectives in education, this study adopted the CHAT framework by Engeström (1987), which includes six components contributing to human activity, including subject, object, mediating artifacts, community, rules, divisions of labor, and outcome, to give insights into how social and cultural components contributed to teaching and learning. In the qualitative part, the authors applied this framework as a guideline for inquiry and discussion among trainers about their burnout. ...
... In the qualitative part, the authors applied this framework as a guideline for inquiry and discussion among trainers about their burnout. Figure 2 describes the six components of CHAT model adapted from Engeström (1987). Specifically, a subject is an individual or a group of professional trainers whose burnout syndrome is in the focal analysis. ...
... Understanding the division of labor requires the investigation of "socio-historical power structures and patterns of relations both within the community and between a community and the larger culture/society of which it is part" (Foot, 2014, p. 333). Noticeably, as Engeström (1987) clarifies, pivotal impacts among the constituents constructing the everyday activity of one person needs to be considered as collectives, rather than individuals, in relation to other people and institutions as well as with other non-academic contexts. Thus, an analysis of the activity should be done with reference to a process as a whole, rather than a sequence of distinct actions (Foot, 2014). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many educational institutions worldwide to establish emergency remote teaching systems. Although online teaching has long been applied in many other subjects, online sports training is still under-researched in developing countries like Vietnam. In Vietnam, sports trainers are innovatively making many efforts to teach sports online amidst such a once-in-many-generations event. Particularly, a gym center chain has been offering two special formats of online courses utilizing virtual reality (VR) and three-dimensional (3D) technologies, namely, fully online and blended courses. The first format comprises 50% asynchronous sessions using VR and 3D technologies to provide trainees with theoretical knowledge and 50% offline sessions for practical skills training. The second format also includes 50% asynchronous sessions using the same technologies; however, the training for practical skills is conducted via an e-conferencing platform (Zoom). Fortunately, the blended courses have attracted significant attention from many sports trainees. However, as sports trainers in Vietnam had minimal opportunities to teach online before this epidemic, it is likely that, while teaching these courses, they can encounter moments of burnout, which comprises three dimensions, such as exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. Thus, we aim to investigate factors that affected each dimension of burnout among sports trainers, using the mixed-method approach with questionnaires and focus-group interviews within this study. This study suggests practical pedagogical implications for sports trainers and administrators to curb stress and burnout in online sports training courses in times of crisis.
... Dari perspektif Teori Aktiviti Budaya dan Sejarah (TABS) oleh Engestrom (1987), sekiranya faktor-faktor yang menyokong pengintegrasian e-pembelajaran tidak dititikberatkan dan halangan-halangan yang ada tidak ditangani, akan membentuk 'cabaran' yang akhirnya mengurangkan motivasi guru untuk mengintegrasikan e-pembelajaran. Namun begitu, kajian lepas di Malaysia, kurang membincangkan isu pelaksanaan integrasi e-pembelajaran dalam kalangan guru dari perspektif TABS. ...
... 107) menekankan saling berkaitan antara individu dan persekitaran sosialnya dalam 'mengantara' tindakan mereka. Kemudian, Engestrom (1987Engestrom ( , 2001Engestrom ( , 2015 membezakan evolusi teori tersebut kepada tiga fasa yang disebut sebagai generasi pertama, kedua dan ketiga. Dalam generasi pertama, Vygotsky mengusulkan idea 'pengantara' atau mediation, dinyatakan sebagai tiga aspek, iaitu, subjek, objek, dan 'alat pengantara' yang membentuk segi tiga (lihat Vygotsky, 1978, hlm. ...
... 40). Menurut Engestrom (1987Engestrom ( , 2001Engestrom ( , 2015, idea asal ini terbatas kerana unit analisis tertumpu hanya kepada individu kerana seseorang tidak dapat difahami tanpa memahami budaya atau cara hidup; dan komuniti juga tidak dapat difahami tanpa memahami individu yang menggunakan dan menghasilkan artifak tersebut (Engeström, 1987, p.78). ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRAK Pelaksanaan e-Pembelajaran dalam kalangan guru masih tidak memuaskan walaupun Malaysia telah menjejaki tahun 2020. Matlamat 'Wawasan 2020' seharusnya tercapai dengan kemajuan teknologi dalam pendidikan, dan sudah tentu pelaksanaan integrasi e-pembelajaran di sekolah pada tahap 5 bintang. Namun, 'Wawasan 2020' tidak berlaku seperti yang diharapkan kerana banyak sekolah yang berada di bawah tahap 3-bintang. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk memahami pelaksanaan integrasi e-pembelajaran dalam kalangan guru dalam persekitaran sosial dan budaya sekolah di sekolah transformasi (TS25) di Malaysia. Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan pendekatan kajian kes tunggal. Tujuh peserta kajian terlibat dalam temu duga, iaitu pengetua, penyelaras TMK, ketua panitia, guru TMK, dan tiga guru mata pelajaran di sekolah terpilih bagi mendapat pelbagai perspektif mengenai pengalaman warga sekolah. Kajian in didasari oleh Teori Aktiviti Budaya dan Sejarah untuk memahami aktiviti warga sekolah dalam pelaksanaan integrasi e-pembelajaran di sekolah. Data kajian ini dianalisis melalui kaedah 'perbandingan tetap'; setiap data dari setiap peserta kajian dibandingkan untuk menghasilkan tema. Dapatan persoalan kajian pertama menghasilkan dua tema yang mewakili 'cabaran' dan penyebab 'cabaran', iaitu: 1) infrastruktur e-pembelajaran di sekolah terhad disebabkan kekangan kewangan dan 2) kegagalan mematuhi peraturan sekolah disebabkan kekangan masa. Persoalan kajian kedua juga menghasilkan dua tema yang mewakili penyelesaian 'cabaran', iaitu,: 1) 'prestasi dibantu' oleh warga sekolah bagi menyelesaikan 'cabaran' di sekolah; dan 2) 'perkongsian idea' oleh warga sekolah bagi menyelesaikan 'cabaran' di sekolah. Kajian ini memberi panduan penting bagi kejayaan pelaksanaan integrasi e-pembelajaran yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh sekolah-sekolah lain yang mempunyai ciri-ciri dan persekitaran yang sama. ABSTRACT Implementation of e-Learning integration among teachers is still unsatisfactory even though Malaysia is arriving the year 2020. The goal of 'Wawasan 2020' should have been achieved with technological advancements in education; indeed, the implementation of e-learning integration in schools at the 5-star level. However, the 'Wawasan 2020' did not happen as expected; many schools positioned under the level of 3-star. Therefore, this study aims to understand the implementation of e-learning integration among teachers in the social and cultural environment of transformation schools TS25 in Malaysia. This study utilised a qualitative methodology with a single-case study approach. Seven participants were involved in the interview, namely the principals, ICT coordinator, the head of the unit, ICT teachers, and three subject teachers in selected schools to gain different perspectives on the experiences of the school's stakeholders. This study is underpinned by the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to understand the activities of the school's stakeholders in the implementation of e-learning integration in schools. The data of this study were analyzed using a 'constant comparative method; each data from each participant were compared to produce a theme. The findings of the first research question derived two themes that represent challenges and causes of challenges: 1) limited e-Learning infrastructure in a school due to financial constraints and 2) failure to commit to school's regulations due to time constraints. The second research question also derived two themes that represent the resolution of 'challenges': 1) assisted performance, and 2) sharing idea. This study provides essential guidance for the successful implementation of e-learning integration that can be shared by other schools with similar characteristics and environments.
... Based on the overview from the initial, inductive phase, we found it expedient to support our analysis with Engestrøm's 19 activity system as an analyticl framework to explore factors that promote or inhibit virtual learning of QI competence. According to Engestrøm, 19 an activity system has six dimensions: individuals in an activity, their tools, objectives, division of labour, the rules of the system that governs their actions, and the communities in which they participate. 19 These dimensions represent mediators for learning that are mutually interdependent. ...
... According to Engestrøm, 19 an activity system has six dimensions: individuals in an activity, their tools, objectives, division of labour, the rules of the system that governs their actions, and the communities in which they participate. 19 These dimensions represent mediators for learning that are mutually interdependent. A change in one dimension can thus alter the other dimensions. ...
... We found activity theory helpful to shed light on how different factors involved in creating a virtual learning opportunity and a digital learning environment mutually impacted one another. 19 We found that creating a complex virtual learning situation setting impacted the constructs 'rules' and 'community'. Our findings show that the common norms that apply in a physical setting cannot be directly applied in a virtual setting. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The objective was to explore students’ perceptions of learning quality improvement (QI) in a virtual setting and identify factors that promote or inhibit virtual learning. Design We used an exploratory case study design with focus group interviews. The data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach, with an analytical framework derived from activity theory and Bloom’s revised taxonomy of six categories of cognitive processes of learning. Setting Postgraduate students participating in a virtual 1-day simulation module to learn QI at two universities in Norway. Participants Four focus groups with a total of 12 participants. Results The students’ descriptions of learning outcomes indicate that the learning activity involved a variety of cognitive activities, including higher-order cognitive processes. We identified three themes pertaining to the students’ experiences of the virtual learning activity: learning through active participation, constructing a virtual learning opportunity and creating a virtual learning environment. The students described that participation and active engagement led to a greater understanding and an integration of theory and practical improvement skills. They reported that to engage in the virtual learning opportunity, it was necessary to create a learning environment where they felt psychologically safe. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is possible to facilitate collaborative learning integrating theoretical knowledge and practical skills in a virtual setting. Students experienced that engaging in the virtual learning activity contributed to the integration of theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Psychological safety seems to be important for students’ engagement in the virtual learning activity. A virtual learning environment alters prior common norms for interaction based on physical presence, which in turn affect students feeling of psychological safety. Educators need to be aware of this and facilitate a virtual learning environment where students feel comfortable to engage.
... As Engeström's (1987) activity theory, which was adopted in the current study, explores learners' gradual movement from other-regulation (i.e., interactive activities among peers) to self-regulation (i.e., learners' autonomous functioning), we investigated the EFL learners' self-regulatory vocabulary learning to check if EFL learners reach their self-regulation in vocabulary lrarning. In addition, as collaborative activities among EFL learners occur infrequently in the current study on the one hand, and EFL learners rarely use mobile-based applications for their English language courses, exploring the EFL learners' vocabulary learning attitudes in this new learning environment could shed more light on the related literature. ...
... The theoretical framework of the present study follows Engeström's (1987) activity theory. This theory originates from Vygotsky's (1978) social constructivism in which learners' selfregulation (i.e., internalisation of different skills) precedes their other-regulation (i.e., interactions and mediations among peers). ...
... Given the fact that L2 learning takes a long time, comprehensive understanding of L2 processes and changes should be investigated over time (Ortega and Byrnes, 2009). Therefore, we employed a quantitative longitudinal research design and adopted Engeström's (1987) activity theory to examine the EFL learners' longitudinal trajectories and patterns of change for vocabulary learning attitudes and self-regulatory capacity in vocabulary learning in a 1-year MALL programme. The reciprocity and relationship between these two factors were also examined. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decades, English as a foreign language (EFL) learning has witnessed a heightened interest in the role of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) in vocabulary learning. To shed more light on the impact of MALL on vocabulary learning, this study, employing a quantitative longitudinal design, aimed at examining the impact of a MALL programme on 139 EFL learners’ vocabulary learning attitudes and self-regulatory capacity. To this end, this study investigated the latent change score models of the learners’ vocabulary learning attitudes and self-regulatory capacity over time. Over the course of 1 year, various mobile applications were integrated into the regular English language instruction of the learners. The required data were collected via administering vocabulary learning attitude and self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scales. The data were analysed applying latent growth curve modelling to examine the participants’ longitudinal trajectories and patterns of change in the two waves of collected data. The fit indices of the latent change models revealed an increase in both the EFL learners’ vocabulary learning attitudes and their self-regulatory capacity during the 1-year MALL programme. The analysis of between-person differences also indicated that changes in both variables were positively correlated.
... Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2001(Engeström, , 2004(Engeström, , 2014 has afforded the research community an innovative theoretical lens to qualitatively explore the research phenomena of examiner behaviours in a complex context. CHAT has been applied previously in medical education research (Cleland et al., 2016;Kajamaa et al., 2019;Larsen et al., 2017;Morris, 2012), but not specifically to explore the practice of examiners' judgements within student assessment. ...
... CHAT has also provided a robust framework to analyse professional work practices (Foot, 2014), which in the current study refers to the judgement practices of the OSCE examiners (subject) in an activity system (the medical school). Each activity system is a basic unit of analysis which consists of six elements: subject, object, tools, rules, community, and division of labour (Engeström, 2014). The primary activity system (AS1) in this study is the medical school's OSCE activity system (Fig. 1). ...
... On a conceptual level, interactions among the elements of rules, community and division of labour are expected to support the examiners to achieve the desired outcome of assessing medical students' competence for progression to the next stage of clinical training. However, multiple points of view, traditions and interests of examiners based on their own diverse histories (Engeström, 2018) have the potential to create contradictions within an activity system which impact on achieving the desired outcome (Engeström, 2014). In addition, different elements within AS1 relate to each other and Fig. 1 The medical school's OSCE activity system (AS1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Examiners’ judgements play a critical role in competency-based assessments such as objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). The standardised nature of OSCEs and their alignment with regulatory accountability assure their wide use as high-stakes assessment in medical education. Research into examiner behaviours has predominantly explored the desirable psychometric characteristics of OSCEs, or investigated examiners’ judgements from a cognitive rather than a sociocultural perspective. This study applies cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to address this gap in exploring examiners’ judgements in a high-stakes OSCE. Based on the idea that OSCE examiners’ judgements are socially constructed and mediated by their clinical roles, the objective was to explore the sociocultural factors that influenced examiners’ judgements of student competence and use the findings to inform examiner training to enhance assessment practice. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with examiners who assessed medical student competence in progressing to the next stage of training in a large-scale OSCE at one Australian university. The initial thematic analysis provided a basis for applying CHAT iteratively to explore the sociocultural factors and, specifically, the contradictions created by interactions between different elements such as examiners and rules, thus highlighting the factors influencing examiners’ judgements. The findings indicated four key factors that influenced examiners’ judgements: examiners’ contrasting beliefs about the purpose of the OSCE; their varying perceptions of the marking criteria; divergent expectations of student competence; and idiosyncratic judgement practices. These factors were interrelated with the activity systems of the medical school’s assessment practices and the examiners’ clinical work contexts. Contradictions were identified through the guiding principles of multi-voicedness and historicity. The exploration of the sociocultural factors that may influence the consistency of examiners’ judgements was facilitated by applying CHAT as an analytical framework. Reflecting upon these factors at organisational and system levels generated insights for creating fit-for-purpose examiner training to enhance assessment practice.
... Then, Leont'ev, in 1978 [84], conceived that the model presented by Vygotsky does not deal with the relationship between the individuals and their respective environments in which the activity is performed. Engeström extended Leont'ev's model by adding rules, community, and division of labor, where the relationship between a subject and their community is mediated by the rules, and the relationship between community and object is mediated by the division of labor [85]. ...
... Contradictions can be helpful to identify the areas that require investigation to understand what is going on in an activity system [85]. A contradiction does not necessarily mean that a problem or a certain conflict is occurring, but that there are structural pressures historically occurring within or among the activity systems [87]. ...
... A contradiction does not necessarily mean that a problem or a certain conflict is occurring, but that there are structural pressures historically occurring within or among the activity systems [87]. The activity theory [85] classifies contradictions into four categories: ...
Article
Full-text available
The research and innovation activities at higher education institutions (HEIs) are considered essential in driving forward sustainability in order to facilitate future decision-making. However, a systematic approach regarding sustainability research through administrative efforts is still lacking in HEIs worldwide. Therefore, this manuscript aimed to explore contradictions embedded in the activity systems that hamper the internalization of sustainability research in HEIs. The current study conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty members at a leading research university in Taiwan. The lens of activity theory was used to explore and analyze tensions rooted in the activity systems involved in research and innovation. We found that resources to undertake sustainability-related research have not been allocated in a desirable manner. Moreover, the stakeholders are lacking agency, motivation, and perceived urgency to play their roles in supporting sustainability-related research through their practices. The propositions concluded from this study would help the involved actors to reconfigure their activity systems to make a contribution toward sustainability. This study also serves as a fundamental step towards conducting future empirical studies in contextual theory building directed at co-creating value through sustainability-related research and innovation practices.
... By drawing on the Activity Theory (hereafter referred to as AT) initiated by Vygotsky (1978) and developed by Leont'ev (1981) and Engeström (1987Engeström ( , 1999, this study explores school EFL teachers' research identity construction within the U-S community in China. Initially, Vygotsky (1978) constructed the basic triangle of the subject, object, and mediation artifact, indicating that learners are active participants instead of passive recipients of learning. ...
... Vygotsky and Leont'ev's theorization of activity is regarded as the first generation of AT. To address the specific factors in the activity, Engeström (1987) conceptualized activity as the interaction between the subject and object, mediated by five components: community (i.e., the group that the subject belongs to), tool (i.e., means used in the activity), rules (i.e., regulations in the activity), division of labor (i.e., how tasks are assigned), and outcome (i.e., the end general result). This theorization constitutes the second generation of AT. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a relatively large number of studies on teachers’ identity development in the University-School community, few studies have explicitly focused on school EFL teachers’ research identity construction. This study adopts the Activity Theory and examines three English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers from three middle schools in a University–School community in China. It investigates how three teachers constructed their research identity and what factors influenced the construction of their identities within the University–School activity system from the dual perspectives of the school and university teachers. Data are collected through semi-structured narrative interviews, triangulated by documents such as meeting minutes, and then analyzed by NVivo 12. The findings of this study show that (1) the University–School collaborative program helps form a University–School community of both teaching and research; (2) in this community, school EFL teachers continuously construct their identities in a spiral process of “practitioner” and “researcher”; (3) it highlights the internal factors containing the research experience and the stage of career and the external factors including the curriculum reform context and the communication in the community. The findings carry important implications for school EFL teachers’ research identity construction and professional development in the University–School cooperation.
... However, this was expanded upon by Vygotsky's colleague, Leontiev (1981), who shifted the analytic focus to that of broader social collective within which those artefacts were being used ('second generation'): a shift from a "world of objects" (Lantolf & Appel, 1994a, p. 16), to one understood as a collective of relationships and communities. Leontiev never graphically expanded Vygotsky's original triangle into a model of a collective activity system, although Engeström later took up Leontiev's ideas to schematise second generation activity as a "system", as shown in Figure 2 (see, e.g., Engeström, 2001, p. 135; see also Engeström, 1987Engeström, , 1999Engeström, , 2001Engeström, , 2008Kerosuo, Kajamaa & Engeström, 2010;Roth, 2012): Figure 3 A model of human activity (Kerosuo, Kajamaa, & Engeström, 2010, p. 114, adapted from Engeström 1987 In this model, the top triangle is based on the reformulation of Vygotsky's (1978, p. 40) original mediation triangle: the subject oriented towards its object achieves the desired outcome through the application of mediating tools/artefacts (Engeström, 1987;Kerosuo et al., 2010). However, incorporating Leontiev's argument for this to be situated within a collective of social, cultural, and historical conditions, Engeström extends this relationship (between subject and object) to how it also interacts with its community (those not necessarily present in the immediate 'production' of the activity (Figure 2), but with a stake or interest in terms of influence), rules (the explicit and implicit regulations, norms, and conventions that constrain interactions within the system), and the division of labour (the distribution of roles and responsibilities) and, by association, power (Engeström, 1999;Gale, Cross & Mills, 2019) within the system. ...
... However, this was expanded upon by Vygotsky's colleague, Leontiev (1981), who shifted the analytic focus to that of broader social collective within which those artefacts were being used ('second generation'): a shift from a "world of objects" (Lantolf & Appel, 1994a, p. 16), to one understood as a collective of relationships and communities. Leontiev never graphically expanded Vygotsky's original triangle into a model of a collective activity system, although Engeström later took up Leontiev's ideas to schematise second generation activity as a "system", as shown in Figure 2 (see, e.g., Engeström, 2001, p. 135; see also Engeström, 1987Engeström, , 1999Engeström, , 2001Engeström, , 2008Kerosuo, Kajamaa & Engeström, 2010;Roth, 2012): Figure 3 A model of human activity (Kerosuo, Kajamaa, & Engeström, 2010, p. 114, adapted from Engeström 1987 In this model, the top triangle is based on the reformulation of Vygotsky's (1978, p. 40) original mediation triangle: the subject oriented towards its object achieves the desired outcome through the application of mediating tools/artefacts (Engeström, 1987;Kerosuo et al., 2010). However, incorporating Leontiev's argument for this to be situated within a collective of social, cultural, and historical conditions, Engeström extends this relationship (between subject and object) to how it also interacts with its community (those not necessarily present in the immediate 'production' of the activity (Figure 2), but with a stake or interest in terms of influence), rules (the explicit and implicit regulations, norms, and conventions that constrain interactions within the system), and the division of labour (the distribution of roles and responsibilities) and, by association, power (Engeström, 1999;Gale, Cross & Mills, 2019) within the system. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Extant research on teacher education has established that context plays an important role in shaping teacher learning and practice. However, a challenge to teacher education research remains the theorization of context and how context shapes practice. It is compounded when the contemporary educational context worldwide is penetrated by globalization, as educational contexts extend beyond geographical boundaries, and educational activities are shaped simultaneously in the intertwined global, national, and local contextual spheres. Propelled by the dominance of English as a lingua franca, globalization is manifest in the adoption of English-as-a-medium-of-instruction in education in non-native English-speaking countries at various levels, from primary to higher education. This phenomenon presents additional challenges for research in capturing the complexity of globalized contexts and how globalization shapes teacher practice. Drawing on Vygotskian sociocultural activity theory and globalization theory, this chapter argues for a novel conceptual approach to theorizing globalized contexts within teacher education and understanding globally affected education practices and teachers’ professional development. It then illustrates how this framework enables a systemic analysis of data to examine the effects of globalization on teacher practice, and its implications for teacher education and teacher education research in contemporary times.
... It also is the first known research that has used a mixed methods approach in order to study the phenomenon from different perspectives by adopting research methods that build on and complement each other. Finally, it is the first known research that has made use of the Activity Theory (Engeström, 1987) as a theoretical framework for its data analysis. ...
... For instance, in this research EFL teaching is the human activity that involves the use of Arabic, as an aid or tool amongst others, for the teaching/learning activity. Figure 1 Activity Theory Adapted from (Engeström, 1987) Engeström's model (1987) illustrated by Figure 1 is a useful tool for understanding how a wide range of factors work together to impact an activity. In order to reach an outcome, it is necessary for subjects or participants to interact with an object using tools in order to mediate achieving the pre-set goal. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of students' first language (L1) in foreign language (L2) classrooms has generated increasing debates in the field of the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). The present study, which took place in a Saudi college, approached the subject from a sociocultural angle and used Activity Theory (AT) to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of EFL stakeholders and sought as well to determine the role of Arabic in EFL classes. The research also made use of a mixed methods approach and involved only male participants. Thus, it t surveyed 197 students, observed 8 EFL classes and interviewed 13 EFL teachers and 3 policy-makers. The findings indicate that most participants support the use of Arabic in EFL classes and suggest that Arabic served mainly as a teaching/learning mediation tool. In view of these findings, an EFL teaching methodology that takes into account the use of Arabic as a teaching/learning tool is suggested.
... While acknowledging the heuristic value and graphical character of the proposed taxonomy, we suggest that the HRI field may also profit from the adoption of existing methodologies and psychological frameworks to structure different HRI scenarios. Specifically, we see great potential for the application of activity theory initially outlined by Vygotsky (1987) and further developed by Leont'ev (1978), Engeström (1987b), and Kaptelinin and Nardi (2006) as a theoretical lens to formalize the interaction between artificial and human actors. ...
... 2). Nardi (1996) discussed the resemblance of basic premises of activity theory with theories of situated actions (Suchman 1987) and distributed cognition (Hollan,1 For a rigorous and extended description of activity theory and other key components of the activity system: community, rules, and division of labor, see Engeström (1987a;1987b), and Lindblom and Alenljung (2020), Ceha et al. (2021), Huang and Mutlu (2012) for applications of activity theory in HRI. Kuutti (1996) Hutchins, and Kirsh 2000). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The research on physically and socially situated artificial agents could complement and enrich computational models of creativity. This paper discusses six perspective lines of inquiry at the intersection of creativity and social robotics. It provides a description of ways in which the field of social robotics may influence (and be influenced by) creativity research in psychology and speculates how human-machine co-creation will affect the notions of both human and artificial creativity. By discussing potential research areas, the authors hope to outline an agenda for future collaboration between creativity scholars in psychology, social robotics, and computer science.
... In this project, qualitative and quantitative approaches from the authors' respective disciplines work together to observe multimodal and multisensory flight activities and info-communication practices in their technical, sensory and anthropological dimensions, as experienced by HSI pilots. As suggested by situated and distributed approaches to communication, cognition and action [18,24,31,32], our research approach consists first of all in not limiting the analysis of the piloting activity to the only one study of what happens inside the cockpits, but in reinscribing it in the more global system of activity [12] to which it belongs and of which the ground controllers are part 3 . Our objective is that the MMSD allows the HSI pilot -air traffic controller pair to co-construct the meaning of the ground-aircraft messages in an efficient and safe way with regard to the air operations required in the context of the flights. ...
Article
Deaf pilots in France are currently allowed to fly planes with the help of a second pilot handling voice and radio communication. However, they are not allowed to pilot autonomously. Fans4All is an association that aims at making aeronautics more accessible to pilots who are hearing or speaking impaired (HSI). In this paper we present our experience as a multidisciplinary design team (including two HSI pilots) working towards this goal. We present the steps we have undertaken to develop a Multimodal and Multisensory Supplementary Device composed of a touch tablet and a haptic vest, as well as the visual vocabulary to define messages between HSI pilots and air traffic controllers. We also report the evaluation of these prototypes in flight simulators. We hope that our work will help making aeronautics more accessible to people with impairments. CCS CONCEPTS • Human-centered computing~Accessibility~Accessibility systems and tools • Human-centered computing~Human computer interaction (HCI)~Interaction devices • Social and professional topics~User characteristics~People with disabilities Additional
... The AT nodes (tools, subject, rules, community, division of labour, objects and outcome) provided anchor for the findings. Engeström (1987) argues that contradictions in a system highlight the dynamic nature of the activity system, its inefficiencies and hence the opportunities for action and change. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile money systems are widely accepted in Uganda as an easy way to transfer money and to settle domestic financial matters. However, although these systems play a critical role in bridging the financial inclusion gap, several oversight issues need to be addressed. Previous mobile money systems security studies focussed on technical applications and solutions paying less attention to subjective Information security management. The current study sought to understand information security management for mobile money systems using Uganda as a case study in order to develop an information security management framework suitable for mobile money systems in Uganda. Specific objectives included a detailed study of existing information security policies, procedures and standards, investigating and determining their weaknesses, developing and recommending a suitable framework and validating that framework. The case study involved three mobile network operators. Activity Theory guided the study throughout. Management of information security in mobile money systems was easy to understand when investigated as activities and allowed contradictions surrounding mobile money systems to be highlighted. The data collection methods used were semi-structured interviews and an internal documents review. The findings of the study revealed that there were insufficient tools, rules, community and division of labour for information security awareness related to outsourcing, risk management, business continuity planning and incident management. Furthermore, there appeared to be inadequate compliance monitoring, management controls and top management support for mobile money information security activities. The study contributes to theoretical, methodological, body of knowledge in information security management, practice and new areas of future research in information systems security for mobile money systems. In conclusion, the rules, tools, community and division of labour employed by the subjects (MNOs) to attain the intended objects and outcomes of the identified activities were found to be wanting and this indicates that continuous review and updating is needed. Mobile money systems and the associated activities, like any other information systems, are dynamic and require continuous updates. The PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) approach to mobile money information security management activities is recommended for addressing information security management concerns for mobile money systems in Uganda.
... Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was originally proposed by the Russian socio-cognitive theorists Leont'ev (1974Leont'ev ( , 1981 and Vygotsky (1978), and further developed by Engeström (1987Engeström ( , 1999Engeström ( , and 2001, as a guiding analytical framework. Engestrom (1987) developed CHAT into a social theory focusing on associated social activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Graduate teaching assistants 1 (GTAs) play an indispensable role in higher education, in particular in undergraduate courses. In higher education, GTAs take on two identities simultaneously: firstly as postgraduate students and the secondly as lecturers (Muzaka, 2009).
... Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was originally proposed by the Russian socio-cognitive theorists Leont'ev (1974Leont'ev ( , 1981 and Vygotsky (1978), and further developed by Engeström (1987Engeström ( , 1999Engeström ( , and 2001, as a guiding analytical framework. Engestrom (1987) developed CHAT into a social theory focusing on associated social activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Postgraduate research students who teach, also referred to as graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), have consistently been described as essential contributors to Higher Education (HE), given the crucial teaching role that they perform (Austin, 2002; Luft et al., 2004; Gardner & Jones, 2011; Roden, Jakob, Roehrig et al., 2018; Holland, 2018; Fung, 2021; Hastie, 2021). However, it has been noted that, frequently, the only opportunity provided for GTAs to engage with personal and professional development is through their allocated teaching hours, most of which are on common introductory or practical modules, which form the staple part of the GTA teaching experience (Seymour & Hewitt, 1997; Ellis, 2014; Schussler et al., 2015). In many cases, these are conducted in isolation from other GTAs or Faculty members, leading to teaching becoming somewhat of an isolating experience. As such, GTAs often struggle to find the space and time to develop their teaching identity with other GTAs. Adopting a qualitative approach, this co-authored paper, which we describe as a ‘collective reflective’, details how, through involvement in a peer support initiative, we, as a group of GTAs, were able to reflect on our role and shape our identity as teachers. Together, we delve into the thoughts and discussions that we shared on this journey. Our considerations from this reflective piece highlight the importance of building supportive communities for GTAs, not only to allow for reflection on professional development but also to engender a sense of belonging amongst GTAs
... In this conceptualisation, the point of science instruction is for learners to embrace comparative approaches to making sense of the world as experienced researchers. One of the foremost compelling social constructivists learning speculations emerging out of the work of Vygotsky and others is activity theory (Engeström, 1987). Activity theory suggests that a person needs to comprehend their relationship with a wider community and invigorates their understanding of the multiple sensitivities that may be distinctive to individuals of the community. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of improvisation is crucial in the formation of new ideas, and it is paramount where real objects are difficult to come across. However, there is little literature on the role of improvisation in the classroom teaching and teacher education context and how its practices in teaching could enhance education, as well as students learning in different contexts and domains. Therefore, this study examined the perceptions of student-teachers at colleges of education in Ghana on the role of improvisation in enhancing quality Physical Education lessons. The study adopted a qualitative approach as the research design to collect data from 10 student-teachers. The instrument used to gather the data was semistructured interviews while purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select the participants. Thematic analysis was the main tool for the data analysis. The study revealed five themes namely: (1) promote understanding and maximise learners’ participation, (2) Reduce cost and expenditure, (3) Assist to achieve learning objectives (4) Promote creativity and innovation and (5) Make the learning experience real. These themes provide evidence of the role of improvisation in enhancing quality physical education lessons among college of education students in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The study recommends that teachers should be creative and have in-depth knowledge of improvisation to assist in effective teaching and learning to improve learners’ experiences.
... Como foi anteriormente referido, o projecto visa compreender a aprendizagem da Matemática, Informática e outras, quando mediado por robots. Neste sentido, adoptouse como perspectivas teóricas a Teoria da Aprendizagem Situada (Lave e Wenger, 1991, Wenger, 1998) e a Teoria da Actividade (essencialmente a 3ª geração -Engeström, 1987e Engeström, 2001 articulada com conceitos da Interacção Pessoa-Máquina. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Esta comunicação foi preparada no âmbito das atividades do projeto DROIDE II - Os Robots na Educação Matemática e Informática, financiado pela Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), contrato n.º PTDC/CPE-CED/099850/2008, foi apresentada no XXII SIEM e consta no livro de atas.
... e research on online learning space in foreign countries is gradually growing on the online learning platform, and the foreign online learning platform has become a universal and mature learning resource; especially in the United States, most schools have installed official learning websites, these websites can cover the whole school, and students and teachers within the school can learn through the network platform anytime, anywhere. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the comprehensive coverage of the Internet in China, the online learning space can basically cover the whole country, but in terms of the use of online learning space in education, it has not been fully used. The basic application mode of the school, namely, autonomous learning, flipped classroom learning, collaborative learning, exchange, and discussion learning, and personalized learning mode, based on flipped classroom learning and relying on network learning space, design the corresponding English teaching process based on network learning space, according to the teaching process, the specific design of the platform, content, organization, implementation, and evaluation. From the research results, the students in the experimental class are more active and active in class than in the control class, their work scores are generally higher than those in the control class, and their interest in English has been significantly improved. The ability has also been significantly improved. After long-term practical research, it has been shown that the performance of the experimental class students in the online learning space has also been significantly improved. Therefore, it can be shown that the English course based on the network learning space has a certain positive influence and promotion effect on the teaching effect.
... This explains the rationale for the theory in the study. According to Engestrom (1987), an activity theory provides an understanding of the analysis of individual object-oriented actions and the relationship between components of a collective activity such as rules, community, and the division of labour. Activity theory involves making changes in human practices to enhance learning and development through better pedagogic practice (Engestrom, 2000). ...
Article
The Department of Basic Education in South Africa is worried about massive learners" poor academic performance in public secondary schools. In various secondary schools in Vhembe District, the quality of learners" academic performance has retrogressed and deteriorated, despite several intervention strategies to improve the performance. The study aims to determine how teachers' approaches can influence intervention strategies to enhance learners" performance in Grade 12 by providing support, care, guidance and professional development programmes within the schools and through the government initiative programmes. This study focused on the teachers" approaches to improving intervention strategies to enhance the academic performance of Grade 12 learners in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa. A sample of 16 teachers and 15 heads of the department was purposively selected in this interpretive qualitative study. The participants were engaged in two semi-structured focus group interviews. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Findings revealed that extra lessons, peer teaching, collaborative teaching and learning, outsourcing of expert subject teachers, Volume 12, Number 2, June 2022 pp 7-29 Teachers' Approaches to Improving Intervention … 8 quality quarterly assessment and monitoring of informal and formal tasks were implemented as teachers" approaches to enhance quality of learners' performance. While the participants decried that several schools in the Vhembe District are dysfunctional and need interventions to improve output. The study recommends further support for teacher professional development to enhance teaching and learning for better quality results.
... Si bien, para algunas de las personas entrevistadas, el adaptarse a la modalidad de teletrabajo ha sido sencillo e incluso cómodo, existen otros casos donde los recursos disponibles son escasos e insuficientes. En este último contexto, las personas han tendido con mayor frecuencia, a desarrollar estrategias reactivas y adaptativas ante la transformación de la situación laboral, viviendo el día a día, en desmedro de, por ejemplo, potenciales dinámicas de aprendizaje expansivo(Engeström, 2015), o de desarrollo de capacidades autorregulatorias(Seufert, 2020), las que podrían verse beneficiadas del uso de mayores o distintos recursos tecnológicos, sociales y personales, y que les permitiese sustentar tanto una adecuada planificación y organización previa de tareas, roles y temporalidades, así como una equilibrada modulación de sus recursos y esfuerzos en el enfrentamiento de las exigencias de la actividad remota y del hogar.De un modo general, es posible pensar que los/as teletrabajadores/as, experimentarían cierta desestructuración y una merma en el plano laboral y social, producto de la dilución del marco regulatorio, y de sus roles en tanto que referentes externos que proporciona el trabajo presencial, al diferenciar espacial y temporalmente las situaciones de trabajo y del hogar, brindando a la vez socializaciones estatuidas y tácitas, así como rutinas que permiten reducir la incertidumbre del quehacer cotidiano. En teletrabajo, en contraste, las personas deben mayormente organizar autónomamente su actividad lidiando con la superposición temporal y espacial de las actividades laborales y del hogar, supliendo la falencia de referentes externos fácticos que permitan distinguirlos taxativamente (espacios físicos, horarios, etc.), debiendo recurrir a medios, estrategias y al desarrollo de nuevas competencias, de modo eventual, reactivo e improvisadamente para la autorregulación de sus actividades y tareas cotidianas.Para que este proceso ocurra de modo virtuoso, es necesario que el contexto de la actividad presente ciertas condiciones de regularidad y control, que hagan posible la identificación de los factores pertinentes y las conductas apropiadas para dar cuenta de ellos. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Se revisa el despliegue de estrategias de enfrentamiento presentes en el trabajo remoto en contexto de la pandemia por Covid-19. Se entrevistaron 23 personas que se encuentran recientemente teletrabajando. Los resultados muestran que las personas experimentaban cierta desestructuración de su actividad laboral y vida personal, tendiendo a desarrollar estrategias reactivas y adaptativas. Se concluye que, responder a las exigencias que impone el teletrabajo, supone no sólo la adaptación de los/as teletrabajadores/as, sino que igualmente condiciones que fomenten la apropiación constructiva de las posibilidades que abre el trabajo remoto. ABSTRACT The deployment of coping strategies present in remote work in the context of Covid-19 pandemic is reviewed. 23 people who are recently teleworking were interviewed, Results show that people would experience a certain destructure of their work activity and personal life, tending to develop reactive and adaptive strategies. It is concluded that responding to the demands imposed by teleworking implies not only the adaptation of teleworkers but also conditions that foster the constructive appropriation of the possibilities that remote work opens.
... In this conceptualisation, the point of science instruction is for learners to embrace comparative approaches to making sense of the world as experienced researchers. One of the foremost compelling social constructivists learning speculations emerging out of the work of Vygotsky and others is activity theory (Engeström, 1987). Activity theory suggests that a person needs to comprehend their relationship with a wider community and invigorates their understanding of the multiple sensitivities that may be distinctive to individuals of the community. ...
Article
The role of improvisation is crucial in the formation of new ideas, and it is paramount where real objects are difficult to come across. However, there is little literature on the role of improvisation in the classroom teaching and teacher education context and how its practices in teaching could enhance education, as well as students learning in different contexts and domains. Therefore, this study examined the perceptions of student- teachers at colleges of education in Ghana on the role of improvisation in enhancing quality Physical Education lessons. The study adopted a qualitative approach as the research design to collect data from 10 student-teachers. The instrument used to gather the data was semi- structured interviews while purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select the participants. Thematic analysis was the main tool for the data analysis. The study revealed five themes namely: (1) promote understanding and maximise learners’ participation, (2) Reduce cost and expenditure, (3) Assist to achieve learning objectives (4) Promote creativity and innovation and (5) Make the learning experience real. These themes provide evidence of the role of improvisation in enhancing quality physical education lessons among college of education students in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The study recommends that teachers should be creative and have in-depth knowledge of improvisation to assist in effective teaching and learning to improve learners’ experiences.
... Nous appuyant sur le cadre théorique de la Théorie de l'Activité (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 2001, nous avons analysé l'utilisation du jeu comme un système d'activité dans lequel les outils technologiques sont considérés comme des éléments médiateurs entre les sujets et leurs objectifs poursuivis. Ces outils amènent des transformations à l'environnement dans lequel ils sont utilisés, ainsi qu'aux sujets engagés dans l'activité (Blin, 2004). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Récemment la fièvre « maker » fait une épidémie dans les écoles, les bibliothèques et les centres communautaires. Les écoles les plus innovatrices veulent des « makerspaces », les bibliothèques s’empressent de s’équiper d’imprimantes 3D pour être à la fine pointe de la technologie et les centres communautaires veulent être le lieu de référence des activités « makers ». Dans cette effervescence, notre équipe de recherche mène des études sur la culture « maker » critique pour mieux comprendre leur valeur ajoutée pour l’apprentissage. À travers une série d’ateliers portant sur des thématiques telles que la construction d’une table d’arcade, d’une imprimante 3D, de manettes de jeux vidéos accessibles et la participation à des « maker jams », nous avons identifié plusieurs attitudes et compétences « makers » essentielles. Parmi les attitudes nous observons la prise d’initiative, l’apprentissage par le jeu, l’adaptation authentique et la persistance. Parmi les compétences, la collaboration, le design et la (co)planification. Le développement de ces attitudes et de ces compétences dans un contexte « maker » se distingue du développement en contexte éducatif par les itérations jalonnées par l’erreur et par une incontournable motivation intrinsèque.
Article
As life expectancy continues to increase in most EU Member States, smart technologies can help enable older people to continue living at home, despite the challenges accompanying the ageing process. The Innovation Action (IA) SHAPES ‘Smart and Healthy Ageing through People Engaging in Supportive Systems’ funded by the EU under the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (grant agreement number 857159) attends to these topics to support active and healthy ageing and the wellbeing of older adults. This protocol article outlines the SHAPES project’s objectives and aims, methods, structure, and expected outcomes. SHAPES seeks to build, pilot, and deploy a large-scale, EU-standardised interoperable, and scalable open platform. The platform will facilitate the integration of a broad range of technological, organisational, clinical, educational, and social solutions. SHAPES emphasises that the home is much more than a house-space; it entails a sense of belonging, a place and a purpose in the community. SHAPES creates an ecosystem – a network of relevant users and stakeholders – who will work together to scale-up smart solutions. Furthermore, SHAPES will create a marketplace seeking to connect demand and supply across the home, health and care services. Finally, SHAPES will produce a set of recommendations to support key stakeholders seeking to integrate smart technologies in their care systems to mediate care delivery. Throughout, SHAPES adopts a multidisciplinary research approach to establish an empirical basis to guide the development of the platform. This includes long-term ethnographic research and a large-scale pan-European campaign to pilot the platform and its digital solutions within the context of seven distinct pilot themes. The project will thereby address the challenges of ageing societies in Europe and facilitate the integration of community-based health and social care. SHAPES will thus be a key driver for the transformation of healthcare and social care services across Europe.
Book
Full-text available
This thesis explores how Participatory Design (PD) and Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can be combined and used as a theoretical framework and methodology in a professional development activity for teachers. A shift in the way we view teachers, from implementors to designers who actively construct, invent, and develop the practice of schooling also calls for changes in teacher education and professional development activities. The study presented here explores teachers' work and learning during a professional development activity conducted as a participatory design project between two K-12 schools in Sweden and the USA, using media production to create an international collaboration on Ocean Literacy. The work draws on central notions and practices based on the Scandinavian School of Participatory Design and the Change Laboratory methodology (CL) based on the theoretical framework of expansive learning. The thesis is comprised of three articles answering research questions about what challenges and strategies develop in a design process as a situated professional development approach and how we can understand learning as part of and expanding beyond a design process using activity theoretical tools.The first article presents a description of challenges and strategies developed by teachers in the first iteration of the design process and the results of using an activity theoretical model for collaborative analysis of the process. The second article analyses a CL intervention in the second iteration of the design process, adopted after the results of the first iteration. The analytical focus here was placed on empirical manifestations of the epistemological principles of the theoretical framework of expansive learning. The third article explores the occurrences and cyclicity of the learning actions postulated by the theoretical framework in the same intervention through a detailed analysis of the participants' discourse in the process. The thesis comes to a conclusion with a tentative formulation of design principles based on findings from the studies. The results point to how innovative educational design can have consequences for teachers' work with conflicting needs, tensions, and contradictions at the systemic level of the activity. PD processes in educational settings require toolsand concepts to capture this complexity and create sustainable solutions. In this study, activity theoretical models served as a collaborative tool for teachers to analyse and change their practice and to describe and explain work integrated learning in the design process. The work highlighted the need for teachers' expertise in design as well as the important role of media literacy in the use of new technology. Their active and practical engagement in the materials, basedupon the tradition of PD, must be understood as an important part of the development of agency and volition, and findings suggest that the combination of PD and CL methodologies can serve as a vehicle for expansive learning and new innovative learning designs in educational settings. This approach was conceptualized as expansive design.
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of mobile money systems in emerging economies has enabled the would-be unbanked population to gain access to financial services. The number of mobile money users and value of transactions is on the increase. This rapid growth of mobile money services and value transactions in emerging economies is attributed to the light-touch regulatory framework which allows minimal limitations on who should operate mobile money system and few restrictions on who can function as an agent. These increases both in services and transactions indicate that mobile money systems hold a lot of valuable customer financial information that needs to be jealously protected against information breaches and abuse by the various stakeholders in the mobile money ecosystem. Taking an interpretive qualitative approach, Activity Theory (AT) has been used to analyse the mobile money management activities focusing on information security policies, regulations and procedures. In order to comprehend the aspects revealed by the Activity Theory analysis that raise information security management concerns in mobile money operations, Mobile Network Operator (MNO) management issues, in terms of the security of mobile money operations, are detailed. Our findings look at the reasons given by various stakeholders for information security management gaps in mobile money operations in emerging economies. Our findings disclose the roles of MNO staff, who are not information security experts, in the development and compliance monitoring of policies, regulations and procedures related to the safety of financial information in mobile money systems.
Book
Full-text available
This book is intended for readers who seek information on issues related to plurilingualism and the integration of subject content teaching with additional languages such as heritage, autochthonous, regional and foreign languages that are taught in school contexts. The book provides information on recent theoretical and pedagogical paradigm shifts in applied linguistics and highlights the links between research, theory and pedagogy. It provides a comprehensive review of concepts and epistemologies related to AL pedagogies and plurilingualism. The last part of the book presents various interaction types used in AL classrooms and proposes interaction analysis as a research method and teacher education tool.
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis examines how the information technology-supported use of multiple mobility services for a trip from an origin to a destination, known as smart mobility, can be realized in Germany. We examine this challenge through the meta-theoretical lens of the service-dominant logic perspective, which is further developed towards a midrange theory by complementing it with additional theories and concepts. Our empirical results provide insights into barriers and possible solutions for the realization of smart mobility in practice
Article
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) has surpassed humans in a number of specialised intellectual activities-chess and Go being two of many examples. Amongst the many potential consequences of such a development, I focus on how we can utilise cutting edge AI to promote human learning. The purpose of this article is to explore how a specialised AI can be utilised in a manner that promotes human growth by acting as a tutor to our champions. A framework for using AI as a tutor of human champions based on Vygotsky's theory of human learning is here presented. It is based on a philosophical analysis of AI capabilities, key aspects of Vygotsky's theory of human learning, and existing research on intelligent tutoring systems. The main method employed is the theoretical development of a general-ised framework for AI powered expert learning systems, using chess and Go as examples. In addition to this, data from public interviews with top professionals in the games of chess and Go are used to examine the feasibility and realism of using AI in such a manner. Basing the analysis on Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory of development, I explain how AI operates in the zone of proximal development of our champions and how even non-educational AI systems can perform certain scaffolding functions. I then argue that AI combined with basic modules from intelligent tutoring systems could perform even more scaffolding functions, but that the most interesting constellation right now is scaffolding by a group consisting of AI in combination with human peers and instructors.
Chapter
Im Kontext einer Fallstudie, die bei einem kantonalen Energieversorger in der Schweiz realisiert werden konnte, wurde die Einführung eines rollenbasierten Führungs- und Kooperationsmodells begleitet. Dieses sollte den Wechsel von einer spartenorientierten zu einer Matrixorganisation unterstützen. Eines der zentralen, mit diesem Organisationsentwicklungsprozess verbundenen Veränderungsziele war die Erhöhung der Agilität der untersuchten Organisationseinheit. In dem Beitrag wird der Begriff der Agilität konzeptuell verortet und auf die Beweglichkeit von Organisationsstrukturen zugespitzt. Sodann werden die Ergebnisse der formativen Evaluation diskutiert, die im Rahmen der Begleitforschung erarbeitet werden konnten. Dabei werden förderliche und hinderliche Faktoren auf dem Weg zu einem agilen Führungssystem diskutiert, die uns im Laufe des Forschungsprozesses begegnet sind.
Article
A garantia de acesso em ambientes escolares não restritivos, com igualdade de oportunidades, é uma das premissas das políticas de inclusão. Tal garantia, na perspectiva vigotskiana, pode ser também tomada como alternativa ao desenvolvimento, considerando ser a escola um espaço cujas práticas podem culminar em aprendizagem para estudantes com deficiência. Vigotski viveu noutro contexto histórico e cultural, contudo, os princípios da sua teoria acerca do desenvolvimento das pessoas com deficiência podem ser orientadores para uma proposta de escola inclusiva. Este artigo é desencadeado pela proposição vigotskiana de síntese dialética entre o ensino comum e o ensino especializado, destacando o trabalho colaborativo na escola inclusiva. Tem como objetivo propor uma síntese entre o planejamento individualizado e o planejamento coletivo, organizados, respectivamente, em propostas, como o Planejamento Educacional Individualizado (PEI) e o Desenho Universal para a Aprendizagem (DUA). Configura-se como um ensaio teórico que busca aproximações entre os escritos de Vigotski e as formas de organização do ensino na perspectiva inclusiva. Ao invés de polarizar os diferentes designs de planejamento do ensino, compreende-se o potencial de uma proposta de planejamento colaborativa, que agregue tanto o coletivo (como o DUA) quanto o individual (como o PEI) para a construção de síntese que supere limitações, preservando a essência de cada uma dessas abordagens metodológicas. Desse modo, apresentam-se orientações para o planejamento, que é coletivo e individualizado, a partir de uma perspectiva colaborativa, como construção da síntese dialética.
Thesis
Full-text available
This research delves into the different possibilities of implementing the minimum contents of the Academic English subjects at Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, taking into account the specific needs of its students. On the one hand, it gathers information about the students’ profile, throughout sources and interviews to key informants. On the other hand, it carries out a survey of Academic English offers in Spanish speaking universities, analyzing them through a triangulation of different theories regarding foreign language learning and didactics and pedagogy at university. Taking into account the UNRN students’ profile, it seems indispensable to include these contents in the obligatory curricula, in order to democratize the access to knowledge and in this way decrease the inequalities existing in the territory. It is concluded, among other things, that the experiences that implement problem based methods allow the meaningful learning of the contents through its practical application, together with its integration to previous knowledge, and it also allows to capitalize on the heterogeneity of the group.
Article
This paper presents a proposal and an initial prototype for a Serious Game (SG) aimed at helping second-language learners memorize a list of non-linked vocabulary items under a system of visuospatial bootstrapping (Darling et al., 2017). The usefulness of such a tool was suggested by the efficient outcomes of spatial mnemonics in TEFL providing 21st-century teachers, students, and game designers with new possibilities and it represents a new application of CALL. The game design is based on a modified version of Kalmpourtzis’ AMSTP game design model (2019) and it uses aesthetics, mechanics, story, technology, and pedagogy as its basis, adding the sixth element to its core: user expertise. The resulting AMSTP-UE framework allows in-game analysis from the point of view of a teacher, a learner, or a game designer. The game is a first-person walking simulator using the medium of virtual reality (VR) to provide its players with the feeling of presence in a virtual world. The prototype suggests using visuospatial information, deep learning APIs, and in-game data capture.
Chapter
Communities of practice provide challenging learning opportunities based on the principles of interaction, participation, dialogue, and relationship building. This chapter aims to explore how intercultural telecollaboration contributes to the development of a multicultural community of practice in the context of initial teacher education. Four groups of student teachers from four different languages and cultures—two in Europe, one in Asia, and one in South America—work together through the medium of English in an intercultural telecollaboration project. The project is examined in terms of community building through the experience journal of the student teachers as a reflective narrative on how they built a sense of community to sustain their interactions and negotiation of meaning. The findings strongly suggest that intercultural telecollaboration creates a powerful learning environment where students and teachers can find opportunities to cooperate, understand and support each other, and enhance their perceptions of teaching English from an intercultural perspective.
Article
The push strategy of anti-alcohol campaigns targeting young people, both in traditional media and on social media, has shown a limited capacity to contribute to the development of healthy behaviors. Even when young people know about the harmful effects of alcohol, they develop reactance attitudes, self-affirmation reactions, defensive responses, and neutralization of the persuasive attempts of institutional messages. It is necessary to seek new educational communication strategies that are effective in modifying behaviors favorable to alcohol consumption among young people. The aim of this research is to implement an educational method that favors this change toward healthy behaviors. On the basis of the Instagram campaign “Like my addiction,” 124 young people (age: M = 23.6 years, SD = 2.8 years) participated for 3 weeks in three phases to test whether the presence of alcohol on Instagram had an impact on their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as the effectiveness of the educational method tested. Half of the subjects followed a process of becoming aware of the presence of alcohol in this Instagram campaign and then participated in an interactive process of discussion according to the critical–dialogical educational method. The results show that this educational method is effective. Subjects in the control group who did not follow the method did not modify their behavior on Instagram. In contrast, the experimental group became aware of the masked presence of alcohol on Instagram. These subjects exhibit self-persuasion that makes them modify their activity favorably between the pre-test and post-test phase as they change their attitudes and behaviors toward alcohol. The results show that the critical–dialogical formative method can be favorably applied to implement campaigns and educational actions to fight alcohol addiction among young people.
Article
Full-text available
Uno de los principales retos de la investigación es la generación de conocimientos válidos en un marco consensuado por una comunidad científica, por lo que pocas veces se investiga sobre las prácticas investigativa que producen estos conocimientos. La investigación descrita en el artículo tiene el objetivo de interpretar el sentido de las prácticas investigativas en educación ambiental de una muestra de 13 educadores ambientales. Es un estudio descriptivo, de carácter interpretativo, orientado por el enfoque procesual de las representaciones sociales, desarrollado a través de la encuesta y la entrevista cualitativa. Se presentan los resultados de la entrevista, priorizando el análisis cualitativo de las expresiones textuales de los educadores ambientales. Los resultados proporcionan indicios de que en las prácticas investigativas predomina una postura cualitativa; los educadores ambientales coinciden en señalar que los aportes de la investigación posibilitan comprender las diferentes situaciones pedagógicas, los tipos de conocimientos que están presentes, los marcos de referencia y el origen de diversos problemas ambientales asociados a la educación ambiental. Las prácticas investigativas en educación ambiental identificadas se vinculan con los procesos de generación de conocimiento, búsqueda de soluciones y de mejora de la práctica pedagógica. En las conclusiones se destaca que el carácter subjetivo de los procesos en la educación ambiental, son abordados por la mayoría de los educadores ambientales, por métodos y técnicas cualitativas, con lo que cual se aprehenden las creencias, actitudes yrepresentaciones de diversos actores sociales; la mayoría de los educadores utiliza etnografía e investigación acción participativa.
Article
Introduction: Medical students have voluntarily initiated service-learning programs with the aim of providing assistance to medically underserved communities, especially within remote indigenous villages. However, their values and goals have been challenged because rural healthcare demands have changed considerably since the introduction of integrated delivery system (IDS) programs, i.e. programs that integrate local health care providers with outreach services provided by contracted hospitals. Our study aimed to explore how a healthcare service-learning group negotiates its position and how it responds to the tension of IDS implementation and changes in rural healthcare demand. Methods: Medical students who have been engaged in building or operating the healthcare service-learning group of one university in Taiwan were invited to participate in the study. We used cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to help us interpret the interactions between students, indigenous communities and the public health sectors and to understand the evolution of the service-learning relationship and its effectiveness. Results: 18 participants were recruited for in-depth interviews. The implementation of IDS programs brought change to the rural community and challenges to students' service learning. Utilizing cultural-historical activity theory, we highlighted points of fragmentation within the system. This tension lead to medical students' personal conflict and also served as an impetus for change and learning. Flexible goal setting and coping ability were considered critical to the sustainability and maintenance of students' value systems. Conclusions: IDS implementation can upset the balance of rural healthcare supply and demand, resulting in accumulating tensions within and between activity systems. Those contradictions exposed medical students to an expansive learning cycle, resulting in transformational change and learning. Under the context of IDS programs, healthcare service-learning can create a 'win-win' situation. Not merely medical students but also community residents, gain benefits. This result may be extrapolated to healthcare service-learning programs with similar context.
Article
Full-text available
When applying learning to cultural heritage using Information and Communication Technologies, more than developing knowledge and skills, it is a chance to develop sensitivities and values to learners. The present study will suggest “Project-Based Learning with Formative Interventions in Authentic Activities” as an approach in which students collaborate on authentic activities, developing at the same time aspects of their personality. To this end, two authentic activities were undertaken in an academic frame, to highlight local cultural heritage using new technologies.
About two years ago, on a cool Southern California day, Vasili Davydov addressed a group of social scientists at the University of California, San Diego. He began his talk with a paradox. He had come, he said, to tell us about educational activity. He promised to exhibit principles that promote educational activity, and applied programs deriving from those principles. Then he laughed. "But you'll never see educational activity in the school," he said, and laughed again.
Soviet psychology has developed on the basis of Marxist-Leninist philosophy, in particular, on the theory of the role of practical activity with objects in the intellectual development of the individual and on the theory of reflection. On these foundations, the general principles for the study of animal mind and of human consciousness have been developed in psychology that together constitute the activity approach. Psychology has accumulated a vast amount of material that provides concrete underpinnings for these principles, material that includes abundant scientific data describing the development of various mental processes. Although an integrated and developed theory of the emergence and development of mental activity and consciousness that would satisfy the basic requirements of a dialectical materialist concept of development has not yet been created, a scientific situation is in the process of being established that favors the construction of such theories.
Discusses ways of understanding phenomena of political repression, using activity theory. Activity system as the unit of analysis, systemic causality and contradictions, and time as cycles of expansive development provide the structure for arguments. A case example derived from work by F. Fanon (1967) illustrates how some types of liberation actions may lead to a dead end (i.e., activities considered to be pathological or criminal), instead of to the hoped for expansive cycle and an eventual novel activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
some, but not all, of the family theories of schizophrenia entail a shift from the Aristotelian/Cartesian/Newtonian epistemology of individual psychology to a systemic epistemology of pattern. Perhaps the most significant (and underappreciated) aspect of this epistemological shift pertains to etiology: The family theories of schizophrenia espoused by Bateson et al. and by Wynne and Singer do not claim that parents or families cause schizophrenia. The persistent failure of researchers to appreciate this has led to many fruitless studies that have sought to discover a causal link between the thought disorder and communication deviance of parents and the schizophrenia of their offspring. This paper reviews from an epistemological viewpoint the empirical literature that has attempted to assess the validity of the family theories of schizophrenia. Particular attention is given to restating and extending the epistemology of pattern within which schizophrenia occurs. The conventional psychiatric approaches to schizophrenia are shown to play an active role within the schizophrenic pattern.