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Viability Study of an Electrified Regional Turboprop

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This paper presents a review of the issues concerning sandwich structures for aeronautical applications. The main questions raised by designers are first recalled and the complexity of sandwich structure design for aeronautics is highlighted. Then a review of applications is presented, starting with early examples from the 1930s and the Second World War. The growth in the use of sandwich materials in civil and military applications is then developed. Recent research and innovations conclude the paper.
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Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published [following peer-review] in Meteorologische Zeitschrift, published by and copyright Gebrueder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung. New estimates of the various contributions to the radiative forcing (RF) from aviation are presented, mainly based on results from the TRADEOFF project that update those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1999). The new estimate of the total RF from aviation for 2000 is approximately the same as that of the IPCC’s estimate for 1992. This is mainly a consequence of the strongly reduced RF from contrails, which compensates the increase due to increased traffic from 1992 to 2000. The RF from other aviation induced cirrus clouds might be as large as the present estimate of the total RF (without cirrus). However, our present knowledge on these aircraft-induced cirrus clouds is too poor to provide a reliable estimate of the associated RF.
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-1994.vid This paper explores the design spaces of a thin-haul and a regional aircraft with parallel hybrid electric propulsion architectures and an entry into service date of 2030. Notional technology reference aircraft models were developed for a 19- and a 50-passenger aircraft based on publicly available data on the Beechcraft 1900D and ATR 42-600, respectively. Advanced technology aircraft models were developed by infusing the reference aircraft models with a set of selected airframe and propulsion system technologies projected to reach maturity by2030. Matlab and NPSS-based parametric, physics-based models were created for the charge depleting parallel hybrid electric propulsion system architecture. Different modes of operation were identified and parametrized with a basket of design variables to investigate the feasibility and trade space for peak power shaving, climb power boosting, electric taxi, battery usage schedules, and in-flight battery recharge strategies. A design of experiments with thousands of data points was conducted for the 19- and 50-passenger electrified aircraft propulsion vision systems. The vision systems were sized for the same point and mission performance requirements as their conventional counterpart. Artificial Neural Network models were fit toa set of subsystem, system, and mission level metrics of interest. An extensive trade study was performed to identify the fuel burn, weight, and efficiency trends and sensitivities as a function of different modes of operation as well as the electric powertrain key performance parameters and technology projections for 2030 and onward. The resulting multidisciplinary design space exploration environment was used to identify the optimum vision system designs and modes of operation for the minimum block fuel burn objective. It was found that both vehicle classes with the charge depleting parallel hybrid electric architecture provided fuel burn benefits over their 2030 advanced technology counterparts under certain modes of operation.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper was to create a generic and flexible framework for the exploration, evaluation and side-by-side comparison of novel propulsion architectures. The intent for these evaluations was to account for varying operation strategies and to support architectural design space decisions, at the conceptual design stages, rather than single-point design solutions. Design/methodology/approach To this end, main propulsion subsystems were categorized into energy, power and thrust sources. Two types of matrices, namely, the property and interdependency matrices, were created to describe the relationships and power flows among these sources. These matrices were used to define various electrified propulsion architectures, including, but not limited to, turboelectric, series-parallel and distributed electric propulsion configurations. Findings As a case study, the matrices were used to generate and operate the distributed electric propulsion architecture of NASA’s X-57 Mod IV aircraft concept. The mission performance results were acceptably close to the data obtained from the literature. Finally, the matrices were used to simulate the changes in the operation strategy under two motor failure scenarios to demonstrate the ease of use, rapidness and automation. Originality/value It was seen that this new framework enables rapid and analysis-based comparisons among unconventional propulsion architectures where solutions are driven by requirements.
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