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The path for the internationalization of a city and its tourism growth. The case of Medellín, Colombia



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THE INC 2022
ISBN: 978-9963-697-42-7
Tourism, Hospitality & Events
Innovation and Resilience
during Uncertainty
© Limassol 2022
Table of Contents
Organising Committee
Scientific Committee
The Organisers
Keynote Speakers
Supporting Organisations
Supporting Journals
Presentation of
Organising Committee
Chair of organising committee
Dr Anna Farmaki, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Dr Prokopis Christou, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Dr Alexis Saveriades, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Prof Anastasios Zopiatis, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Scientific Committee
Chairs of Scientific Committee
Dr Eleni Michopoulou, University of Derby, UK
Prof Nikolaos Pappas, University of Sunderland, UK
Dr Julian K. Ayeh, Coventry University, UK
Dr Iride Azara, University of Derby, UK
Prof Kenneth Backman, Clemson University, USA
Prof Rodolfo Baggio, Bocconi University, Italy
Dr Nikolaos Boukas, European University Cyprus, Cyprus
Dr Ilenia Bregoli, University of Lincoln, UK
Prof Claudia Brözel, HNE Eberswalde, Germany
Prof Dimitrios Buhalis, Bournamouth University, UK
Prof Mark Camilleri, University of Malta, Malta
Prof Lorenzo Cantoni, Università della Svizzera italiana, USI Lugano, Switzerland
Prof Elena Cavagnaro, NHL Stenden University, Netherlands
Prof Donna Chambers, University of Sunderland, UK
Prof Giacomo Del Chiappa, University of Sassari, Italy
Dr Evi Eftychiou, University of Nicosia, Cyprus
Dr Alessandra Fermani, University of Macerata, Italy
Prof Alan Fyall, University of Central Florida, USA
Prof Maria Gravari Barbas, University of Sorbonne, France
Prof Ulrike Gretzel, University of Southern California, USA
Dr Elias Hadjielias, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Prof Michael C. Hall, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Dr Stavros Hatzimarinakis, University of Patras, Greece
Prof Dimitri Ioannides, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden
Dr Rami Isaac, Brenda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Dr Elitza Iordanova, University of West London, UK
Prof Stanislav Ivanov, Varna University of Management, Bulgaria
Dr Robert Kiss, I-Shou University, Taiwan
Dr Petros Kosma, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus
Dr Christina Koutra, University of Abu Dhabi, UAE
Prof Metin Kozak, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Dr Olga Kvasova, University of Central Lancashire Cyprus, Cyprus
Prof Rob Law, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, SAR China
Prof Erwin Losekoot, NHL Stenden University, Netherlands
Prof Yoel Mansfeld, University of Haifa, Israel
Prof Scott McCabe, University of Nottingham, UK
Dr Michelle McLeod, University of West Indies, Jamaica
Dr Yioula Melanthiou, University of Nicosia, Cyprus
Dr Valeria Minghetti, CISET – Ca’ Fiscari University, Italy
Dr Carlos Mario Amaya Molinar, Universidad de Colima, Mexico
Prof Nigel Morgan, University of Surrey, UK
Dr Ana Maria Munar, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Dr Bernard Musyck, University of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan
Prof Marina Novelli, The University of Brighton, UK
Prof Fevzi Okumus, University of Central Florida, USA
Dr Hossein Olya, University of Sheffield, UK
Dr Linda Osti, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
Prof Andreas Papatheodorou, University of Aegean, Greece
Prof Alexandros Paraskevas, University of West London, UK
Dr Cody Morris Paris, Middlesex University, Dubai
Dr Juho Pesonen, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Prof Richard Sharpley, University of Central Lancashire, UK
Prof Marianna Sigala, University of South Australia, Australia
Dr Aspasia Simillidou, University of Central Lancashire Cyprus, Cyprus
Dr Dimitrios Stergiou, Hellenic Open University, Greece
Dr Lucia Tomassini, NHL Stenden University, Netherlands
Prof Paris Tsartas, Harokopeio University, Greece
Dr Steven Tufts, York University, Canada
Prof Sigbjørn Landazuri Tveteraas, University of Stavanger, Norway
Dr Craig Webster, Ball State University, USA
Prof David White, Clemson University, USA
Prof Zheng (Phil) Xiang, Virginia Tech University, USA
Dr Ian Yeoman, University of Wellington, New Zealand
Dr Anita Zatori, Radford University, USA
The Organisers
Cyprus University of Technology (CUT)
is a public university,
based in Limassol, established by State law in 2004 and
admitted its first students in September 2007. It is a modern
and innovative university with international recognition which
promotes excellence in education and research in cutting-edge
fields, aiming at the scientific, technological, economic, social
and cultural upgrading of our country.
vision is to establish the university as an international center of university education by
offering quality and competitive programmes that reflect technological and industrial
developments as well as the market needs. Addressing high-level students, the university
offers modern teaching associated with applied research, aiming to create employable and
well-educated graduates. As a higher education institution, it also seeks to promote lifelong
learning for the benefit of society.An essential parameter of the international recognition
that the university enjoys is the universities’ international rankings. In less than 13 years of
operation, the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) has occupied high positions in
international rankings. Specifically, in the 2019 Times Higher Education World University
Rankings (THE), the CUT is ranked 63rd among the best young universities in the world and
first in Cyprus and Greece. Also, at the 2019 Times Higher Education World Rankings, our
university was ranked 301-350 among the best 1258 universities in the world and first in
Cyprus and Greece.
CUT is constantly committed to promoting research excellence and is internationally
distinguished in this area, providing a total of 40 million Euros of external funding for 227
research programmes. The latest European HORIZON 2020 programme has secured
funding of over 9 million Euros, with 23 research proposals, marking the highest rate of
success in Cyprus. Recent successes include two ERC strategic projects totalling 3.3 million
Euros, two “Teaming for Excellence” research proposals led by the CUT, which ensured the
highest pan-European rating and participation in the creation of a RISE Excellence Center
for technological and business innovation.
University of Derby
is a
in the city
of Derby, England. It traces its history back to the establishment
of the Derby Diocesan Institution for the Training of
Schoolmistresses in 1851.
The u
ty was awarded Gold status in the TEF ratings
which acknowledged its teaching
excellence. University of Derby Research is distinctive and it is proud of its researchers. Its
research is often applied to support the sectors that drive national economic growth, to
improve the lives of people locally, nationally and internationally and to support effective
policy making and governance. The University of Derby often works with collaborators
from partner institutions and with industry. It publishes its research so that everyone can
share its knowledge. Its researchers support the creation of further knowledge through
their work with its postgraduate research student community.
University of Sunderland
is a global institution. It
changing opportunities to thousands of students across the
world, in its partner colleges and in its four main sites at
Sunderland, London and Hong Kong.
It is research active, with ten areas of 'world leading’
research (Pharmacy, Engineering,
Business, Education, Social Work, Sports and Exercise Sciences, Leisure and Tourism,
English, History, Art and Design, and Media). The research activity of the University of
provides a research informed curriculum, enhancing the academic standing of the
institution as a seat of higher learning and scholarship, undertaking research which both
enhances the learning experience of its students, and delivers impact. Its research is
stitched into the fabric of the institution. For decades researchers at the University have
challenged themselves to improve society across all its facets – from the early days of
pharmacy to support for heavy industry at its height to today's new sciences and advanced
The research
centre (CERTE) was established in
the beginning
of 2017, and has already engaged in numerous activities and
projects. The name CERTE stands for Centre for Research in
Tourism Excellence.
CERTE is at the heart of the Department for
Hospitality, Events, Aviation and
(H.E.A.T.) at the University of Sunderland, and operates as the beacon for knowledge
generation through research implementation. It is dedicated to employ both, applied and
academic research in tourism, hospitality, and events. It aims to impact on the generation
of knowledge as well as its application in the industry. Moreover, it operates as a platform
for research led teaching and provision of better education and knowledge dissemination.
Keynote Speakers
Professor Jane Ali
Jane is currently leading and developing the festival and
event subject group as well as lecturing at Universities
internationally and facilitating training and
development in the field. She is Course Director of the
'Executive Certificate in Festival and Event
Management' delivered in Scotland and the UAE and
the highly successful ‘Destination Leaders Programme’
delivered with Scottish Enterprise. Her core activities fall
into three main areas: event and festival related
programmes; research and publications and
conferences and professional events. She is currently a
board member of BAFA (British Arts and Festivals
Association); Without Walls; Women in Tourism and is a
Fellow of the HEA and Royal Society of the Arts.
A recognised academic she has presented at major
international and national conferences and has
published widely in a range of international academic
journals in the areas of wine tourism, tourism, festival
and event marketing and management. She is also on
the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Vacation
Marketing, International Journal of Event and Festival
Management and is a regular reviewer for Tourism
Management. She has also co-edited seminal text books
in the area of Festival and Event Management. Jane has
extensive experience in designing and delivering
undergraduate, postgraduate and professional courses
in tourism and festival and event management both in
the UK and overseas. She is a Visiting Research Fellow at
Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
Her recent event related experience extends to
CakeFest Edinburgh 2015, a Year of Food and Drink
Funded Project; Special Events Management and
Publicity Co-ordination for the Abu Dhabi Film Festival
(ADFF), 2007 - 2012, and extensive Professional and
Academic Conference Organisation.
Professor Cathy Hsu
Cathy is the lead author of the books Tourism
Marketing: An Asia-Pacific Perspective, published in
2008 by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd., and
Marketing Hospitality, published in 2001 by John Wiley
and Sons. She also authored two Chinese textbooks on
tourism marketing, one published in 2009 by Renmin
University Press, Beijing and one published in 2011 by
Yang-Chih Book Co. Ltd., Taiwan. She has co-edited a
book, Tourism and Demography, published by
Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. in 2011. She is the editor and
chapter author of the book, Legalized Casino Gaming in
the US: The Economic and Social Impact, published in
1999, and of the book, Casino Industry in Asia Pacific:
Development, Operations, and Impact, published in
2006, both by The Haworth Hospitality Press. The latter
has been translated into Chinese and published in
Taiwan in 2010.
Her research foci have been tourism destination
marketing, tourist behaviors, hotel branding, service
quality, and the economic and social impacts of casino
gaming. She has obtained numerous extramural and
intramural grants and has over 180 refereed
publications. She has served as a consultant to various
tourism organizations, such as the World Tourism
Organization, Garden Hotels in Guangzhou, and Kansas
Travel and Tourism Development Division.
Cathy is the Editor-in-Chief of Tourism Management
journal and the Journal of Teaching in Travel and
Tourism. She also serves on 9 journal editorial boards.
She received the John Wiley & Sons Lifetime Research
Achievement Award in 2009 and International Society of
Travel and Tourism Educator’s Martin Oppermann
Memorial Award for Lifetime Contribution to Tourism
Education in 2011.
Professor Scott McCabe
Scott is a Professor in Marketing and Tourism and has
worked at the University of Nottingham since 2007.
Prior to this post, he held lecturing positions at Sheffield
Hallam, Leeds Beckett and Derby University. The main
focus of Scott's research is on tourist experience and
consumer behaviour. He studied day visitor's
motivations for visiting the Peak District National Park
for his PhD thesis, undertaking detailed analysis of the
language visitors used to construct and formulate
reasoned accounts for their actions, drawing on for
example, biography and place identity. Scott is an
experienced teacher, having taught marketing and
consumer behaviour classes to undergraduate, MSc,
and MBA students. He also has some experience of
delivering Executive education to international
audiences. His research on 'social tourism' has become
internationally recognised, and he am frequently invited
to give keynote presentations to international
conferences and symposiums, to participate in
workshops and panel sessions.
Scott is the current co-Editor in Chief of Annals of
Tourism Research, and an editorial board member on
the Journal of Policy Research in Leisure, Tourism and
Events, the Annals of Leisure Research, and the
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality
Management. He has also been an Associate Editor of
the Journal of Business Research (2016-18). Scott has
been a member of the International Sociological
Association (Research Committee 50 on International
Tourism) since 2004, and currently serves as Vice
President for Organising the World Congress sessions
for that committee. He has previously served as Deputy
Chair of the Tourism Marketing SIG of the Academy of
Marketing and on the Committee of the Association for
Tourism in Higher Education learned society.
Prior to joining Higher Education Scott worked in the
tourism and hospitality industry first in the Peak District
National Park and then during travels in Australia and
South East Asia.
Editors’ Corner
THE INC 2022 also included an editors’ corner consisting with editors-in-chief of high tier
journals. Apart from Professor Cathy Hsu (Tourism Management) and Professor Scott McCabe
(Annals of Tourism Research) who also acted as our keynotes, for the editors’ corner it had
the confirmed participation of:
Dr Mike Duignan
Mike is the editor
chief of the leading international journal in
the study of events and festivals, Event Management. He is the
Head of Department and Reader in Events at the School of
Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, and
Director of the ‘Observatory for Human Rights and Major Events’
(HaRM) the UK’s official Olympic Studies Centre endorsed by
the International Olympic Committee.
Professor Marina Nov
Marina is a co
chief of the
Tourism Planning and
Development journal. She is an internationally renowned policy,
planning and sustainable development expert and Professor of
Tourism and International Development at Brighton School of
Business and Law, which is an Affiliate Member of the UN World
Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). She is a geographer with a
background in economics, with significant experience of high-
quality research, consultancy, PhD supervision, teaching and
curriculumm development.
Professor James Petrick
James is the co
chief of the
Journal of Travel Research
He is a Full Professor, Research Fellow and the Associate
Department Head for Graduate Studies in the Department of
RPTS at Texas A&M University. His research interest focuses on
applying marketing and psychology principles in the context of
tourism services. Pursuant to this interest, his research has been
concentrated on understanding tourists’ purchase behaviors, to
assist in properly marketing to them as well as the physiological
effects travel has on the tourist.
Dr Manuel Rivera
Manuel is the editor
chief for
International Journal of
Hospitality Management, the most regarded hospitality journal
worldwide. He serves as an Assistant Dean at the Rosen College
of Hospitality Management at University of Central Florida.
Manuel holds a Ph.D. degree from the University of Central
Florida, a Master Degree from Florida International University, a
Bachelor Degree from Penn State University, and a Revenue
Management Certification from Cornell University.
Organising Committee
Dr Anna Farmaki
is an Assistant Professor in Tourism Management at the
Department of Hotel and Tourism Management at the Cyprus
University of Technology. She holds a PhD in Marketing from
Nottingham Trent University. She also holds a Master's degree in
Marketing from Kingston University and a BA in Business
Management from the University of Westminster, London. In the
past, she worked as a lecturer and a programme leader for
Hospitality and Tourism Management programmes in private
higher education institutions in Cyprus. Her research has been
published in reputable, peer-reviewed scientific journals and she
has participated in international scientific conferences and
workshops. She has also been invited as a speaker in universities
abroad whereas currently she is visiting lecturer at Stralsund
University of Applied Sciences in Germany. She is a member of the
Higher Education Academy of the United Kingdom and a
representative of the Republic of Cyprus in European COST
Scientific Committee
Dr Elina (Eleni) Michopoulou
Associate Professor in Business Management at the
University of Derby, Buxton. She holds a PhD in Accessible
Tourism Information Systems from the University of Surrey and
her research interests include technological applications and
information systems in tourism, online consumer behaviour and
technology acceptance. She is the European Editor for the
International Journal of Spa and Wellness, and she has also acted
as a Guest Editor for several special issue in highly esteemed
journals. Previously she was involved in the European
Commission funded Project OSSATE (One-Stop-Shop for
Accessible Tourism in Europe), that aimed to implement a
prototype multi-platform, multi-lingual information service,
providing national and regional content on accessible tourist
venues, sites and accommodation in Europe.
Professor Nikolaos Pappas
a P
rofessor of Tourism Development and Crisis
Management, and the Director of CERTE (Centre for Research in
Tourism Excellence) at the University of Sunderland. He holds a
doctorate (PhD) in Tourism Development and Planning, and a
post-doctorate (PDoc) in Risk and Crisis Management, both from
the University of Aegean, Greece. He started his career in the
tourism and hospitality industry in 1990, and for 10 years (2001-
2010) he was also engaged in enterprising consultancy. Since
2001, he has been an academic in higher education, gaining
experience from several institutions in Greece (Technological
Education Institute of Crete; Hellenic Open University; Higher
School of Public Administration) and the UK (Derby;
Northampton; Leeds Beckett; UWL). Since 1998, he has been
involved in several research projects, also generating numerous
publications in highly esteemed journals. His academic interests
concern risk and crisis management communications, tourism
and hospitality planning and development, and destination
CABI (Centre for Agriculture and
International) is an international not-for-profit
organization that improves people’s lives worldwide by
providing information and applying scientific expertise
to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.
Its approach involves putting information, skills and
tools into people's hands.
Goodfellow Publishers
is a highly flexible multichannel
international academic and professional publisher for
Business and related areas. It publishes book and online
projects with a range of authors internationally in
Hospitality, Leisure, Tourism, Events and more general
is the world's leading academic publisher in
the Humanities and Social Sciences. It publishes
thousands of books and journals each year, serving
scholars, instructors, and professional communities
worldwide. Routledge is a member of Taylor & Francis
Group, an informa business.
Supporting Organisations
Institute of Hospitality (IoH)
body for managers and aspiring managers working
and studying in the hospitality, leisure and tourism
industry. It has members working in every sector of
the industry and in over 100 countries around the
Its primary purpose is
to promote professionalism through lifelong learning. This is achieved
through engagement with hospitality educators around the world, through its knowledge
library resources and through a programme of professional development events. It aims to
support all its members at every stage of their career and help them reach their full
potential. Every part of its broad industry is supported; Managers, students, educators and
suppliers. Established in 1938, it is managed as an educational charity and its resources
include publications, management guides and research, covering both its industry and
other management disciplines.
Association for Events Management Education
(AEME) was established on April 21st 2004 with the
aim to advance events education within the UK and
objectives are: (i)
To provide a voice for events education (ii)
to support and raise the
profile of the events discipline through the sharing of education and best practice (iii)
to provide a discussion forum for issues effecting events education and industry (iv) to
establish communication opportunities between events stakeholders (v) to encourage the
development and dissemination of the events management body of knowledge (vi) to
support, undertake and disseminate events research, and (vii) to encourage international
exchange of ideas and best practice in events.
Tourism Management Institute (TMI)
is a
network of professionals who promote and develop
destinations across the UK, Europe and throughout
the world.
They support their members throughout their careers by providing opportunities for
sharing knowledge and expertise in destination management and being a voice for
destination management. TMI is a company limited by guarantee and operates for the
benefit of its members. It is managed by its Executive Board, who are elected from the
membership. All surplus generated by TMI’s events and activities is reinvested to improve
and enhance the services and benefits they offer to members.
Association of British Travel Agents
been a trusted travel brand for over 70 years, and is
the largest travel association in the United Kingdom.
advice and guidance to the travelling public, as well as leading the travel industry
in supporting high service standards, working with its Members on health and safety, and
promoting responsible tourism at home and abroad. ABTA’s offer of support, protection
and expertise means people can have confidence in ABTA; and a strong trust in its
Members. These qualities are core to ABTA as they ensure that people remain confident in
the holidays and travel experiences that they buy from ABTA’s Members.
Council for Hospitality Management
Education (CHME) is a non-profit making
organisation representing European and
International universities and colleges offering higher
education programmes in the fields of hospitality
studies, hospitality management, and related fields.
It is CHME’s stated purpose to contribute to the professional development and status of
European and International hospitality management education, through the sharing of best
practice in scholarship and pedagogy. The CHME and international Executive consists of
members of staff from a number of universities across the UK, Europe and international
member institutions.
Special Issues & Supporting Journals
Event Management
Event Management, an International Journal, intends to meet the
research and analytic needs of a rapidly growing profession focused
on events. This field has developed in size and impact globally to
become a major business with numerous dedicated facilities, and a
large-scale generator of tourism. The field encompasses meetings,
conventions, festivals, expositions, sport and other special events.
Event management is also of considerable importance to
government agencies and not-for-profit organizations in a pursuit
of a variety of goals, including fund-raising, the fostering of causes,
and community development.
Tourism Planning and Development
Tourism Planning and Development (TPD) aims to explore and
advance our theoretical and practical understandings of the
intersections between tourism, planning and development studies.
Each of these fields of study is characterised by rich scholarly and
interdisciplinary traditions. TPD seeks to leverage these and other
complementary scholarly traditions to build new interdisciplinary
understandings in tourism planing and development. In a rapidly
changing and uncertain world, tourism planning and development
processed are being shaped by globalisation, public, private and
third sector management and governance. In some cases,
communities, societies, governments, and non-government
organisations. In doing so, the Journal seeks to engage and
challenge readers by asking: What can/should we do about tourism
planning and development? Who can/should be taking
responsibility for tourism planning and development?
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality
Management (IJCHM) communicates the latest developments and
thinking on the management of hospitality and tourism businesses
worldwide. IJCHM publishes peer reviewed papers covering issues
relevant to strategic management, operations, marketing, finance
and HR management. IJCHM encourages an interchange between
researchers and managers. Contributors are encouraged to identify
clear theoretical and practical implications of their work for
hospitality management from single unit concerns to large
Tourism Management
Tourism Management is the leading scholarly journal focuses on
the management, including planning and policy, of travel and
tourism. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach in
examining international, national and regional tourism as well as
specific management issues. The journal's contents reflect its
integrative approach - including primary research articles, progress
in tourism research, case studies, research notes, discussion of
current issues, and book reviews. As a scholarly journal, all papers
published should contribute to theoretical and/or methodological
advancement, in addition to having specific implications for
tourism management/policy. Innovative topics and perspectives
that challenge traditional paradigms are welcome to push the
knowledge boundary of tourism management.
THE INC 2022: Programme
THE INC 2022: Programme
Wednesday 22nd June 2022
18:30-19:00 Registration
Welcome Drinks Ceremony
The ceremony will be held at S Paul hotel
Map and directions:
Thursday 23rd June 2022
8:30-9:00 Welcome to the Cyprus University of Technology: Prof Panayotis Zaphiris (Rector); Prof Anastasios Zopiatis (HoD); Dr Anna Farmaki (Chair)
Welcome to THE INC 2022 (Co-chairs of THE-INC Scientific Committee): Dr Eleni Michopoulou and Prof Nikolaos Pappas
9:00-10:00 Keynote: Prof Scott McCabe- Old wine in new bottles: Paths to a more resilient future for tourism Amphitheatre
Coffee break
Presentation Session
Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Dr Petra Gyurácz-Németh
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Dr Sheevun Di Guliman
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Chair: Dr Natalia Tomczewska-Popowycz
Paper Session 4 (Room 5)
Chair: Prof
Martinette Kruger
Leon Davis
The ongoing impact of COVID-19 on French
winter sports tourism
Inês Carvalho, Ana Ramires and Michelle
An analysis of latent demand in language
Ana Ramires, Inês Carvalho and Ana Raquel
Traveling to learn English or another
language? Language tourists in profile:
motivations, attitudes, and behavior
Norberto Santos, Claudete Moreira and Luís
Gastronomy and wine: The consumer habits of
Portuguese centennials
Luís Silveira, Claudete Moreira, Norberto
Santos and Carlos Ferreira
Training and education in tourism: Evaluation,
experience, and perspectives of former
university students regarding the academic
and professional skills
Prawannarat Brewer, Heidi Dent and Angela
Factors contributing to hospitality employee
turnover during the pandemic
Bianca Frost and Elizabeth Du Preez
In it for the long run! Exploring marathon
runners’ responses to restricted event
participation during COVID-19
Katalin Csobán, Nirmeen Elmohandes,
György Serra and Károly Pető
The impacts of technological advancements
on sports events tourism
Katalin Csobán, Andrea Szőllős-Tóth, Károly
Pető and Anett Godáné Sőrés
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on
residents? attitudes to tourism
development? case study of a Hungarian spa
Josep Llados
Masllorens, Antoni Meseguer
Artola, Lluís Garay-Tamajon and Soledad
Airbnb during COVID-19: Performance and
resilient strategies in Barcelona
Jeroen Oskam and Anna de Visser-
Hospitality education: Preparing students
for times of uncertainty
Vasilis Papavasiliou
Negotiating reconciliation and peace
through narratives – The case of Cyprus
Presentation Session
Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Dr Xuan Lorna Wang
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Dr Prawannarat Brewer
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Chair: Dr Katalin Csobán
Paper Session 4 (Room 5)
Chair: Dr Josep Llados-Masllorens
Popowycz, Lukasz
Quirini-Poplawski and Slawomir Dorocki
Tourism sector resilience during (permanent)
instability: Evidence from Ukraine
Sheevun Di Guliman, Berlyn TeaÑo, Stephen
Fajardo, Felipe Lula Jr., Donnavic Dumapias
and Tressa Maye Pendang
Strengthening the financial performance of the
hospitality and tourism industry amidst a
disrupted business environment: Is resiliency
Ian Elsmore, Ric
hard Cooper and Kate
Off road and riding towards recovery: COVID-
19 and the UK Gravel Bike event industry
Jessica Weston
Solo Travel as a strategy for building
Claire Roe, Eleni Michopoulou and Kathleen
Co-creating tourism and world heritage
destination resilience: A stakeholder
Elecia Bethune, Dimitrios Buhalis and Lee
Destination resilience: Developing tourism
crisis response through smartness
Tomas Saralegui
The impact of P2P accommodation on pre-
pandemic tourism demand: Has it just been
Fani Efthymiadoy and Anna Farmaki
Peer-to-peer accommodation hosting as a
means of empowerment: Perspectives of
women Airbnb hosts
Cyril Martin-Colonna
Pandemic COVID-19 tourism, governance
and community(ies): European-wide
longitudinal research on tourism behaviour,
between resistance(s) and resilience(s)
Cyril Martin-Colonna
The role of tourism of memorial and cultural
representation of the past conflict in the
post-conflict process: The case of Sarajevo
Alexander Balzan, Ana Carolina Arboleda
Gallo and Juan Manuel González Agudelo
The use of Instagram as a strategy for city
marketing. Digital content analysis, the
case of Medellín, Colombia
Alexander Balzan
The path for the internationalization of a
city and its tourism growth. The case of
Medellín, Colombia
12:30-14:00 Lunch
14:00-15:00 Editors’ Corner: Dr Mike Duignan (Event Management); Prof Cathy Hsu (Tourism Management); Prof Scott McCabe (Annals of Tourism Research); Prof Marina
Novelli (Tourism Planning and Development); Prof James Petrick (Journal of Travel Research); Dr Manuel Rivera (International Journal of Hospitality Management) Amphitheatre
15:00-15:10 Break
Presentation Session
Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Prof Jeroen Oskam
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Dr Ana Carolina Arboleda Gallo
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Chair: Dr Luís Silveira
Paper Session 4 (Room 5)
Chair: Dr Leon Davis (ONLINE)
Pantelitsa Yerimou, Christos
and George Panigyrakis
Does sense of place matter? Investigating the
role of airport atmospherics on destination
Christian Weismayer, Ilona Pezenka, David
Bourdin and Lorena Gomez-Diaz
Analyzing cultural differences of destination
commercials using facial expression analysis
Nikolaos Pappas and Kyriaki Glyptou
The complexity of sustainable tourism
behaviour during recession
Xuan Lorna Wang, Zhongyin Yao and Hongbo
Daisy Liu
Digital divide in hospitality and tourism: a
Systematic literature review
Petra Gyurácz-Németh, Eszter Bogdány and
Krisztina Dabronaki-Priszinger
Tourism students’ resilience towards tourism
career in uncertain times
Birgit Pikkemaat, Sarah Eichelberger, Nicole
Spögler and Chung-Shing Chan
Lockdown time well spent? COVID-19 as an
opportunity for innovation in hospitality family
Oliver Kesar
Building a resilient local economy: The
influence of global crises on deglobalisation
of the tourism supply system
Dora Smolčić Jurdana, Suzana Bareša and
Jelena Kapeš
Tourism and hospitality career in times of
disruption: Perspective of high-school
Theodore Metaxas and Areti Kasiola
Studying the pandemic impacts on culture:
COVID-19 and the public museums in Greece
Hayley Marshall, James Johnson and A
Going alone: Experience, resilience and
belonging. The case solo event goers at
music events in the U.K.
Kevin Wallace
Approaching the complexities of event
project stakeholder management
Kyriaki Glyptou
Exploring the attributes of event resilience:
A content case on academic events
16:10-16:30 Coffee break
Presentation Session
Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Dr Kangwoo Lee
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Prof Birgit Pikkemaat (ONLINE)
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Chair: Dr Ilona Pezenka (ONLINE)
Paper Session 4 (Room 5)
Dr Christian Weismayer (ONLINE)
Benedetta Piccio
Edinburgh: The world’s leading festival city.
But what about gender equality?
Martinette Kruger and Adam Viljoen
Profiling the literary arts festival market in
South Africa
Martinette Kruger and Adam Viljoen
A typology of visitors to a beauty exhibition
in South Africa
Jonathan Skinner
Reharbouring heritage with the rising from the
depths network: UN SDGs, intangible cultural
heritage, and the festival of the sea in Sainte
Luce, Madagascar
Emmanouil Papavasileiou, Dimitrios Stergiou,
Andreas Papatheodorou and Anna Farmaki
Shades of gray in tourism research: A
systematic literature review of generational
diversity in air transport workforce
Anna Farmaki and Dimitrios Stergiou
CSR as a resilience tactic during the COVID-19
pandemic: Insights from the hotel sector
Ekaterina Chevtaeva, Roman Egger, Barbara
Neuhofer and Mattia Rainoldi
Engaging with workation online: Social media
marketing communication touchpoints
Christina Karadimitriou, Alkiviadis
Panagopoulos and Ioulia Poulaki
Restarting Athens Marathon during COVID-
19 uncertainty
Christina Karadimitriou and Alkiviadis
Destination crisis management
communications during uncertainty: The
case of Athens
Thuc Thi Mai Doan Do
The role of servicescape and perceived
authenticity in enhancing customer loyalty
toward Korean restaurants in Vietnam – Do
gender and celebrity attachment matter?
Jenny Sok and Tom Kuypers
Antecedents of team resilience in
hospitality education: Team potency,
psychological safety and team creativity
Geesje Duursma and Erwin Losekoot
Welcoming volunteers in(to) the library as
a place of hospitality
Gulnoza Usmonova, Deniza Alieva and
Sherzod Aktamov
Perceived tourism development: Sharing
attitudes and pride among young adults
towards sustainable tourism planning
Recommended social events (at delegates’ expense)
After the conference we will head out to enjoy some local food and drinks. You can meet us at the front of the Limassol Castle, at 20:45, and we walk there together. If you would
rather find your own way the links to directions are below
Dinner: Karatello Tavern, Drinks, food and amazing views: Pier ONE
map and directions map and directions:
Friday 24th June 2022
9:00-10:00 Keynote: Prof Cathy Hsu - Hospitality innovation and resilience: An Asian perspective Amphitheatre
10:00-10:20 Coffee Break
Presentation Session
Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Dr Evangelia Marinakou
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Dr Erose Sthapit
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Chair: Dr Jakia Rajoana (ONLINE)
Uglješa Stankov, Miroslav Vujičić and Đorđije Vasiljević
A call for mindful tourism: Integrating consciousness into the
fabric of tourist experiences and tourism policy
Hanaa Osman and Nirmeen Elmohandes
Conflicting cultural values and the female tourist experience
Evangelia Marinakou and Davide Lecca
Personalised experience for airline passengers with flight-
related anxiety
Margaret Connolly
Part of the solution or part of the problem? How consumer
food purchasing behaviours are impacting the resilience of
food producers in Ireland
Maria Zoi Spanaki
Risk management: New services risk management - case
study on the Greek hotel industry
Maria Hadjielia Drotarova and Prokopis Christou
Nurturing the younger generation in heritage tourism: A
family perspective
Krisztina Eleftheriou-Hocsak and Nikolaos Boukas
Promoting sustainability through policy incentives targeting
tourism SMEs in coastal destinations
Sophie Pegler and Charalampos Giousmpasoglou
Exploring the effects of internal Corporate Social
Responsibility on the employee-employer relationship in
luxury hotels: An employee’s perspective
Pavlos Arvanitis
Carry-on baggage on low-cost carriers. A no-frills journey?
11:20-11:30 Break
Presentation Session
11:30-12:30 Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Dr Alexis Saveriades
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Dr Maria Hadjielia Drotarova
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Dr Hanaa Osman (ONLINE)
Goda Lukoseviciute, Luis Nobre Pereira, Thomas
Panagopoulos, Giancarlo Fedeli, Elaine Ramsey, Kyle
Madden, Joan Condell, Ana María Brito Botín, Xabier Velasco
Echeverria and Michael Carty
Recreational trail development within different geographical
contexts of the European Atlantic area as a determinant for
local economic impact
Jahanir Alam and Jakia Rajoana
Rural community resilience and ecotourism development in
the Sundarbans area of Bangladesh
Erose Sthapit and Peter Bjork
Sources of three dimensions of interactive value formation
in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: Airbnb guest’s
Demos Parapanos
Innovation in hospitality: Development of mobile
applications with gaming characteristics
Giuseppe Lamberti, Nikolaos Pappas, Josep Rialp, Alexandra
Simon and Andreas Papatheodorou
Football club business management and satisfaction of
spectators. A complexity approach
Pedro Vaz Serra, Cláudia Seabra and Ana Caldeira
The smart tourism ecosystem as an inducer of a
differentiated tourist experience
Christos Kakarougkas
A resource-based theory approach evaluation of the COVID-
19 associated changes on the organizational design of hotels
Adenike Adebayo
Student-centred expert interview and guest speaker in
promoting active learning
Walter Wessels and Lisebo Tseane-Gumbi
Infrastructural limitations challenging urban tourism
development in South African provincial capital cities: A case
of Mahikeng
12:30-14:00 Lunch
14:00-15:00 Keynote: Prof Jane Ali-Knight - Event hiatus, resilience and innovation in the time of COVID-19: A case study of Edinburgh’s Festivals Amphitheatre
15.00-15.10 Break
Presentation Session
Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Adam Viljoen
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Dr Demos Parapanos
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Elaine Scalabrini
Chryso Panayidou, Prokopis Christou and Alexis Saveriades
Colonial site development during times of uncertainty: An
exploration of local residents’ perceptions
Christopher Hayes
Promoting tourism from behind closed borders: Japanese
inbound tourism strategies during COVID-19
Jiwon Lim, Kangwoo Lee, Dahee Kim, Myeongseon Kim and
Soongoo Hong
Comparative analysis of destination image and satisfaction
of domestic and foreign tourists using Text Mining
Etin Indrayani, Agus Supriadi Harahap, Gatiningsih, Yudi
Rusfiana and Wirman Syafri
Development of community-based tourism institutional
Luna Leoni and Mateus Panizzon
Tourism organizations’ strategic resilience: Evidence from
the hotel industry
Shahboz Babaev and Tony Johnston
COVID-19 pandemic disruption and rebirth of hospitality and
tourism industry in Uzbekistan
Alicia Orea-Giner, Gonzalo Recio-Moreno, Laura Fuentes-
Moraleda, Teresa Villacé-Molinero and Ana Muñoz-Mazón
Festival impacts produced before and after a health crisis:
Madrid LGTBIQ+ Pride
Joana Cunha, Deise Constança, Beatriz Bessone, Francisca
Marques, Júlia Silva, Michelle Moraes and Mário Antão
Big data and artificial intelligence acceptance: The tourist
Andreia Leote, Daniela Luz, Francisco Almeida, Inês Duarte,
Pedro Morgadinho, Valeria Balitkaia, Michelle Moraes and
Mário Antão
Virtual assistants and the current tourist preferences
16:10-16:30 Coffee break
Presentation Session
16:30-17:30 Paper session 1 (Room 1)
Chair: Dr Vasilis Papavasiliou
Paper session 2 (Room 2)
Chair: Dr Christopher Hayes (ONLINE)
Paper session 3 (Room 3)
Chair: Dr Evi Ethychiou (ONLINE)
Elaine Scalabrini, Alexandra Lopes Correia, Alcina Nunes,
Cláudia Miranda, Elvira Vieira, Fernanda A. Ferreira, Goretti
Silva, Manuel Fonseca, Paulo Carrança, Sónia Santos and
Paula Odete Fernandes
Outdoor tourism demand segmentation: A case study from
north of Portugal
Spyridon Parthenis and Polyxeni Moira
Introducing innovative policy process theories and
methodologies in tourism, hospitality and events research:
The narrative policy framework
Jéssica Ferreira, Ana Cristina Silvério, Márcia Vaz and Paula
Odete Fernandes
The contribution of outdoor activities to regional
development: A bibliometric study
Ana Cristina Silvério, Jéssica Ferreira, Fernanda A. Ferreira,
Maria José Alves and Paula Odete Fernandes
Alexia Franzidis and Christopher Dumas
Examining the economic impact of craft breweries
Eleni Michopoulou and Liam Sheppard
Video game tourism and destination resilience
Mariana Rodrigues, Daniela Almeida, Beatriz Bessone,
Francisca Marques, Júlia Silva, Michelle Moraes and Mário
Virtual information and the disincentive to visit a destination
or a hotel
Thuc Thi Mai Doan Do, Luis Nobre Pereira, Giacomo Del
Chiappa and João Albino Silva
Exploring the effect of electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) on
Airbnb potential consumers’ purchase intentions: Do
consumers’ sense of power and psychological risk matter?
Application of factor analysis to produce a multivariate
indicator of customer satisfaction in a thermal spa
Liyong Wang and Carolus L. C. Praet
Channel conflicts between hoteliers and inbound tour
operators in Japan: An exploratory study
17:30-17:40 Break
17:40-18:10 Official Launch of ATHENA (Association of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Networks in Academia): Dr Eleni Michopoulou; Prof Nikolaos Pappas
Closing session: Dr Anna Farmaki Amphitheatre
Gala Dinner
Gala dinner
Best Paper Award ceremony
Presentation of THE INC 2024 host
The gala dinner will be held in Aliada Restaurant
Map and directions:
Presentation of Abstracts
In Order of THE INC 2022 Programme
Presentation Session Paper Session 1
Leon Davis
The ongoing impact of COVID-19 on French winter sports tourism
The 2018/2019 season was the most successful ski season for 20 years across the globe. As
the American and European markets were booming, China sparked the greatest winter sports
boom in history by trying to inspire half a billion people to take up winter sports ahead of the
2022 Beijing Winter Olympics. However, the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact has been
widespread across winter sports tourism, decimating the industry. Ski resorts, hotels, bars and
tourism operators have all been affected, as have a whole range of suppliers who depend on
demand from these organisations. While some venues can at least remain open and maintain
operations, others had to close entirely for over a year, and have been affected by additional
lockdowns and bans on persons from certain countries from entering regions.
Both France and Switzerland have had varying restrictions since the outset of the pandemic.
Over two periods in 2022, I visited the Portes Du Soleil region, one of the biggest ski regions
in the world in terms of piste and an area that covers a variety of French and Swiss resorts in
the Alps. Via qualitative research, I conducted a range of interviews with residents, staff and
business owners about the impact of the pandemic on their resorts. Rather than simply
reflecting on the issues of the past, many residents, staff and business owners are worried
about an annual trend of new variants of COVID-19. They believe that emerging variants will
lead to a repeat of the issues in the 2021/22 season, in which individual countries set different
rules and restrictions on travel. Many believed not have the financial stamina and resilience
to carry on if lockdowns re-appear for 2022/23. It is clear the industry will have to adapt to
Keywords: winter sports; ski; tourism; COVID-19
- Transfer companies in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland finding booking hesitancy
due to perceived border issues
- Some hotels rely on 40% their income from UK tourists so they are having to view this season
as another lost season
- Discovered the frustrations with the Swiss resorts being open in the same ski range in 2020
and 2021
- Damage has been done for the season and the cancellations has lost the Festive season and
January which was a key time
- Change in policy would help to recoup half of the season, but certain owners believe there
will still be reluctancy to visit in the short term
- Worry that a large influx will lead to rising cases and could be another Ischgl 2020 in a resort
- Chalets have been struggling to attract visitors and workers and some have decided to just
be sold to let or ceased to be snow lettings due to the uncertainty that they believe will
surround 2022/23 as well
Presentation Session Paper Session 1
Inês Carvalho, Ana Ramires and Michelle Moraes
An analysis of latent demand in language tourism
Although language is almost inextricably related to tourism, it has scarcely been a topic of
analysis in tourism studies. However, language can be approached in tourism from a variety
of perspectives. It can affect travel preferences and perceptions of safety (Antony & Thomas,
2019; Nagai, Tkaczynski, & Benckendorff, 2019; Pinhey & Iverson, 1994), and it may also act
as a barrier to international travel (Basala & Klenosky, 2001; Cohen & Cooper, 1986). It may
even be an important motivation for travel, as in the phenomenon of language tourism, where
individuals travel with the purpose of language learning (Carvalho & Sheppard, 2021a; Iglesias,
Aliaga, & Corno, 2019).
Recent research on language tourism has focused on the analysis of participants and their
travel experiences (Carvalho, 2021; Iglesias et al., 2019). However, understanding tourism
behavior patterns implies not only acknowledging what enables participation in specific
activities, but also what constrains participation (Williams & Lattey, 1994). Thus far, no studies
have approached this topic in the context of language travel. Hence, the present study aims
to fill this gap in knowledge.
This paper belongs to broader mixed-methods research on language tourism (Carvalho, 2021;
Carvalho & Sheppard, 2021b, 2021a). In the qualitative part of the study, 22 in-depth
interviews were carried out. In the quantitative part of the study, 2,535 answers were
collected through a questionnaire applied to both participants and non-participants in
language tourism. The results presented in this paper concern a sample of 1,462 non-
participants in language tourism. According to Williams and Lattey (1994), understanding
tourism behavior patterns implies not only acknowledging what enables participation in
specific activities, but also what constrains participation. However, “non-participants” is a
heterogenous category. Latent demand refers to demand for a product or service that cannot
be satisfied due to particular constraints or circumstances – and despite the interest of the
individual. Therefore, we subdivided the sample of non-participants by interest or lack of
interest in participation in language tourism. By identifying latent demand, this study was able
to identify groups of non-participants with high potential. Understanding the circumstances
that hinder their participation is crucial in order to tap this latent demand. Statistical
quantitative data analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 28. The analysis
included descriptive statistics, categorical factor analysis, and inferential statistics.
The findings of the study revealed significant differences between both groups of non-
travelers in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes, opinions and beliefs
concerning the role of language in tourism, and constraints to the participation in language
tourism. Non-participants who intended to participate in language tourism were significantly
younger. The constraints of both groups seemed to be primarily related to their life-cycle
stages: non-participants willing to participate were younger and more likely to be constrained
either by study commitments or by lack of permission to travel; non-participants not intending
to travel were older and more likely to be unavailable due to work or family commitments.
Moreover, those who intended to travel to learn languages were more likely to believe in the
benefits of speaking the local language, or even just a few sentences, on the travel experience.
They believed more strongly that language travel could bring pragmatic benefits for their
studies and career. Finally, they agreed significantly more that being able to speak the local
language could influence their travel decisions.
Keywords: Language tourism; latent demand; constraints; travel constraints
Antony, J. K., & Thomas, J. (2019). Influence of Perceived Risks on the Destination Choice
Process: An Indian Perspective. In B. Varghese (Ed.), Evolving Paradigms in Tourism and
Hospitality in Developing Countries: A Case Study of India (pp. 87–118). Oakville: Apple
Academic Press. Retrieved from
Basala, S. L., & Klenosky, D. B. (2001). Travel-style preferences for visiting a novel destination:
A conjoint investigation across the novelty-familiarity continuum. Journal of Travel
Research, 40(2), 172–182.
Carvalho, I. (2021). “You can see both sides of the coin” how the pursuit of language skills
influences the travel experience. Tourism Recreation Research, 0(0), 1–13.
Carvalho, I., & Sheppard, V. (2021a). A Language Learning Journey: What’s Left? And Where
Next? International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1–23.
Carvalho, I., & Sheppard, V. (2021b). Memorable experiences in language travel. Tourism and
Hospitality Research, 14673584211013866.
Cohen, E., & Cooper, R. L. (1986). Language and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(4),
Iglesias, M., Aliaga, B., & Corno, V. (2019). The Sociocultural Impacts of Language Tourism in
Barcelona. Journal of Tourism & Management Research, 4(1), 412–428.
Nagai, H., Tkaczynski, A., & Benckendorff, P. J. (2019). Exploring the role of language
proficiency and cultural adaptation in travel risk perception: A study of Asian working
holiday makers in Australia. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 26(2), 166–181.
Pinhey, T. K., & Iverson, T. J. (1994). Safety Concerns of Japanese Visitors to Guam. Journal of
Travel & Tourism Marketing, 3(2), 87–94.
Williams, P. W., & Lattey, C. (1994). Skiing Constraints for Women. Journal of Travel Research,
33(2), 21–25.
Presentation Session Paper Session 1
Ana Ramires, Inês Carvalho and Ana Raquel Fernandes
Traveling to learn English or another language? Language tourists in
profile: motivations, attitudes, and behavior
In an increasingly globalized world, the importance of English as a lingua franca has been
growing worldwide (Mufwene, 2010). While the emergence of a “global English” is far from a
neutral phenomenon from a cultural point of view, it is nevertheless expected to facilitate
communication worldwide (Mufwene, 2010). In this context, learning English is an important
travel motivation in the context of educational, youth, and language travel.
Globally, 1.4 million students spent 9.9 million weeks studying English abroad in 2019 (English
UK, 2020). In Malta alone, the English Language Travel (ELT) sector accounted for
approximately 8.1% of total tourist guest nights and around 6.5% of total tourist expenditure
in 2018. Total expenditure of ELT students in Malta in 2018 is estimated at approximately €137
million (Deloitte, 2018).
Although English is the market leader in the context of language tourism, there are also other
popular languages, such as French, German, Spanish and Mandarin (IALC, 2016; UNWTO &
WYSE, 2016). Whereas English is nowadays considered a basic skill and a lingua franca
(Goethals, 2014), other languages are still considered “specialist” or region-specific (UNWTO
& WYSE, 2016). Hence, those tourists who travel to learn English may be expected to have
different profiles and motivations from those who travel to learn other languages. We
hypothesize that language tourists who travel to learn English have a stronger instrumental
orientation to language learning (Gardner & Lambert, 1972) i.e., are comparatively more
motivated by the practical benefits of language learning – as compared to those language
tourists with other target languages. We also hypothesize that language tourists’ travel
choices, attitudes towards the role of language knowledge in the travel experience, and travel
outcomes will vary according to whether their target language was English or not.
Hence, the aim of our study is to understand how language tourists who travel to learn English
differ from those language tourists who travel to learn other languages. This paper belongs to
broader mixed-methods research on language tourism (Carvalho, 2021; Carvalho & Sheppard,
2021b, 2021a). In the qualitative part of the study, 22 in-depth interviews were carried out. In
the quantitative part of the study, 2,535 answers were collected through a questionnaire
applied to both participants and non-participants in language tourism. The results presented
in this paper concern a sample of 579 Portuguese language tourists. Language tourists who
traveled to learn English were compared to those who traveled to learn other languages.
Statistical quantitative data analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 28.
Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample, and inferential statistics to analyze
the differences between language tourists who traveled to learn English and those who
traveled to learn other languages. Several tests of hypothesis were performed: independent-
samples t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05.
The analysis of results revealed statistically significant differences between both groups in
various aspects: reasons for language and country choice; attitudes, beliefs, and opinions
towards the role of language in the travel experience; number of languages spoken; trip
length, trip financing and activities carried out in the destination. This paper contributes to a
better understanding of the language travel phenomenon by highlighting differences in
profiles and travel behavior according to one’s target language.
Keywords: language tourism; ELT; travel behavior; travel motivations
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language
Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Deloitte. (2018). English Language Travel Industry Report 2018: Key Highlights. Retrieved from
English UK. (2020). Global ELT Overview. Retrieved from
Goethals, P. (2014). La acomodación lingüística en contextos profesionales turísticos. Un
enfoque didáctico basado en los testimonios de turistas. Ibérica, 28, 181–202.
IALC. (2016). Trends in the Demand for Foreign Languages. Vienna: Student Market.
UNWTO & WYSE. (2016). Global Report on The Power of Youth Travel. Madrid: UNWTO
Presentation Session P
aper Sessio
n 2
Norberto Santos, Claudete Moreira and Luís Silveira
Gastronomy and wine: The consumer habits of Portuguese centennials
In Portugal, Gastronomy & Wine is a strategic asset that qualifies the tourist destination, as
stated in the Tourism Strategy 2027 (Portuguese strategic plan for tourism) (TP, 2017). In the
scope of the Tourism Plan +Sustainability 20-23, under axis I, the programme SELECTION
Gastronomy & Wine - creation of the new segment Sustainable Gastronomy in the timeframe
2021-2023 is referred as an action. Furthermore, one of the five strategic pillars of the Centro
Region defined for the 2020-2030 horizon (TCP, 2019) is Culture, History, Heritage and
Gastronomy & Wine. This illustrates the importance that gastronomy and wine have in
Portugal. This study focuses on the food and beverage consumption preferences of
Portuguese young-adults (centennials), taking as reference students from the University of
The food products offered by the restaurant and beverage services (one of the components
of the tourism system) have a social and economic value, by the fact that they are a basic
need, but also represent a symbolic value, with a cultural, religious, political (Santos, 2017)
and nutritional significance. In fact, environments associated with food are social facilitators
of value exchanges, identity relationships and pleasures (Montanari & Pitte, 2009; Santos &
Gama, 2011). Complementarily, they function as differentiators and safeguard of local
identities anchored in authenticity, storytelling of the processes, know-how and value of the
memorable experience. As Condominas (1980) states, the diet is the focal point of the social
space, linking the biological and the cultural, in a social food space (Poulain & Proença, 2003).
It is a form of free will, when basic food needs are overcome, constructing a social affiliation,
and belonging, which creates social ties and promotes participation in the process of
production-recomposition of identities (Corbeau & Poulain, 2002; Poulain & Proença, 2003;
Santos, 2021). Food choices are eating habits formation vehicles and significantly influence
health status throughout life and sharing with the other, promoting opportunities for social
contacts, cultural milestones, commitment, and affectivity (Cardoso et al., 2015; Bouwman et
al., 2009).
Looking at the universe of university students allows us to have an insight into these
influences. Some studies refer that university students' eating habits are inadequate (Davy et
al., 2006; Alves & Precioso, 2017), due to poor food selection, stating that choices depend on
price and social and environmental factors (Hernandez et al., 2016), and that these practices
may persist well beyond academic life (Ha & Caine-Bish, 2009).
Here, we present the results of a study of preferences based on traditional Portuguese cuisine
and wine regions. A questionnaire was thus applied, and a non-probabilistic sample was
obtained, specifically a convenience sample. The students of the curricular unit Intangible
Heritage and Tourism were the survey group. Each student was asked to apply the
questionnaire to 10 other students of the institution.
The Coimbra Region, a NUT III region located in the tourist destination Centro de Portugal, has
been distinguished as European Region of Gastronomy Awarded 2021. This initiative seeks,
inter alia, to disseminate regional food and cultural identities through gastronomy, stimulating
innovation and promoting the connection of gastronomy with culture, the economy and
tourism, stimulating collaborative work and networking between the different stakeholders
(communities, public administration, and academia, among other). In addition, sharing good
practices with other regions in Europe.
The University of Coimbra is an institution which, due to its location and its vast courses offer,
is attended by students from all regions of the country. Considering the geographical diversity
of its students and gastronomy of Portugal, the main aim of and the dishes they most consume
and recommend, as well as to evaluate the notion of national gastronomic typicality. In
addition, their preferences in terms of drinks consumption and their knowledge of Portuguese
wine regions were also assessed. Based on their knowledge and recommendation of
traditional Portuguese cuisine, we analyse gender relations, regional eating habits,
preferences for typical dishes and food specialities and drinks consumption. The findings are
in line with Platania et al. (2016), who point to the fact that young-adults exhibit hybrid
consumption, as they are simultaneously influenced by family consumption patterns and, on
the other hand, by their free will.
Keywords: Consumer habits; Portuguese students; Gastronomy & wine
Alves, R., & Precioso, J. (2017). Hábitos Alimentares dos/as Estudantes do Ensino Superior.
Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación, Extr.(14), 239-244.
Bouwman, L. I., Molder, H., Koelen, M. M., & Woerkum, C. (2009). I eat healthfully but I am
not a freak. Consumers’ everyday life perspective on healthful eating. Appetite, 53(3), 390-
Cardoso, S., Santos, O., Nunes, C., & Loureiro, I. (2015). Escolhas e hábitos alimentares em
adolescentes: associação com padrões alimentares do agregado familiar. Revista
Portuguesa de Saúde Pública, 3(2), 128-136.
Condominas, G. (1980). L’espace social à propos de l’Asie du Sud-Est. Paris: Flammarion.
Corbeau, J.-P., & Poulain, J.-P. (2002). Penser l’alimentation. Toulouse: Privat.
Davy, S. R., Benes, B. A., & Driskell, J. A. (2006). Sex differences in dieting trends, eating habits,
and nutrition beliefs of a group of midwestern college students. Journal of the American
Dietetic Association, 106(10), 1673–1677.
Ha, E.-J., & Caine-Bish, N. (2009). Effect of nutrition intervention using a general nutrition
course for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among college students. Journal of
Nutrition Education and Behavior, 41(2), 103–109.
Hernandez, J., Bamwesigye, D., Horak, M. (2016). Eating behaviors of university students.
MendelNet, 23, 565-570.
Montanari, M., & Pitte, J.-R. (2009), Les frontières alimentaires, Paris: CNRS Editions.
Platania, M., Rapisarda, P., & Rizzo, M. (2016). Food and health habits of university students.
Relationship to food consumption behaviour. International Food Research Journal, 23(3),
Poulain, J.-P., & Proença, R. (2003). O espaço social alimentar: um instrumento para o estudo
dos modelos alimentares, Revista de Nutrição, 16(3), 245-256.
Santos, N., & Gama, A. (2011). As tradições do pão, territórios e desenvolvimento. In: N.
Santos, & L. Cunha (Eds.) Trunfos de uma Geografia Ativa (pp. 273-282). Coimbra: CCDRC,
Santos, N. (2017). Gastronomia e vinhos: um produto sempre novo com raízes nas tradições
da cultura da população portuguesa. In: F. Cravidão, L. Cunha, P. Santana, & N. Santos (Eds.)
Espaços e tempos em geografia. Homenagem a António Gama (pp. 541-559). Coimbra:
Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra.
Santos, N. (2021). All Sorts of Things about Gastronomy and Wine. RendezVous - Journal of
Interfaces in Art and Culture, IV (1), 99-116.
TCP (2019). Turismo Centro de Portugal – Plano regional de desenvolvimento Turístico 2020-
2030. Turismo Centro de Portugal, Deloitte Consultores S.A.
TP (2017). Estratégia Turismo 2027: liderar o turismo do futuro. Ministério da Economia,
Turismo de Portugal.
TP (2021). Plano Turismo +Sustentável 20-23. Ministério da Economia, Turismo de Portugal.
Presentation Session
Paper Session 2
Luís Silveira, Claudete Moreira, Norberto Santos and Carlos
Training and education in tourism: Evaluation, experience, and
perspectives of former university students regarding the academic and
professional skills
Portugal is currently a country where tourism occupies one of the main positions in terms of
economic gain, being an important driver of territorial development and employment. In
2019, there were about 24.6 million tourist arrivals, positioning itself as an exporting country
in terms of the tourism balance. Tourism activity was responsible, also in 2019, for 17.1% of
the GDP (8.1% in 2020). In terms of employment, in 2019, 20.7% of jobs were related to the
tourism sector. Although the year 2020 was characterised by the first year of the Covid-19
pandemic, the tourism sector continued to employ a significant percentage of workers (17.7%)
(WTTC, 2021).
Coimbra fits nationally with a profile of a university city, where education, health and culture
characterise it. Being its university one of the oldest in Europe and framed by a vast built urban
heritage, since 2013 the University of Coimbra - Alta e Sofia is classified as a UNESCO World
Heritage Site. As Coimbra has been projecting itself as a national tourist destination of
reference in recent decades, it was from 2013 onwards that the increase in the number of
tourists was more significant. In 2013, the sub-region where Coimbra is located, received the
visit of 377,168 people, having increased to 711,000 in 2018 (Oliveira-Moreira & Santos,
Despite the seniority of the University of Coimbra and considering the relevance of the
tourism activity for the country already comes since the (19)90s, higher education and training
in tourism in university establishments is still recent. This function was almost exclusive to
polytechnic institutes.
As the University of Coimbra is one of the largest Portuguese universities, located in a city with
growing tourism relevance, as well as the realisation that national tourism activity can only
remain competitive and of quality if there is investment in the qualification of its human
resources (Turismo de Portugal, 2017), a gap was identified in the supply of higher education
that would provide future graduates with skills in the trilogy tourism, territory, and heritage.
In Portugal, throughout the XXI century, the academic valorisation of leisure, tourism, and
heritage studies, was combined with the political option of planning, promotion, and
investment in tourism, with the option of entrepreneurship, innovation, private investment
and with the communities' acceptance of the positive impacts of tourism on local
development (Santos & Cunha, 2021). Also, it was found that, due to the scope and complexity
of tourism, the workforce related to a higher level of training would be lacking (Marujo, 2021).
Within this context, in 2007, the University of Coimbra, through the Department of Geography
and Tourism, started to offer a bachelor in Tourism, Leisure and Heritage (currently Tourism,
Territory and Heritage). After more than a decade in operation, the present research arises
through the application of a questionnaire to former students (a universe of more than 500),
which aimed to gauge the opinions about the experience in higher education and the current
and future perspectives regarding the academic and professional components. Several
elements concerning the course were questioned, namely the degree of success at the end of
the degree course, the reasons of attendance, the satisfaction, and the opinion regarding the
introduction, in the course, of new subjects which promote the continuous preparation and
adaptation of the students to the professional world. In terms of their careers, it was
important to understand their professional situation, the time spent in the profession (full-
time or part-time), their relationship with the tourist activity, the stability/dynamics of their
employment over time, the received income and their professional horizon (in terms of
With the results obtained it will be possible to identify a set of structuring elements for
tourism education strategies, both at the University of Coimbra and in other institutions. In a
society like todays, where everything is faster and more permeable, education and training
reveal themselves as fundamental levers over time. The conclusion of a degree is essential,
but it may not be enough. It is therefore vital to understand how educational institutions can
meet the needs of the labour market, designing (potential) new sub-thematic paths in terms
of training and teaching for the courses that already exist and those that may come into
Keywords: Alumni; Bachelor in tourism; Professional career; University of Coimbra.
Marujo, N. (2021). O turismo como objeto de estudo académico. In: L. Cunha; P. Santana; L.
Lourenço; N. Santos; & P. Nossa (Eds.) Geografia, turismo e território. Livro de homenagem
a Fernanda Delgado Cravidão (pp. 643-661). Coimbra: Coimbra University Press.
Oliveira-Moreira, C., & Santos, N. (2020). Tourism qualitative forecasting: Scenario building
through the Delphi technique. Cuadernos de Turismo, 46, 423-457.
Santos, N., & Cunha, L. (2021). Turismo, ambiente e território. A influência do percurso
científico de Fernanda Cravidão. In: L. Cunha; P. Santana; L. Lourenço; N. Santos; & P. Nossa
(Eds.) Geografia, turismo e território. Livro de homenagem a Fernanda Delgado Cravidão
(pp. 663-693). Coimbra: Coimbra University Press.
Turismo de Portugal (2017). Estratégia Turismo 2027. Turismo de Portugal.
WTTC (2021). Travel & Tourism – Economic impact 2021 Portugal. World Travel & Tourism.
Presentation Session
Paper Session 2
Prawannarat Brewer, Heidi Dent and Angela Sebby
Factors contributing to hospitality employee turnover during the
Since the coronavirus pandemic began in 2020, the United States has remained the hardest-
hit country in the world by the variant of viruses. As the virus continues to spread, it impacts
all Americans' physical and mental health. Many reports and surveys also found that many
businesses across America have experienced financial crises, bankruptcy, and employee
turnover. The hospitality industry in the United States has also experienced not only a massive
labor shortage, but also difficulty filling open jobs. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, over 4.5 million workers voluntarily quit their jobs in November 2021. Interestingly,
the highest quit rate is 6.9%, and these workers are in the accommodation and food services
(Zagorsky, 2022). Nevertheless, factors contributing to the turnover intention remain in
This research aims to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts hospitality employees’
work experiences, opinions, and turnover intention. The study will apply two classic theories:
Content, causes, and consequences of job insecurity (Ashford, Lee, & Bobko, 1989) and Theory
of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991); to identify the root causes of employee resignation and
their intention to resign or shift to other career fields. Factors resulting from the impact of the
COVID-19 pandemic will be explored. These factors include anxiety, organizational changes,
work stressors, locus of control, job insecurity, and job dissatisfaction. With the emphasis on
hospitality employees, this study will also explore the negative experiences of employees in
dealing with colleagues and customers' interactions due to mandated COVID protocols and
vaccination. Other related factors such as career pathway benefits and compensation will also
be explored.
Based on previous literature and in-depth interviews, this study will develop hypotheses and
scales to measure complex constructs and variables that influence employee perceptions and
behaviors related to turnover intention. The data collection will include two sample groups,
drawing from the U.S. hospitality census population in two different periods. Due to the
continuous spread of Omicron when this proposal was written in January 2022, the researcher
will conduct the survey and the interview online. The study will analyze data by using both
qualitative and quantitative methods. Data obtained from the first-hand in-depth interviews
with hospitality employees will be transcribed, annotated, categorized into sub-categories,
and arranged in order. These sub-categories will be utilized and combined with scales drawing
from previous literature to create a new measurement scale set that is more appropriate with
the context of this study. The analysis of quantitative data will be performed by using various
statistical analysis methods such as descriptive, inferential, and causal analyses. In addition,
because uncertain pandemic situations may affect people differently, this study will compare
the results of employees' perceptions and intentions in two-time periods: mid-2021 and early
2022. Results of this study are expected to reveal employees' concerns and reasons for the
labor shortage along with solutions for this problem.
This research will provide an overview of the hospitality employee turnover situation during
the pandemic. In addition, it will propose a conceptual framework for managing labor
shortage constraints. The result of this study will be valuable to hospitality industry
practitioners as well as scholars and researchers in academic institutions. Research theoretical
and practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research will also be
Keywords: hospitality employee; labor shortage; COVID-19 pandemic; turnover intention; job
Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, cause, and consequences of job insecurity:
A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management journal, 32(4),
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision
processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Zagorsky, J. (2022). Are we really facing a resignation crisis? World Economic Forum, Published
13th January, Available at:
resignationcrisis-quit-rates-perspective/ [Accessed 30th January 2022].
Presentation Session
Paper Session 3
Bianca Frost and Elizabeth Du Preez
In it for the long run! Exploring marathon runners’ responses to
restricted event participation during COVID-19
Sports event participants derive both physical and mental health benefits from engaging in
sporting events. Events, such as marathon running, are relevant to sports consumer research
as these events have the ability to enhance event participants’ overall subjective well-being
(SWB). In this manner, these events align with the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)
of promoting good health and well-being. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was
identified as a global health emergency in March 2020. During the initial phases of COVID-19,
with social distancing measures in place, outdoor leisure activities, such as road running, were
prohibited over certain periods. Major mass sporting events worldwide were also cancelled
for the first time in decades. As such, it is not known how marathon runners, who are
committed to extensive training regimes to partake in physically demanding marathon events,
were impacted during the crisis period. The purpose of this study is to explore marathon
runners’ emotional and behavioral responses to restricted event participation during COVID-
19. This is done from a SWB perspective, also taking into account aspects of self-
expressiveness as an antecedent thereof. One of the largest international running marathon
events, the Comrades Marathon hosted in South Africa, is used as context. The qualitative
study uses netnography to explore authentic responses to COVID-19 within online
conversation. Data was collected from a Comrades Marathon 2020 Facebook community
group for a period of 10 weeks, during initial phases of lockdown, producing 2455 text-based
units for analysis. Main ‘themes’ were identified inductively, using Leximancer Version 5.0, a
text analytics tool. Initial findings indicate decreased SWB through frustrations of not being
able to engage in daily exercise routines, as well as anticipated separation distress regarding
potential event cancellations. In later stages, the runners’ need for perceived challenge and
self-realization potential were directed to newly created activities such as ‘garden-running’
challenges, enhancing SWB through a new sense of accomplishment. The findings of the study
highlight the importance of sport to promote good health and well-being as well as the need
to pro-actively develop platforms where participation can continue during a prolonged crisis
such as the one brought about by COVID-19. As such, sports marketers and event
organizations should not underestimate their role in the provision of sports events from a
broader perspective beyond business. If these organizations take heed of sport participants’
need for challenging consumption experiences, particularly during times of restricted
participation, they ultimately aid in enhancing overall consumer well-being.
Keywords: sports events; participants; COVID-19; self-expressiveness; subjective well-being
(SWB); netnography
Presentation Session
Paper Session 3
Katalin Csobán, Nirmeen Elmohandes, György Serra and Károly
The impacts of technological advancements on sports events tourism
Technological innovations contributed to a fundamental change in the tourism and hospitality
sector. The assimilation of online digital technologies has also altered the way tourism events
are prepared, promoted and implemented, which was further accelerated by the COVID-19
pandemic. The interaction among the participants of an event became feasible with the help
of the various social media platforms, which may contribute to an enhanced travel experience
as well as a sense of community. Internet-based technologies, the social media and mobile
applications have allowed tourists not only to receive information faster than ever before but
also to interact, and actively share opinions with one another. As consumers play a more
active role, tourism professionals need to recognize the potential of technology in providing a
more personalized experience and a higher quality service in general.
Sport event management is greatly influenced by the newest technological advancements.
Marketing, ticketing, broadcasting, the operations of stadiums and sports halls are only a few
examples affected by technology. Sports event organizers need to enhance the quality of
customer experience by digital technologies. Understanding the various forms of
technological applications is of vital importance to sports event managers so that they can
incorporate the most efficient methods and techniques to the event management process.
The coronavirus pandemic has had serious negative impacts on the organization of sporting
events, but at the same time the role of digital support has significantly increased. As a result
of the technological innovations, sport events have been successfully organized and broadcast
to a wide range of audiences, so supporters could follow the events from their homes during
the pandemic restrictions. As there is a high demand for following a sports event in an
effective, personalized and entertainining way, technological innovations will probably
receive an even greater emphasis in the future.
The main objectives of the present study are to investigate the role of technological
innovations during the consecutive phases of sports travel and to analyze the impacts of
digitalization on the management of sports events. Furthermore, the relationship between
technological innovations and the level of tourist experience is explored through case studies
of sports events.
This study also provides important implications for event organizers involved in the design and
management of technology-empowered sport tourism experience.
A qualitative research design was adopted for the present study to gain a deeper
understanding on the impacts of technology on event management. In-depth semi-structured
interviews were conducted with sports event organizers and sports club managers who have
extensive experience in organizing international, national and small-scale sports events.
Athletes and coaches were also asked to share their views on the use of the various forms of
technological advancements. Results imply that digital globalization forces event managers to
use innovative techniques and there is a clear intention to enhance users’ experience by digital
media. In addition, managers are aware that social media driven by digital technology has
dramatically changed event marketing, and it has also presented opportunities for destination
brand enhancement. Athletes and coaches identified health and performance analysis as a
fast developing area, which is of vital importance.
Keywords: sport event; sport tourism; digitalization; technological innovations
Presentation Session
Paper Session 3
Katalin Csobán, Andrea Szőllős-Tóth, Károly Pető and Anett
Godáné Sőrés
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on residents? attitudes to
tourism development? case study of a Hungarian spa town
The phenomenon of overtourism was experienced in many destinations in the pre-pandemic
period. The congestion around popular tourist attractions put increased pressure on the
natural and social environment. Large numbers of visitors may exert serious negative impacts
on the quality of life of residents, which triggered violent protests among locals in several
places around the world. However, it is obvious that public support and local community
collaboration are essential for the sustainable development of tourism. As social exchange
theory indicates, the host population may encourage tourism development depending on
their assessments of the positive and negative aspects associated with tourism activities.
Residents are willing to participate in an exchange if they consider that the benefits of their
involvement outweigh the costs of that activity. As a result, a community is more willing to
embrace tourism if the perceived benefits supersede the perceived negative aspects.
The present study examines the residents’ attitudes to tourism in a rural spa town of
Hajdúszoboszló, which has been one of the most popular Hungarian destinations for years,
both in terms of the number of domestic and foreign overnight stays. In our research we aim
to get a deeper understanding of residents’ views on the positive and negative impacts of
tourism and the possible changes in residents’ attitudes to tourism development in the spa
town through the times of the coronavirus pandemic.
A questionnaire survey was conducted among local residents in the period before the
pandemic, when tourism was a flourishing sector in the spa town. Then the survey was
implemented repeatedly in the beginning of 2021, when a drastic decline in tourism took place
as a result of the pandemic restrictions.
The findings of the questionnaire survey implemented among the residents before the
pandemic suggest that the strengthening of social relations, a boom in the cultural life, the
increase in the service sector and the appreciaton of language and professional skills are
identified as positive impacts by the locals. In accordance with the findings of international
studies, the host communities of Hungarian destinations, have to face the rise in property
prices resulting from tourism development. The results of the correlation analysis confirm that
the price rise is considered a major negative impact by the young people and the employees
among the respondents. It can also be concluded that the residents have experienced the
negative impacts of congestion, as well as the environmental problems arising from the
relatively high number of tourists. Overall, the results of the investigation suggest that several
signs of overtourism were present in the spa town before the pandemic. The results of the
second survey conducted during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic clearly indicated that the
lack of tourists in the spa town affected the opinions and attitudes of locals. A decisively higher
number of residents claimed that they are in favour of tourism and they are very happy to
welcome tourists in the town.
Understanding the perceptions and opinions of the population of spa towns and cities on
tourism development has important practical implications, as local decision-makers are
responsible for setting the directions of development, monitoring and managing the impacts
of tourism. Timely intervention may be needed in order maintain and improve tourist
satisfaction and the residents’ quality of life in the future.
Keywords: residents' perceptions; sustainable tourism; impact of pandemic
Presentation Session
Paper Session 4
Josep Llados-Masllorens, Antoni Meseg er-Artola, Lluís Garay-
Tamajon and Soledad Morales
Airbnb during COVID-19: Performance and resilient strategies in
Before the COVID19, Barcelona was a living illustration of the effect of Airbnb in reshaping the
urban fabric and associated place dynamics. Short-term tourist rentals (STR) and the digital
platforms managing and mediating them had expanded enormously, inducing a strong civic
response, leading to a growing politicization of tourism and having a direct influence in the
dynamics of the housing market. This prominent tourist position and the central role of STR
was broken by COVID19 and the regulations associated with the management of the
Although the impacts of the pandemic on tourism and destinations have been well
documented, further research measuring the impact of pandemic on the STR market is still
necessary. The principal aim of this investigation is to identify the resilient and adaptive
strategies adopted by Airbnb hosts and its managerial (professionalized vs. regular) and spatial
(neighborhoods) unevenness during the uncertainty time of pandemic period. Taking into
account the temporality and the characteristics of the data, this research analyzes and
characterizes the evolution of this activity between 2017 and 2021 in Barcelona, identifying
the main factors that can explain its performance and the adaptive strategies during the
COVID19 period from a time-space perspective.
We gathered data to perform a longitudinal analysis for three specific moments every year,
representing different tourist seasons in the city: December (low season), February (the most
event-related tourism activity) and August (high season). For each season, we focused our
attention on those listings that have been offered during all the years. From 2017 to 2021, a
total of 3,528 geo-localised listings data were obtained from InsideAibnb platform for
December, 3,564 for February, and 4,035 for August. Variables in the dataset contain
information about the room type, the price, the minimum number of nights, the number of
hosts’ listings and the number of reviews. We use this last variable as a proxy of the occupancy
An innovative approach based on deep learning (neural networks) is applied to explain the
activity on the platform to determine, through a cross-validation process, the importance of
each variable. This quantitative model was combined with statistical and spatial analysis of
listings to analyse more in depth the differences between seasons. The model shows the
number of revisions of the previous year as the most important variable to explain the activity
in the platform. This variable was also the most important to explain the purchase of the STR
accommodation in times of COVID19, and especially when tourist mobility restarted. Previous
demand for the lodgings would be feeding a self-supporting process.
Our analysis, reveal the decrease in occupancy in STR due to the fall in demand during the
pandemic for all segments and types of accommodation. However, entire homes have been
more resilient than shared rooms. The impact of the pandemic on the demand has been
spatially uneven as it has been concentrated in neighbourhoods with tourist attraction but
located in the periphery of the city, revealing the emergence of new centralities. However,
the fall in rents and the increase of available accommodations have propelled the demand for
residential uses in the most central districts.
A notable finding of our research is the identification of two different strategies of adaptation
of hosts during the pandemic time in relation to price. In 2020, the strategy of the hosts
focused on reducing prices to attract the demand for domestic tourism mobilized after the
hard lockdown. But more recently the strategy of hosts is based on increasing the average
price of the accommodation even far beyond the pre-pandemic periods. The ups and downs
in prices are motivated by the dramatic changes in the demand for short-rental tourism
accommodation in the city: a severe fall (80.6%) in 2020 followed by a strong recovery in 2021
(65.6%). Prices seem to be more significant factors during high season, meanwhile the host
listing count and the type of room are more decisive during the rest of the year.
Finally, although different strategies between regular hosts and big tenants are not observed
during the pandemic, the most marked changes are detected in those places with high
concentration of big tenants.
Keywords: Short-Term Tourist Accommodation; Resilient Strategies and COVID19;
Deep Learning; Airbnb
Arias Sans, A., & Quaglieri Domínguez, A. (2016). Unravelling Airbnb. Urban perspectives from
Barcelona. In P. Russo & G. Richards (Eds.), Reinventing the local in tourism (pp. 209–228).
Clevedon: Channel View.
Garay-Tamajón, L., Morales-Pérez, S. & J. Wilson (2020) Tweeting the right to the city: digital
protest and resistance surrounding the Airbnb effect, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality
and Tourism, 20:3, 246-267, DOI: 10.1080/15022250.2020.1772867
Garay-Tamajón L, Lladós-Masllorens J, Meseguer-Artola A, Morales-Pérez S. Analyzing the
influence of short-term rental platforms on housing affordability in global urban
destination neighborhoods. Tourism and Hospitality Research. January 2022.
Gutiérrez, J., García-Palomares, J. C., Romanillos, G., & Salas-Olmedo, M. H. (2017). The
eruption of Airbnb in tourist cities: Comparing spatial patterns of hotels and peer-to-peer
accommodation in Barcelona. Tourism Management, 62, 278–291. DOI:
10.1016/j.tourman.2017. 05.003
Gyódi, K. (2021), "Airbnb and hotels during COVID-19: different strategies to survive",
International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. ahead-of-print No.
Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020). Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after COVID-
19. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 610-623.
Lladós-Masllorens, J.; Meseguer-Artola, A.; Rodríguez-Ardura, I. (2020). Understanding Peer-
to-Peer, Two-Sided Digital Marketplaces: Pricing Lessons from Airbnb in Barcelona.
Sustainability, 12, 5229.
Llaneza, Catalina & Raya, Josep Maria (2021) The effect of COVID-19 on the peer-to-peer
rental market, Tourism Economics Vol. 0(0) 1–26 DOI: 10.1177/13548166211044229
Morales-Pérez, S., Garay-Tamajón, L. & Julie Wilson (2020): Airbnb’s contribution to socio-
spatial inequalities and geographies of resistance in Barcelona, Tourism Geographies, DOI:
Tong, B., & Gunter, U. (2020). Hedonic pricing and the sharing economy: How profile
characteristics affect Airbnb accommodation prices in Barcelona, Madrid, and Seville.
Current Issues in Tourism, 22(10), 1808–1826. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1718619
Wilson, J., Garay-Tamajon, L. & Soledad Morales-Perez (2021): Politicising platform-mediated
tourism rentals in the digital sphere: Airbnb in Madrid and Barcelona, Journal of
Sustainable Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2020.1866585
Presentation Session Pa
per Session 4
Jeroen Oskam and Anna de Visser-Amundson
Hospitality education: Preparing students for times of uncertainty
Whilst technological disruptions, in particular the emergence of electronic distribution, made
many hospitality educators aware of the unpredictability of our students’ professional future,
a decade of economic crises, political turmoil, pandemic and war has only brought this vision
more to the fore. For hospitality curricula, the consequence is that the idea of a stable
technical and managerial skillset with which to endow our students, has given way to the
search for a formula to continuously update educational content with the latest relevant
developments. But given the speed of curriculum development and implementation, the
duration of tertiary programmes and the time required for graduates to reach positions of
responsibility, this quest is a mission impossible: the sum of the years we need to deliver
graduates prepared for the latest innovations to the professional environment, simply
exceeds the life span of most innovations.
The growing awareness of uncertainty has been accompanied in hospitality education —as in
other professional disciplines— with the development of tertiary programmes. The way
programmes have evolved has been diverse, with what has been described as a dilemma
between a vocational paradigm, with a focus on competencies required by hospitality
businesses, and an academic paradigm that has adjusted hospitality education to generic
university standards (Lugosi & Jameson, 2017), to the detriment of their immediate practical
relevance, as well as the employability of their graduates (Oskam, 2018; Raybould & Wilkins,
2005). As neither of these two models seems to address the demand for strategic expertise
specialized in hospitality, several authors have suggested a third educational paradigm that,
for example, incorporates liberal arts perspectives (Catrett, 2018; Hindley & Wilson-Wünsch,
2018; Morrison & O’Mahony, 2003).
It can be argued that a curriculum design that combines academic rigour with applicability to
professional issues as these may arise, now or in the future, is imperative for universities to
remain relevant in a changing educational landscape (Davie, 2022). Professionals resorting to
other modes of educational delivery could lead to an identification of professional training
institutes with current and advanced knowledge, with university curricula being considered as
providing basic knowledge, unsuitable for entry into a professional career. At Dutch higher
education institute Hotelschool The Hague, a hypothesized way to address these issues is the
reform of its hospitality curricula through the introduction of Design Based Research, with the
objective of turning students into ‘field problem solvers’, prepared to face the volatility of
their future profession (Oskam, de Visser-Amundson, & de Boer, 2021). This action research
paper explores this reform initiative and its effects on educational delivery and outcomes.
In this curriculum reform, the principles of design science, which prioritize prescriptive
(Denyer, Tranfield, & Van Aken, 2008) or “actionable knowledge that is grounded in evidence”
(Holloway, van Eijnatten, Romme, & Demerouti, 2016, p. 1639) over descriptive or analytical
knowledge —in other words, finding solutions rather than finding causes—, have been
incorporated throughout the different hospitality curricula. Thus, students are trained to
understand and apply the design-based research cycle to professional problems of increased
complexity (De Visser-Amundson, Oskam, & Valk, 2019). First, the paper will describe the
changes made to the different curricula. Besides the actual redesign of current educational
courses, it will in particular discuss how the educational innovation cycle will be shortened
because of these changes.
The results of the curriculum reforms are being assessed in multiple ways. Traditional
educational metrics, such as study success and satisfaction, contribute to our understanding
of how the changes are perceived by students and faculty. More important than the
immediate educational experience is perhaps whether the reformed curricula succeed in
bridging the research-practice gap. The paper will outline and discuss the first indicators of
achieved outcomes, such as the professional relevance of student research, cognitive effects
of the new curriculum and career entry of hospitality graduates.
Keywords: Hospitality Education; Design-Based Research; Research-Practice Gap;
Technological Disruption; Unvertainty
Catrett, J. B. (2018). Hospitality education: A third paradigm. In J. A. Oskam, D. M. Dekker, &
K. Wiegerink (Eds.), Innovation in hospitality education, Anticipating the Educational Needs
of a Changing Profession (pp. 15-32). Cham: Springer.
Davie, S. (2022, January 30, 2022). Universities must change or lose their place to alternative
education providers: OECD education chief. Straits Times (30th January, 2022). Available
change-or-lose-their-place-to-alternative-education-providers [Accessed 17th February,
De Visser-Amundson, A., Oskam, J. A., & Valk, C. (2019). Design Oriented Curriculum
Innovation and The Effects of a Design Thinking Intervention on Organisational Support.
Paper presented at the 2019 APacCHRIE & EuroCHRIE Joint Conference, Hong Kong.
Denyer, D., Tranfield, D., & Van Aken, J. E. (2008). Developing design propositions through
research synthesis. Organization studies, 29(3), 393-413.
Hindley, C., & Wilson-Wünsch, B. (2018). Expertise: The Theory of Experimentation. In J. A.
Oskam, D. M. Dekker, & K. Wiegerink (Eds.), Innovation in hospitality education,
Anticipating the Educational Needs of a Changing Profession (pp. 51-63). Cham: Springer.
Holloway, S. S., van Eijnatten, F. M., Romme, A. G. L., & Demerouti, E. (2016). Developing
actionable knowledge on value crafting: a design science approach. Journal of Business
Research, 69(5), 1639-1643.
Lugosi, P., & Jameson, S. (2017). Challenges in hospitality management education:
Perspectives from the United Kingdom. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management,
31, 163-172. doi:10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.12.001
Morrison, A., & O’Mahony, G. B. (2003). The liberation of hospitality management education.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 15(1), 38-44.
Oskam, J. A. (2018). Introduction: Innovation in Hospitality Education. In J. A. Oskam, D. M.
Dekker, & K. Wiegerink (Eds.), Innovation in hospitality education, Anticipating the
Educational Needs of a Changing Profession (pp. 1-12). Cham: Springer.
Oskam, J. A., de Visser-Amundson, A., & de Boer, B. (2021). Preparing Hospitality Graduates
for a Volatile Future: The need for “Field Problem Solvers”. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism
Research, 45(5), 902-904.
Raybould, M., & Wilkins, H. (2005). Over qualified and under experienced: Turning graduates
into hospitality managers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
17(3), 203-216.
Presentation Session
Paper Session 4
Vasilis Papavasiliou
Negotiating reconciliation and peace through narratives – The case of
Cyprus is still riddled with the physical and mental scars of the West's longest-running
diplomatic dispute (Bryant & Papadakis, 2012; Dodd, 2010). The fracturing of the island's
common history has not only created these hostile and seemingly intractable barriers to
reintegration - any political resolution and process of transitional justice must bring closure to
the everyday traumas of war but also come into a consensus on historical narratives that seem
to be perforated with political influence (Souter, 1984; Stavrinides, 1975).
There has been a powerful position to encapsulate and promote official and trusted narratives
by both the Northern area of the island – the so-called Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,
and the Southern area of the island – The Republic of Cyprus (Attalides, 2003; Mavratsas,
1997; Morag, 2004; Nevzat & Hatay, 2009; Pollis, 1996; Vural & Özuyanık, 2008). We are
presented with a dilemma that heritage is subsequently (re)negotiated and (re)constructed
“because multiple practical, professional and political reasons dictate what kind of cultural
heritage is visible or not and to whom” (Stylianou-Lambert, Boukas, & Bounia, 2015, p. 176).
Cyprus is resonating in an ambiguous historical pool that leads to a kaleidoscope of destination
identity opinions (Constantinou & Papadakis, 2001; Papadakis, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2008;
Papadakis, Peristianis, & Welz, 2006; Stavrinides, 1975; Thubron, 2012).
This study essentially expands the idea introduced by Vasilis Papavasiliou (2022) PHD thesis
and argues that one way to foster peace through tourism is to firstly highlight the importance
of narratives. The author argued in his study that collective memory (Confino, 1997) which is
driven from the sociocultural and psychological literature (Heersmink, 2021; Pennebaker &
Gonzales, 2009) can address the gap of foundational vagueness expressed in the destination
image literature (Lai & Li, 2016; Li, Ali, & Kim, 2015; Tung & Ritchie, 2011) . The author
demonstrated that in Cyprus the official tourist guides, which are the cultural brokers (Bryon,
2012) of a destination, in the northern areas of the island and in the southern area of the
island narrate different stories. Doing so, these stories create different narrated images of the
destination. The author also indicated that the stories the tourist guides narrate are influenced
by their DMOs, in the north and in the south. However, they are also influenced by the tour
guides collective memories that are reflective of their respective communities.
Cyprus is an excellent example to implement the idea of collective memory and illustrate how
tour guides narratives are affected by it. Doing so, this study can raise a discussion concerning
the importance of the narratives. Importantly it will demonstrate how they can help negotiate
reconciliation and peace.
Cyprus has had a rich and troublesome history (Farmaki, Altinay, Botterill, & Hilke, 2015;
Papadakis et al., 2006). It has been conquered and inhabited by a variety of empires. Through
a series of events and disputes between the islanders, Cyprus is currently temporarily
divided/partitioned into two communities (Papadakis, 2008). The Turkish Cypriots who reside
in the north and the Greek Cypriots who live in the south of the island (Farmaki, Antoniou, &
Christou, 2019). Having said that, the two communities have their own version of what it
means to be a Cypriot islander.
The author examines what stories the tourist guides in the north and in the south of Cyprus
narrate during a single day of guided tours. Using narrative analysis (Earthy & Cronin, 2008;
Gelter, Lexhagen, & Fuchs, 2021; Mura & Sharif, 2017) as the method of interpretation, the
author also explores what lies beyond the narratives. Who are the influencing agents that
affect the narratives? Where do the tour guides get their information? To find out the answers
to these questions the author interviewed six tourist guides following an unstructured process
with a guided approach at the end of each single day guided tour. Importantly, this study
extends its findings to discuss the importance of the tourist guides narratives have on a
destinations image, especially in places with political and historical disputes.
This research is limited only on tourist guides and interpreting their narratives (Mura and Safir,
2017). Consequently, the study provides a stronger foundation because the narrated image is
facilitated from the tourist guide (the storyteller) to the tourist. Hence, by understanding how
collective memory influences the narrated destination image (NDI) it strengthens the
foundation of the general concept and focuses on the importance of the tourist guides
narratives. Further research needs to be conducted that incorporates the tourist’s perspective
and understanding of the narratives at the receiving end.
Keywords: collective memory; narratives; tour guides; peace-building
Attalides, M. A. (2003). Cyprus: Nationalism and International Politics (Vol. 18). Cyprus
Bryant, R., & Papadakis, Y. (2012). Cyprus and the Politics of Memory: History, Community and
Conflict (Vol. 51). London,UK: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd.
Bryon, J. (2012). Tour guides as storytellers–from selling to sharing. Scandinavian Journal of
Hospitality and Tourism, 12(1), 27-43.
Confino, A. (1997). Collective memory and cultural history: Problems of method. The American
Historical Review, 102(5), 1386-1403.
Constantinou, C. M., & Papadakis, Y. (2001). The Cypriot state (s) in situ: Cross-ethnic contact
and the discourse of recognition. Global Society, 15(2), 125-148.
Dodd, C. (2010). The History and Politics of the Cyprus Conflict. London,UK: Springer.
Earthy, S., & Cronin, A. (2008). Narrative analysis. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching Social Life.
London Sage.
Farmaki, A., Altinay, L., Botterill, D., & Hilke, S. (2015). Politics and sustainable tourism: The
case of Cyprus. Tourism Management, 47, 178-190.
Farmaki, A., Antoniou, K., & Christou, P. (2019). Visiting the “enemy”: Visitation in politically
unstable destinations. Tourism Review.
Gelter, J., Lexhagen, M., & Fuchs, M. (2021). A meta-narrative analysis of smart tourism
destinations: implications for tourism destination management. Current Issues in Tourism,
24(20), 2860-2874.
Heersmink, R. (2021). Materialised identities: Cultural identity, collective memory, and
artifacts. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 1-17.
Lai, K., & Li, X. (2016). Tourism Destination Image: Conceptual Problems and Definitional
Solutions. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1065-1080.
Li, J. J., Ali, F., & Kim, W. G. (2015). Reexamination of the role of destination image in tourism:
an updated literature review. E-review of Tourism Research, 12.
Mavratsas, C. V. (1997). The ideological contest between Greek-Cypriot nationalism and
Cypriotism 1974–1995: Politics, social memory and identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies,
20(4), 717-737.
Morag, N. (2004). Cyprus and the clash of Greek and Turkish nationalisms. Nationalism and
Ethnic Politics, 10(4), 595-624.
Mura, P., & Sharif, S. P. (2017). Narrative analysis in tourism: a critical review. Scandinavian
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2), 194-207.
Nevzat, A., & Hatay, M. (2009). Politics, society and the decline of Islam in Cyprus: from the
Ottoman Era to the Twenty-First Century. Middle Eastern Studies, 45(6), 911-933.
Papadakis, Y. (1994). The National Struggle Museums of a divided city. Ethnic and Racial
Studies, 17(3), 400-419.
Papadakis, Y. (1998). Greek Cypriot narratives of history and collective identity: nationalism as
a contested process. American Ethnologist, 25(2), 149-165.
Papadakis, Y. (2003). Nation, narrative and commemoration: Political ritual in divided Cyprus.
History and Anthropology, 14(3), 253-270.
Papadakis, Y. (2008). Narrative, Memory and History Education in Divided Cyprus: A
Comparison of Schoolbooks on the" History of Cyprus". History & Memory, 20(2), 128-148.
Papadakis, Y., Peristianis, N., & Welz, G. (2006). Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an
Island in Conflict. Indiana,US: Indiana University Press.
Papavasiliou Vasilis. (2022). Collective memory and narrated destination image: Interpreting
the tour guides narratives in guided tours. . (PHD ), Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Pennebaker, J. W., & Gonzales, A. L. (2009). Making history: Social and psychological processes
underlying collective memory. Memory in mind and culture, 171-193.
Pollis, A. (1996). The social construction of ethnicity and nationality: The case of Cyprus.
Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 2(1), 67-90.
Souter, D. (1984). An island apart: A review of the Cyprus problem. Third World Quarterly,
6(3), 657-674.
Stavrinides, Z. (1975). The Cyprus Conflict: National Identity and Statehood. Athens,Greece: Z.
Stylianou-Lambert, T., Boukas, N., & Bounia, A. (2015). Politics, tourism and cultural
sustainability Theory and Practice in Heritage and Sustainability (Vol. 176, pp. 176-189):
ROUTLEDGE in association with GSE Research.
Thubron, C. (2012). Journey Into Cyprus: Random House.
Tung, V. W. S., & Ritchie, J. B. (2011). Exploring the essence of memorable tourism
experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1367-1386.
Vural, Y., & Özuyanık, E. (2008). Redefining identity in the Turkish-Cypriot school history
textbooks: a step towards a united federal Cyprus. South European Society and Politics,
13(2), 133-154.
Presentation Session Paper Session 1
Natalia Tomczewska-Popowycz, Lukasz Quirini-Poplawski and
Slawomir Dorocki
Tourism sector resilience during (permanent) instability: Evidence from
In February 2022, the world heard the news about the most outstanding war on a global scale
since World War II. The largest country in the world - Russia launched a large-scale attack on
Ukraine - the largest country in Europe. Before this happened, Ukraine was struggling with a
long-lasting armed conflict in the Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts and the annexation of the
Crimean peninsula since 2014. Existing studies focus on the influence of singular factors on
tourism in Ukraine (Ivanov et al., 2016, 2017; Sass, 2020; Webster et al., 2017) and specific
time periods (Doan & Kiptenko, 2017; Kiptenko et al., 2017; Lozynskyy & Kushniruk, 2020;
Tomczewska-Popowycz & Quirini-Popławski, 2021). The current study is designed to fill the
gap in research in a comprehensive analysis of tourism development since the collapse of the
Soviet Union.
The study aims to present individual oblasts in Ukraine in the light of various adverse events
and their resistance to them. The authors' task is to show the regions that have done the best
and develop guidelines/recommendations for tourism managers.
Selected indices were analyzed that illustrate political determinants (Political stability and
absence of violence/terrorism index, number of attacks by regions, number of internal and
external migrations and refugees by regions; mortality rate by regions) and their relationship
with basic tourism sector metrics for Ukraine (i.e. tourist volume, both domestic and
international, tourism revenue). The VARMAX procedure analysis made it possible to identify
the impacts of selected events on Ukraine’s tourism sector and examine trends and cycles.
The research results illustrate changes in Ukraine’s tourism market triggered by various
factors such as the Orange Revolution, the 2008 financial crisis, Russian annexation of Crimea,
the war in the Donbas region, marshal law, and the pandemic. The study argues that an
analysis of past and current trends help to understand the characteristics of the factors
impacting the tourism sector, which may be helpful in the planning and management of policy
in this sector. It also shows the beneficiaries of unstable situations. The paper ends with a
discussion of the study's limitations and future research directions.
Keywords: political instability; Ukraine; resilience
Doan, P., & Kiptenko, V. (2017). The geopolitical trial of tourism in modern Ukraine. In D. Hall
(Ed.), Tourism and Geopolitics (pp. 71–86). Cabi.
Ivanov, S., Gavrilina, M., Webster, C., & Ralko, V. (2017). Impacts of political instability on the
tourism industry in Ukraine. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 9(1),
Ivanov, S., Idzhylova, K., & Webster, C. (2016). Impacts of the entry of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation on its tourism industry: An exploratory
study. Tourism Management, 54, 162–169.
Kiptenko, V., Lyubitseva, O., Malska, M., Rutynskiy, M., Zan’ko, Y., & Zinko, J. (2017).
Geography of Tourism of Ukraine. In K. Widawski & J. Wyrzykowski (Eds.), The Geography
of Tourism of Central and Eastern European Countries (pp. 509–551). Springer
International Publishing.
Lozynskyy, R. M., & Kushniruk, H. V. (2020). Dynamics and geographical structure of inbound
tourism in political transit countries: case of Ukraine. Journal of Geology, Geography and
Geoecology, 29(2), 335–350.
Sass, E. (2020). The impact of eastern Ukrainian armed conflict on tourism in Ukraine.
GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 30(2 supplement), 880–888.
Tomczewska-Popowycz, N., & Quirini-Popławski, Ł. (2021). Political Instability Equals the
Collapse of Tourism in Ukraine? Sustainability, 13(8), 4126.
Webster, C., Ivanov, S. H., Gavrilina, M., Idzhylova, K., & Sypchenko, L. (2017). Hotel Industry’s
Reactions to the Crimea Crisis. E-Review of Tourism Research, 4(1–2), 57–71.
Presentation Session Paper Session 1
Claire Roe, Eleni Michopoulou and Kathleen McIlvenna
Co-creating tourism and world heritage destination resilience: A
stakeholder approach
This conceptual paper examines how co-creating a sense of place could increase the resilience
of world heritage sites. It considers how concepts of tourism stakeholder management and
heritage co-creation methodologies could combine to benefit local stakeholders, visitors and
heritage organisations.
Place making, as defined by (Lew, 2017), is a key concept for tourism which demonstrates how
destination identities can be deliberately crafted to meet visitor expectations. (Alderman,
Benjamin, & Schneider, 2012; Chen, 2018; Jiayu, Yerin, Eunmi, Jin-Young, & Chulmo, 2021;
Rofe, 2013; Winter, 2016) However, place making can also be shaped organically by local
communities and location uniqueness. (Delconte, Kline, & Scavo, 2016; Han, Kim, Lee, & Kim,
2019; Hultman & Hall, 2012) This reflects a shift in focus for heritage sites over the last two
decades, with a growing awareness that heritage is not just physical objects and spaces, but
the stories and practices that accompany them. (International Council on Monuments and
Sites, 2008; UNESCO, 2003). World Heritage Sites (WHSs) often reveal inconsistencies in their
community engagement strategies, restricting their success and resulting in resistance from
residents towards heritage development. (New Lanark WHS, 2019; Saltaire World Heritage
Centre, 2013, 2014).
Sense of place however, is personal, rooted in action and reinforced by repetition. It is a
dialogue between a place and a person that can be influenced by many things – fan culture,
active hobbies, a need for belonging, a need to escape everyday life (Allan, 2016; Correia
Loureiro, 2014; Romain, Jean-Marc, & Denis, 2016). In the UK this has been recently explored
through Spirit of Place initiatives developed by the National Trust. (The National Trust, 2021).
Research by Amsden, Stedman, and Kruger (2011) reveals how the intertwining of place
attachment and community result in ‘sense of place.’ Tourism literature, however, has mainly
focussed on how resident place attachment can benefit tourist destinations and visitors,
without exploring its potential for forming strong communities. (Correia Loureiro, 2014;
Hartman, Parra, & de Roo, 2019; Sofield, Guia, & Specht, 2017).
Hence, the co-creation of sense of place between tourism, world heritage and local
stakeholders could strengthen world heritage site identity whilst simultaneously increasing
engagement. Tourism stakeholder management concepts have significant parallels with
heritage co-creation projects as multiple stakeholders are required for the success of both
(Fatorić & Seekamp, 2019; Roberts & Kelly, 2019; Schuttenberg & Guth, 2015; Simon et al.,
2016; Surasak, 2020). Whilst tourism focusses on the outputs of co-created experiences,
heritage uses co-creation as a methodology that can instigate the regeneration and facilitate
social change through the building of community networks. (Clark et al., 2017; Courtney, 2018;
Daldanise, 2016; Ellis, 2017; Fatorić & Seekamp, 2019; Jones, Jeffrey, Maxwell, Hale, & Jones,
2018; Roberts & Kelly, 2019).
There is evidence across both disciplines which supports bottom-up, multi-stakeholder
approaches to create resilient, and culturally responsible, sustainable heritage destinations.
Developing a strategy for integrating resident sense of place with WHS objectives could help
generate sustainable tourism and resilience in the future. This has implications for heritage
site management, as harnessing local community sense of place to market world heritage sites
could relieve pressure on under-funded cultural organisations by retaining their unique
cultural attributes whilst simultaneously generating stewardship and support amongst
Keywords: World Heritage; Tourism; Resilience; Stakeholders; Place making; Sense of place
Alderman, D. H., Benjamin, S. K., & Schneider, P. P. (2012). Transforming Mount Airy into
Mayberry: Film-Induced Tourism as Place-Making. Southeastern Geographer, 52(2), 212-
239. doi:10.1353/sgo.2012.0016
Allan, M. (2016). Place Attachment and Tourist Experience in the Context of Desert Tourism –
the Case of Wadi Rum. Czech Journal of Tourism: Journal of Masaryk University, 5(1), 35-
52. doi:10.1515/cjot-2016-0003
Amsden, B., Stedman, R., & Kruger, L. (2011). The Creation and Maintenance of Sense of Place
in a Tourism-Dependent Community. LEISURE SCIENCES, 33(1), 32-51. Retrieved from
Chen, C.-Y. (2018). Influence of celebrity involvement on place attachment: role of destination
image in film tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(1), 1-14.
Clark, J., Laing, K., Leat, D., Lofthouse, R., Thomas, U., Tiplady, L., & Woolner, P. (2017).
Transformation in interdisciplinary research methodology: the importance of shared
experiences in landscapes of practice. International Journal of Research & Method in
Education, 40(3), 243-256. doi:10.1080/1743727X.2017.1281902
Correia Loureiro, S. M. (2014). The role of the rural tourism experience economy in place
attachment and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management,
40, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.02.010
Courtney, R. A. (2018). Network governance in the heritage ecology. Journal of Management
& Governance, 22(3), 689-705. doi:10.1007/s10997-017-9399-z
Daldanise, G. (2016). Innovative Strategies of Urban Heritage Management for Sustainable
Local Development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 223, 101-107.
Delconte, J., Kline, C. S., & Scavo, C. (2016). The impacts of local arts agencies on community
placemaking and heritage tourism. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 11(4), 324. Retrieved from
Ellis, R. (2017). Heritage and Stigma. Co-producing and communicating the histories of mental
health and learning disability. MEDICAL HUMANITIES, 43(2), 92-98. doi:10.1136/medhum-
Fatorić, S., & Seekamp, E. (2019). Knowledge co-production in climate adaptation planning of
archaeological sites. Journal of Coastal Conservation (Springer Science & Business Media
B.V.), 23(3), 689-698. doi:10.1007/s11852-019-00698-8
Han, J. H., Kim, J. S., Lee, C.-K., & Kim, N. (2019). Role of place attachment dimensions in
tourists’ decision-making process in Cittáslow. Journal of Destination Marketing &
Management, 11, 108-119. doi:10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.12.008
Hartman, S., Parra, C., & de Roo, G. (2019). Framing strategic storytelling in the context of
transition management to stimulate tourism destination development. Tourism
Management, 75, 90-98. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2019.04.014
Hultman, J., & Hall, C. M. (2012). Tourism place-making: Governance of Locality in Sweden.
Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 547-570. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2011.07.001
International Council on Monuments and Sites, I. (2008). QUÉBEC DECLARATION
Jiayu, Z., Yerin, Y., Eunmi, K., Jin-Young, K., & Chulmo, K. (2021). Sustainable Tourism Cities:
Linking Idol Attachment to Sense of Place. Sustainability, 13(2763), 2763-2763.
Jones, S., Jeffrey, S., Maxwell, M., Hale, A., & Jones, C. (2018). 3D heritage visualisation and
the negotiation of authenticity: the ACCORD project. International Journal of Heritage
Studies, 24(4), 333-353. doi:10.1080/13527258.2017.1378905
Lew, A. A. (2017). Tourism planning and place making: place-making or placemaking? Tourism
Geographies, 19(3), 448-466. doi:10.1080/14616688.2017.1282007
New Lanark WHS. (2019). Management Plan 2019 - 2024. Retrieved from
Roberts, A., & Kelly, G. (2019). Remixing as Praxis: Arnstein's Ladder Through the Grassroots
Preservationist's Lens. Journal of the American Planning Association, 85(3), 301-320.
Rofe, M. W. (2013). Considering the Limits of Rural Place Making Opportunities: Rural
Dystopias and Dark Tourism. Landscape Research, 38(2), 262-272.
Romain, R., Jean-Marc, A., & Denis, A. (2016). Sense of Place in Tourism and Leisure: the Case
of Touring Skiers in Quebec. Almatourism, 7(13), 79-94. doi:10.6092/issn.2036-5195/5996
Saltaire World Heritage Centre. (2013). Saltaire Period Reporting - Second Cycle. Retrieved
from file:///C:/Users/clair/AppData/Local/Temp/MicrosoftEdgeDownloads/91045eff-
Saltaire World Heritage Centre. (2014). Saltaire World Heritage Site Management Plan 2014.
Retrieved from
Schuttenberg, H. Z., & Guth, H. K. (2015). Seeking our shared wisdom: a framework for
understanding knowledge coproduction and coproductive capacities. Ecology & Society,
20(1), 226-236. doi:10.5751/ES-07038-200115
Simon, C., Martyn, H., Katherine, L., James, O., John, P., John, C., . . . Phil, H. (2016). Co-curate:
Working with Schools and Communities to Add Value to Open Collections. Journal of
Interactive Media in Education, 2016(1). doi:10.5334/jime.414
Sofield, T., Guia, J., & Specht, J. (2017). Organic ‘folkloric’ community driven place-making and
tourism. Tourism Management, 61, 1-22. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.01.002
Surasak, K. (2020). Community development and propulsion mechanism with the
sustainability and co-creation: Sawankhalok master plan for tourism activities in world
heritage areas of historical districts Sukhothai Si Satchanalai and Kamphaeng Phet.
Cogent Arts & Humanities, 7(1). doi:10.1080/23311983.2020.1832307
The National Trust. (2021). The National Trust - Conservation Principles. Retrieved from
UNESCO. (2003). Text of the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural
Heritage. Retrieved from
Winter, C. (2016). Tourism and Making the Places after War: The Somme and Ground Zero.
Almatourism, 7(5), 26-43. doi:10.6092/issn.2036-5195/6380
Presentation Session Paper Session 1
Elecia Bethune, Dimitrios Buhalis and Lee Miles
Destination resilience: Developing tourism crisis response through
Resilience encapsulates a dynamic process that is developed based on the interconnectedness
of multiple stakeholders to produce a system-wide response in the face of uncertainty. It
demonstrates “the ability of a system/organization to react to and recover from disturbances
at an early stage with minimal effect on the dynamic stability of the system” (Hollnagel et al.,
2006, p. 16). The exploration of tourism systems cannot be done without a fundamental
understanding of complexity (Jakulin, 2017); as inherent to tourism is the continuous interface
of organizations, events and people across a number of subsystems (Aliperti et al., 2019).
Systems thinking includes the guidance of human-centred designs through systems thinking
and methodology for complex, multi-stakeholder and multi-systems (Jones, 2017). Another
layer of complexity is added when technology and digitization of processes are introduced.
The fields of Crisis Management and Destination Management have co-existed within many
destinations, but the need for a harmonious integration and a commitment to a smart system
approach/smartness is becoming more evident. While the nexus between the two fields is
emergent, a foundational grounding from a strategic and operational nexus must take place
for smartness to be demonstrated. Within this context tourism has to be explored as a multi-
stakeholder system, operating within a dynamic and uncertain environment where non-linear
approaches are not the best fit. It is within this context that innovation positions itself as part
of the toolkit that is required to charting a new approach to the seamless integration of crisis
management, crisis response destination resilience.
Innovation has been historically associated part of the creative process of humans, and usually
engaged when uncertainty exists. It can be twinned with the concept of intelligence, which is
interpreted as moving from the exclusive function of the brain to an understanding that
intelligence is now as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the thinking centre, the
body and its environment (Voyatzaki, 2018). This construct can be applied to systems and
supported by the human and social capital of the system. Intelligence addresses the high
capacity for learning and innovation and is inextricably linked to the knowledge creation and
management, the creativity of the population and solving new problems (Harrison et al., 2010;
Komninos, 2006) which is inherent within the operating environment of crisis and disasters.
Innovation can be best facilitated within the context of collective intelligence and presents a
successful blueprint to shape models and solutions to multi-agent problems (Chmait et al.,
2016). It is reliant on the leveraging the collaboration and social capital within a city’s
organization and institutions, its resources including the creativity of its people, knowledge
sharing learning and their technologies which increases innovation (Harrison et al., 2010;
Komninos, 2018).
Tourism exists within this nuanced state of perpetual resilience and sensemaking seeking to
balance proactivity and reactivity in an uncertain environment- the edge of chaos. Speakman
(2014) purports that “In between chaos and stability, organisations can operate as complex
adaptive systems. If they become too chaotic, they can disintegrate, but if they operate too
far from the edge of chaos, they are in danger of ceasing to exist. At the ‘edge of chaos’ they
are at their most innovative, flexible and adaptive’.” However, the nuance of uncertainty
requires that real time/agility and innovation has to be embedded as part of the strategic and
operational approaches to enable the speed and agility required in the responsiveness of the
The role of collective intelligence as part of the development of innovation will be explored
through the initial findings of a case study on Jamaica. The case study is part of a wider
research on the use of a smart systems approach to advancing destination resilience within
the context of crisis and disaster. Thematic analysis of documents and Semi-structured
interviews of key stakeholders in the Jamaican tourism industry were the research methods
undertaken. It is the proposition of this article that a commitment to innovation/innovative
thinking forms part of the environment for Real Time Response (Bethune et al., 2022).
Keywords: Real Time Response; Innovation; Tourism Crisis Response; Destination Resilience
Aliperti, G., Sandholz, S., Hagenlocher, M., Rizzi, F., Frey, M., & Garschagen, M. (2019).
Research, 79, 102808.
Bethune, E., Buhalis, D., & Miles, L. (2022). Real time response (RTR): Conceptualizing a smart
systems approach to destination resilience. Journal of Destination Marketing &
Management, 23, 100687.
Chmait, N., Dowe, D. L., Li, Y.-F., Green, D. G., & Insa-Cabrera, J. (2016). Factors of collective
intelligence: How smart are agent collectives? IOS Press.
Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., & Williams,
P. (2010). Foundations for smarter cities. IBM Journal of research and development, 54(4),
Hollnagel, E., Woods, D. D., & Leveson, N. (2006). Resilience engineering: Concepts and
precepts. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Jakulin, T. J. (2017). Systems Approach to Tourism: A Methodology for Defining Complex
Tourism System. Organizacija, 50(3), 208-215.
Jones, P. (2017). The Systemic Turn: Leverage for World Changing. She Ji: The Journal of
Design, Economics, and Innovation, 3(3), 157-163.
Komninos, N. (2006). The architecture of intelligent cities. Intelligent Environments, 6, 53-61.
Komninos, N. (2018). Architectures of intelligence in smart cities: pathways to problem-solving
and innovation. Editorial Board, 6(1), 17-35.
Speakman, M. K. (2014). Perspectives on destination crisis management in the UK and Mexico:
conventional crisis models and complexity theory.
Voyatzaki, M. (2018). Editorial, Architectures Of Intelligence In Smart Cities- Pathways To
Problem -Solving And Innovation. (11).
Presentation Session
Paper Session 2
Sheevun Di Guliman, Berlyn TeaÑo, Stephen Fajardo, Felipe Lula
Jr., Donnavic Dumapias and Tressa Maye Pendang
Strengthening the financial performance of the hospitality and tourism
industry amidst a disrupted business environment: Is resiliency vital?
The hospitality and tourism (H&T) industry is one of the important global employers and
widely accepted in literature to have contributed largely to a country’s economic growth
through direct and indirect channels. Nonetheless, the Coronavirus (Covid–19) pandemic
changed the face and fate of many industries, including the H&T industry. With the escalating
adverse effects to the economies of most countries, calls for research relating to the H&T
industry in the time of Covid–19 pandemic have burgeoned (Sigala, 2020) and became crucial.
Guided by the entrepreneurial resilience model, the main objective of this study is to probe
whether the enterprise’ planned and adaptive resilience affected the financial performance
of H&T enterprises. This study covered the top three destinations in Northern Mindanao,
Philippines, in terms of foreign travelers and among the top destinations in the region for
domestic travelers as of 2019 (DoT, 2020). Due to the Philippine Data Privacy Act of 2012 and
the restrictions imposed by the Philippine government because of the Covid-19 pandemic, the
study made use of non-probabilistic sampling. The study involved 315 respondents, which met
the minimum sample size using Cochran formula for small population, and proportionally
distributed based on the size of each selected area. Moreover, the respondents of this study
were limited to owners or key decision–makers of registered micro, small and medium
enterprises (MSMEs) that have been in operation since 2018 or earlier in the sectors of (a)
food and beverage service activities; (b) accommodation; (c) travel agency, tour operator and
related activities; and (d) amusement and recreation.
After controlling for firm size, based on number of employees, and type of H&T sector, results
of the PLS–SEM showed that planned resilience is positively related to adaptive resilience at
99% confidence level, but the former is not related to financial performance, which supports
the findings of Prayag et al. (2018). However, this study found a negative relationship between
adaptive resilience and financial performance at 95% confidence level, which is in contrast to
the results of Prayag et al. (2018) and Sobaih et al. (2021). The results indicated that even if
enterprises have high adaptive resilience, financial performance is still low, implying that the
web of negative effects of the Covid–19 pandemic is massive and necessitates a longer period
of recovery even after the pandemic (Sigala, 2020). The results of the study appear to support
the notion of Gursoy and Chi (2020) that the magnitude of the devastating effect of Covid–19
pandemic on the micro and macroeconomic indicators is unrivaled in contrast to prior crises.
This paper also examined if there are differences in the relationships of planned and adaptive
resilience to financial performance based on gender. Results of PLS–Multi Group Analysis
showed that the relationship between adaptive resilience and financial performance is
positive and significantly higher for males as compared to females. Meanwhile, the
relationship between planned resilience and financial performance is significantly lower for
males as compared to females.
In summary, the findings of this paper further the scholars and policymakers’ understanding
of how Covid–19 pandemic severely affected the financial performance of H&T enterprises
even for those with high adaptive resilience, suggesting that much remains to be done for the
long run recovery of the H&T industry. Lastly, to contribute to the limited knowledge regarding
the role of gender in organizational resilience and financial performance studies, the results
of the study also implied that the aspects of organizational resilience differ by gender. This
suggests that in strengthening the financial performance of H&T enterprises, policies and
programs may also focus on improving the aspects of organizational resilience based on
Keywords: Adaptive resilience; covid–19; financial performance; hospitality and tourism;
planned resilience
Data Privacy Act of 2012,
Department of Tourism. (2020, June 25). Regional distribution of overnight travelers in
accommodation establishments (January to December 2019): Partial report.
Gursoy, D. & Chi, C.G. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on hospitality industry: Review of
the current situations and a research agenda. Journal of Hospitality Marketing &
Management, 29(5), 527–529.
Prayag, G., Chowdhury, M., Spector, S., & Orchiston, C. (2018). Organizational resilience and
financial performance. Annals of Tourism Research, 73, 193-196.
Sigala, M. (2020). Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and
resetting industry and research. Journal of Business Research, 117, 312–321.
Sobaih, A. E. E., Elshaer, I., Hasanein, A. M., & Abdelaziz, A. S. (2021). Responses to COVID-19:
The role of performance in the relationship between small hospitality enterprises’
resilience and sustainable tourism development. International Journal of Hospitality
Management, 94.
Presentation Session
Paper Session 2
Tomas Saralegui
The impact of P2P accommodation on pre-pandemic tourism demand:
Has it just been substitution?
The sharing economy has experienced a singular rise in the last decade, disrupting many
industries and in particular the tourism industry. The SE is still emerging as a field of research
and, as a result of its novelty and peculiarities, has become a difficult concept to delimit and
define (Acquier et al, 2019). To the effect of this research a broad definition is considered,
understanding the SE as the business models where, employing a platform, consumers gain
temporary access to goods or services often provided by individuals (European Commision,
2016). The SE in the accommodation sector takes the form of peer-to-peer (P2P) trading
(Dolnicar, 2020).
Current discussions on this topic frequently focus on the impact of the SE in the hotel industry,
pointing out that the SE has indubitably acted as a substitute for hotel services (Falk and Yang,
2020; Guttentag and Smith, 2017; Zervas et al, 2017). However, other perspectives on this
phenomenon suggest that because of the positive spillover effects of the SE in the hosting
ecosystems, such as labour creation (Fang et al, 2016) and local restaurants revenue (Basuroy
et al, 2020), the SE might have in fact fostered tourism demand. Surprisingly enough, there is
a gap in the literature studying the impact of the SE on international tourist flows.
The objective of this research is to examine whether the SE, in the form of P2P
accommodation, has gone further than merely acting as a substitute for hotel services and
fostered international tourism, and if so, to which extent.
The main hypothesis is that the emergence of P2P accommodation platforms has contributed
to increasing tourism flows. This hypothesis is based on three observations. First, In their
participation in the SE, local communities are directly extending the receptive capacity of
destinations globally (Ferreira et al, 2020). Second, they are lowering costs for travel services
(Sthapit et al, 2019), both by offering a lower price than hotels and by increasing competition
(Önder et al, 2018). Last, these local SE communities are seizing the consumers changing
tastes, offering an authentic local experience and interaction travellers hardly had access to
before (Guttentag et al, 2018; Paulauskaite et al, 2017; Tussyadiah and Pesonen, 2016).
Previous research has likewise confirmed tourism demand elasticity towards other
innovations, such as the creation of the eurozone (Gil et al, 2006) and the emergence of low-
cost carriers in the aviation industry (Rey et al, 2010). Following these papers, this research
applies a gravitational model to analyze international tourism demand. This is executed by the
means of different dynamic data-panel and random effects GLS panel models. The research is
delimited to Spain, the second-largest worldwide touristic economy. The cross-section feature
of the panel data is provided by the countries of origin of the tourist flows. The time series
component ranges from 2006Q1, previously to the emergence of the SE, up to 2019Q4, due
to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the tourism industry. The model includes the most
relevant tourism demand drivers (Song et al, 2009), such as income, population, real exchange
rate, among others. Additionally, it includes a specific variable to represent the interest in the
demand markets on the P2P economy. This is obtained through the Google Trends tool that
provides insight into Google’s Big Data for the interest in the SE in the specified regions. This
data source is increasingly being employed in economic analysis (Jun et al, 2018) and is proven
to be of great utility to tourism demand forecasting studies (Emili et al, 2020; Volchek et al,
The results for the estimations in all four models show a significant and positive coefficient for
the impact of the SE on tourism demand. The interpretation of the results is that the SE is
responsible for the growth rate on the international tourist arrivals to Spain in the range of a
significant 1.39% to 2.58%. It is concluded that, despite its substitution effect on the hotel
industry, the SE has cherished growth in tourism demand.
This research intends to contribute to the academic literature by deepening into the ongoing
discussion on the SE and in particular, providing evidence on the impact of the SE on tourism
Keywords: P2P accommodation; Tourism demand; Sharing economy; Panel data
Acquier, A., Carbone, V. & Massé, D. (2019). How to Create Value(s) in the Sharing Economy:
Business Models, Scalability and Sustainability, Technology Innovation Management
Review, 9(2), 5-24.
Basuroy, S., Kim, Y. & Proserpio, D. (2020). Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the local
economy: Evidence from the restaurant industry. Advance online publication.
Dolnicar, S. (2020). Sharing economy and peer-to-peer accommodation – a perspective paper,
Tourism Review 76(1), 34-37.
Emili, S., Gardini, A. & Foscolo, E. (2020). High spatial and temporal detail in timely prediction
of tourism demand, International Journal of Tourism Research. Advance online publication.
European Commision (2016). A European agenda for the collaborative economy, Retrieved
June 20, 2020, from
Falk, M. T. & Yang, Y. (2020). Hotels benefit from stricter regulations on short-term rentals in
European cities, Tourism Economics. Advance online publication.
Fang, B., Ye, Q. & Law, R. (2016). Effect of sharing economy on tourism industry employment,
Annals of Tourism Research, 57, 264–267.
Ferreira, J. P., Ramos, P. N. & Lahr, M. L. (2020). The rise of the sharing economy: Guesthouse
boom and the crowding-out effects of tourism in Lisbon, Tourism Economics, 26(3), 389–
Gil Pareja, S., Llorca Vivero, R. & Martínez Serrano, J. A. (2007). The Effect of EMU on Tourism,
Review of International Economics, 15(2), 302–312.
Guttentag, D. & Smith, S.L.J. (2017). Assessing Airbnb as a disruptive innovation relative to
hotels: Substitution and comparative performance expectations, International Journal of
Hospitality Management, 64), 1–10.
Guttentag, D., Smith, S., Potwarka, L. & Havitz, M. (2018). Why Tourists Choose Airbnb: A
Motivation-Based Segmentation Study, Journal of Travel Research, 57(3), 342–359.
Jun, S. P., Yoo, H.S. & Choi, S. (2018). Ten years of research change using Google Trends: From
the perspective of big data utilizations and applications, Technological Forecasting and
Social Change, 130), 69–87.
Paulauskaite, D., Powell, R., Coca-Stefaniak, J. A. & Morrison, A. M. (2017). Living like a local:
Authentic tourism experiences and the sharing economy, International Journal of Tourism
Research, 19(6), 619–628.
Rey, B., Myro, R. & Galera, A. (2011). Effect of low-cost airlines on tourism in Spain. A dynamic
panel data model, Journal of Air Transport Management, 17(3), 163–167.
Song, H., Witt, S. & Li, G. (2009). The advanced econometrics of tourism demand. Routledge,
New York, NY.
Sthapit, E., Del Chiappa, G., Coudounaris, D. N. & Bjork, P. (2019). Determinants of the
continuance intention of Airbnb users: consumption values, co-creation, information
overload and satisfaction, Tourism Review, 75(3), 511-531.
Önder, I., Weismayer, C. & Gunter, U. (2018). Spatial price dependencies between the
traditional accommodation sector and the sharing economy, Tourism Economics, 25(8),
Tussyadiah, I. P. & Pesonen, J. (2016). Impacts of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Use on Travel
Patterns, Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1022–1040.
Volchek, K., Liu, A., Song, H. & Buhalis, D. (2019). Forecasting tourist arrivals at attractions:
Search engine empowered methodologies, Tourism Economics, 25(3), 425–447.
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D. & Byers, J. W. (2017). The Rise of the Sharing Economy: Estimating
the Impact of Airbnb on the Hotel Industry, Journal of Marketing Research, 54(5), 687–705.
Presentation Sessio
n Pap
er Session 2
Fani Efthymiadoy and Anna Farmaki
Peer-to-peer accommodation hosting as a means of empowerment:
Perspectives of women Airbnb hosts
In the last decade peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation platforms experienced a rapid growth,
with Airbnb representing the poster child of the sector. The phenomenal expansion of the
sector was such that P2P accommodation has been characterised as a disruptive innovation
in the tourism and hospitality industries (Guttentag, 2015; Zach, Nicolau & Sharma, 2020) that
may yield significant economic and social benefits to its users. For instance, Airbnb may offer
a convenient, value for money accommodation option for travellers whilst allowing them to
interact with hosts (Lee, 2022; Tussyadiah, 2016). Likewise, hosting on Airbnb may provide
entrepreneurial opportunities, financial gains and opportunities for socialization for hosts
(Farmaki & Kaniadakis, 2020; Lampinen & Cheshire, 2016).
Despite the burgeoning number of studies on Airbnb user perspectives, little is known of the
views of women users of the platform and especially hosts (Farmaki, 2019). This is surprising
as women represent 56% of Airbnb hosts (Airbnb, 2019). The platform proudly proclaims that
it contributes to women empowerment as through hosting they can gain several economic
and social benefits. Nonetheless, insofar there is no study examining women empowerment
of Airbnb female hosts. To respond to this gap in the research, this study examines the
perceptions of women Airbnb hosts in terms of the attainment of empowerment through the
hosting practice. In so doing, we draw from Kabeer’s (1999) women empowerment
framework which acknowledges empowerment as a dynamic process requiring resources (e.g.
financial, social support) and agency (capacity to make decisions) in order to achieve desired
This study adopted a qualitative approach to examine the perspectives of Airbnb women hosts
in terms of women empowerment through hosting. Specifically, we examined women host
perceptions of the resources required for hosting, their motives for hosting on the platform,
the role of the platform in women empowerment and the benefits expected to be gained
through the activity of hosting in relation to the five dimensions of women empowerment
(economic, social, political, educational and psychological). Overall, 30 interviews were
conducted with women Airbnb hosts located in Greece that were purposively selected in
accordance to their experience and active role on the platform. Greece provides an interesting
context as it is a developed country that, nonetheless, has been plagued with economic
instability and uncertainty (Papatheodorou & Pappas, 2017). To analyse the data, thematic
analysis method was used (Braun & Clarke, 2006) whereby meanings (themes) within the data
were identified and analysed using Nvivo 12.
Qualitive analysis revealed two main categories of women hosts, professional hosts who did
not necessarily owned property but managed multiple listings and non-professionals who
owned properties and decided to exploit the available space through hosting. Therefore, the
ownership of property as a key resource needed for hosting is not a prerequisite for women
empowerment through hosting. Moving on, both professional and non-professional women
hosts identified both economic and social benefits as motives for hosting, highlighting the
flexibility that the activity offers them as important. In accordance to women empowerment
through hosting, women views varied as not all of the five dimensions of women
empowerment seem to be equally achieved by professional and non-professional hosts. For
instance, women claimed that hosting made them feel independent as they gained extra
money to cover their needs, support their family and invest in future entrepreneurial
opportunities. However, some non-professional hosts stated that they are already
empowerment by their primary occupation for which they may require a form of higher
education. Furthermore, while social empowerment was recognised as an outcome for most
women, some claimed that the negative image that Airbnb has in their community has adverse
effects on their social position. In addition, professional women hosts seem to have a more
proactive role in achieving political and educational empowerment than non-professional
hosts by getting involved in local tourism decision-making and participating in educational
seminars and workshops. Last, most women hosts claimed that they received psychological
empowerment from hosting (e.g., confidence, joy) even though a few hosts stated that
hosting causes them anxiety as they want guest to feel satisfied.
In terms of the role of the platform, women said that they didn’t feel special treatment or
assistance was given to women hosts. Although no problems were reported regarding hosting,
women suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic created challenges for them that some
women hosts attempted to overcome. For example, they didn’t wait for booking requests to
come from the platform but sought to find hosts from alternative routes such as their
network. As such, study findings offer significant theoretical and practical implications that
contribute to existing knowledge of the resilience tactics of women in hospitality in
empowering themselves, especially at times of uncertainty.
Keywords: Women Empowerment; Peer To Peer Accommodation; Qualitive Anaylisis
Airbnb (2019). Women hosts are leading the way on Airbnb. (Accessed on 15 October 2019)
Available at:
Braun,V. & Clarke,V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in
Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Farmaki, A. (2019). Women in Airbnb: A neglected perspective. Current Issues in
Tourism, 1-5.
Farmaki, A., & Kaniadakis, A. (2020). Power dynamics in peer-to-peer accommodation: insights
from Airbnb hosts. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 89, 102571.
Guttentag, D. (2015). Airbnb: disruptive innovation and the rise of an informal tourism
accommodation sector. Current issues in Tourism, 18(12), 1192-1217.
Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of
women's empowerment. Development and change, 30(3), 435-464.
Lampinen, A., & Cheshire, C. (2016, May). Hosting via Airbnb: Motivations and financial
assurances in monetized network hospitality. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI conference
on human factors in computing systems (pp. 1669-1680).
Lee, C. (2022). How guest-host interactions affect consumer experiences in the sharing
economy: New evidence from a configurational analysis based on consumer reviews.
Decision Support Systems, 152, 113634.
Papatheodorou, A., & Pappas, N. (2017). Economic recession, job vulnerability, and tourism
decision making: A qualitative comparative analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 56(5), 663-
Tussyadiah, I. (2016). Factors of satisfaction and intention to use peer-to-peer
accommodation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 55, 70-80.
Zach, F. J., Nicolau, J. L., & Sharma, A. (2020). Disruptive innovation, innovation adoption and
incumbent market value: The case of Airbnb. Annals of Tourism Research, 80, 102818
Presentation Session
Paper Session 3
Ian Elsmore, Richard Cooper and Kate McCarthy
Off road and riding towards recovery: COVID-19 and the UK Gravel Bike
event industry
This paper looks at how small-scale event organisers survived the effect of the Covid-19
Pandemic. To do so research was conducted with the organisers of Gravel cycling events in
the UK. Although a smaller ‘scene’ than its American counterpart, gravel events in the UK had
enjoyed significant growth in the years leading up to the pandemic. Essentially an
amalgamation of mountain biking and road cycling (Hoor, 2020), gravel bike events offer a less
regulated and varied sporting challenge synonymous with an inclusive and relaxed culture that
appeals to a diverse selection of participants (Mazzucchi, 2020) seeking an alternative to the
unwelcoming, mainstream, regulated cycle sport associated with serious leisure enthusiasts
(Herman, 2015, O’Connor & Brown, 2007).
In America Gravel cycling as a phenomenon looked as if it would continue growing in strength
in 2020 (Rogers, 2020) with all 2500 places for a mass participation event in Steamboat
Springs, Colorado, selling out in 22 minutes (Delany, 2020). On a smaller scale the popularity
of similar events also continued to grow in the UK, as evidenced by entries for the Dirty Reiver
in Northumberland. There were 356 entries for this event in 2016 which had grown to 1400
places 2022, which had sold out in days (Dirty Reiver, 2022).
Gravel events such as Dirty Reiver, Grinduro and The Distance (Focal Events, 2018) had
become established in the UK prior to the Pandemic and their growth showed no sign of
abating, until in March 2020, faced with the worldwide Covid-19 Pandemic, the UK
government initiated the first of a series of nationwide lockdowns. With all but essential travel
discouraged to control the spread of the virus, the public were no longer able to attend or
participate in sporting events (Buehler, 2020). The resulting cancellation, postponement or
need to redesign events often at minimal notice (Aarons, 2021), caused significant problems
for the events industry. Particularly badly hit were the organisers of relatively small-scale
public participation sporting events. With active sport tourists (Lepp & Gibson, 2008) no longer
able to travel the organisers of such sporting events found themselves struggling for survival.
The organisers of gravel events found themselves at the forefront of this struggle. Without
the support of the economically powerful stakeholders of mega events, the loss of revenue
through participant entries sales threatened not only the future of specific events but the
organisations that facilitate the events and by extension the whole of the emergent UK gravel
cycling scene. Paradoxically the temporary interruption of events coincided with a boom in
the sale of ‘gravel bikes’ as it became the fastest growing sector of the industry (Bourgin, 2021)
leaving event organisers with a larger potential market that they were unable to exploit.
With access to suitable locations restricted, the first of four antecedents of a sustainable event
identified by Wickham, Donnelly & French (2021), the remaining three of reputation,
involvement and infrastructure became increasingly strained. As a new and emerging industry
concepts of growth and survival were challenged by the pandemic and this research set out
to understand how the nascent gravel bike industry dealt with these issues. As Covid-19
restrictions stared to lift in the summer of 2021, semi-structured interviews (Veal, 2011) were
conducted with the organisers of UK gravel bike events.
• The interviews sought their views on how the market had developed before the pandemic,
the key characteristics of the events, the participants and their involvement as organisers.
• How they responded as the crisis took hold and what did they do to protect and sustain the
events they organised?
What vision, hope and prospects did they see gravel bike events having as the market
What the interviews highlighted was the importance of the event organisers knowing their
markets and using this knowledge to decipher the needs of their target market, to continue
to provide opportunities for participants to experience inclusive challenges. This knowledge
acquired through shared experience and values, enabled organisers through their closeness
to the market to adapt quickly and responsibly. Through an understanding of shared values,
they were able to adapt in ways that helped to maintain the involvement and interest of the
participants with tactics such as virtual events, helping to support both the reputation of the
brands they had built and the precarious economic position of their businesses. This enabled
them to prepare and develop the product and offer a product that is desirable for the
increasing number of gravel cyclists looking for an alternative as the sport emerges into a post
pandemic position.
Keywords: Covid-19; Business Recovery; Serious Leisure
Aarons, E. (2021) Coronavirus and sport – a list of the major cancellations. The Guardian.
Published 6th April 2020. Available at:
major-cancellations [Accessed 3 September 2021]
Bourgin, E. (2021) RAR Gravel Team Camp 2021 Recap – Radical Adventure Riders. Published
July 1st, 2021. Available at
2021-recap [Accessed 6 August 2021]
Buehler, B. (2020) Sports Television and the Continuing Search for Alternative Programming.
International Journal of Sport Communication, 13(3), 566-574.
Delany Ben. (2020) The Grind: SBT GRVL collaborates with Ride for Racial Justice for 25 BIPOC
entries Velo News online. Published 17 November 2020. Available at:
racial-justice-for-25-bipoc-entries/ [Accessed 10 August 2021]
Dirty Reiver (2022) 2022 Event now full. ADVNTR. Available from:
[Accessed 1 February 2022]
Focal Events (2018) About Focal Events, Focal Events Available from: [Accessed 11 August 2021]
Herman, Z. (2015) Serious Leisure and Leisure Motivations Among Self-Identified Cyclists.
Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 3(1-2). 32-40
Hoor, M. (2020). The bicycle as a symbol of lifestyle, status and distinction. A cultural studies
analysis of urban cycling (sub) cultures in Berlin. Applied Mobilities, 1-18.
Lepp, A., & Gibson, H. (2008). Sensation seeking and tourism: Tourist role, perception of risk
and destination choice. Tourism Management, 29(4), 740-750.
Mazzucchi, S. (2020). What Do You Get When You Combine Mountain and Road Biking? Only
the Fastest-Growing Sport in the Cycling World. Gear Patrol. Published 14 May 2020.
Available from:
gravel-biking/ [Accessed 5 September 2021]
O'Connor, J., & Brown, T. (2007). Real cyclists don't race: Informal affiliations of the weekend
warrior. International review for the sociology of sport, 42(1), 83-97.
Rogers, N. (2020) Inflection point As gravel racing goes mainstream can it keep its renegade
status? Cycling Tips. Published January 20th, 2020. Available from:
its-renegade-status/ [Accessed 8August 2002]
Veal, A. (2011) Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: A practical guide 4th Ed. Prentice
Hall Harlow.
Wickham, M., Donnelly, T., & French, L. (2021). Strategic sustainability management in the
event sector. Event Management, 25(3), 279-296.
Presentation Session
Paper Session 3
Cyril Martin-Colonna
Pandemic COVID-19 tourism, governance and community(ies):
European-wide longitudinal research on tourism behaviour, between
resistance(s) and resilience(s)
The emergence of Covid-19 around the world is a major upheaval in all sectors of society, from
the economy to politics to our respective lifestyles. Individual states have seized upon the
situation with measures that run counter to contemporary principles of free movement of
people. The tourism industry has been permanently affected by this health crisis and the
various political and health measures taken over the last 18 months. For Carroué (2020), these
restrictions have resulted in the emergence of numerous barriers that have led to an
unprecedented collapse of human and material mobility, fragmenting humanity and its life
model. This fact only highlights more over the last twenty years that tourism has become one
of the economic sectors most marked by the recrudescence of several risks (Khomsi, 2018).
Tourism industry stakeholders do not see a return to pre-pandemic levels before 2024 or even
2025 at best (UNWTO, 2021).
Beyond the economic sphere, it is the habits of life that are disrupted by the pandemic and
more particularly by the decisions of political and medical decision-makers (Dumont, 2020).
These decisions, which can be interpreted as biopolitical in the Foucauldian sense (Foucault,
2020), have an impact on the behaviour of populations and their leisure, professional and
personal tourism habits. These measures raise a number of questions about the
transformation of travellers' behavioural habits and the dualities between political decisions
and lifestyles, health and society, and finally resistance and resilience.
The aim of this research is to build up a corpus of analyses from observations and surveys
spread over the covid-19 period (beginning of the epidemic, gradual deconfinements, period
of living with the virus, discovery of the vaccine, post-covid period) over a period of 12 to 24
months post-vaccine. This temporal and spatial spread will provide a field of analysis in terms
of data, multi-regional and multi-infrastructure comparisons.
In the same vein as Altman (1974) Malterre and Chanteloup (2015), a methodology for
observing tourists and their tourism practices has been set up as of summer 2020 in different
European tourist areas known as Club Med (Greece, France, Spain, Bosnia-Herzegovina), in
just over 50 different tourist structures. The aim of this observation is to better understand
the different tourist behaviours and activities following the Covid-19 and in the face of political
and health constraints, at different levels of governance (European, state and local) according
to a culturalist approach based on the political and socio-cultural diachrony of a single
geographical space (the European space) subdivided into as many national spaces.
Keywords: covid-19 pandemic; Resilience; Resistance
Altman, J. (1974). « Observational study of behavior : Sampling methods ». Behaviour, Vol. 49,
N°. 3/4 (1974), pp. 227-267.
Carroué, L. (2020). « Mondialisation et démondialisation au prisme de la pandémie de Covid-
19. Le grand retour de l’espace, des territoires et du fait politique », Géoconfluences.
Dumont, G-F. (2020). Covid-19 : l’amorce d’une révolution géographique ?. Population &
Avenir, 750, 3-3.
Foucault, M. (2004). Naissance de la biopolitique: cours au Collège de France (1978-1979).
EHESS Gallimard Seuil.
OMT. (2021). Global guidelines to restart tourism, UNWTO, Madrid, 29p.
Perrin-Malterre, C et L, Chanteloup. (2015). « Observer les pratiques récréatives des touristes
: complémentarité des méthodes et des acteurs de l’observation ». Colloque ASTRES
Observer les touristes pour mieux comprendre les tourismes ”, Université de la Rochelle;
ASTRES, La Rochelle, France.
Presentation Session
Paper Session 3
Cyril Martin-Colonna
The role of tourism of memorial and cultural representation of the past
conflict in the post-conflict process: The case of Sarajevo
The wars and conflicts that humanity has faced throughout history have often targeted cities
as the epitome of civilisation, the locus of the power of the Other to be annihilated (Baudoui,
2001). Historically, the first centuries of the history of civilisation in Europe show numerous
confrontations between cities, centres of power and wealth. The twentieth century marks the
peak in terms of urban conflict and destruction (Jebrak, 2010). This destructive reality is not
limited to the two world wars; the second half of the twentieth century had its share of urban
conflicts in cities as diverse as Dresden, Stalingrad, Hiroshima, Vukovar or Sarajevo
(Grünewald, 2013).
The case study of this research focused on the city of Sarajevo, the capital and largest city of
Bosnia and Herzegovina, the heart of the Balkan region in South East Europe. Sarajevo is
infamous in its contemporary period for the 1425-day siege during the Balkan War between
1992 and 1996, which led to a process of ethnic and cultural cleansing (Council of Europe,
1993). Beyond the conflict that affected the region, it is the process of methodical destruction
of the city, its identity and its inter-communal culture that attracts attention. Hall and Danta
(1996) do not see this conflict as a conventional civil war, but rather as a series of conflicts
with varying territorial ambitions and problems. As a result of the conflict, the city's
physiognomy, the multiple heritage resources and the multi-identity vocation of the
population were altered. The destruction in Sarajevo does not correspond to a classical
destruction of the city, but to the destruction of discursive places in order to 'destroy' the
triethnic cohabitation (Tratnjek, 2016).
Before the conflict took place, Sarajevo and Bosnia and Herzegovina were popular tourist
destinations. The country and its capital have many cultural, historical, sporting and natural
resources, favourable for the redevelopment of a large-scale tourist attraction (Kürşad Özlen
and Poturak, 2013). Despite the end of the conflict, an imaginary, even a fantasy, has been
created among foreign populations, that of a city and a region in perpetual conflict. The siege
of the city has led to the emergence of a new form of tourism for the city, focusing on the
memory of the conflict. Within a territory, it can be a tool for the consolidation of cultural
unity, the construction or reconstruction of identity, and even the formation or reformation
of peoples (Naef, 2012, 2013; Kassouha, 2019). Whether in memorials, museums or guided
tours around the remains of war, the presentation and interpretation of this heritage is never
neutral. Emotions as different as pride, guilt, hatred, sadness are mixed through the heritage
and tourism of the conflict (Naef, 2012, 2013; Kassouha, 2019). In the case of Sarajevo, the
cultural diversity of the populations, the latent trauma of the conflict, the ungovernable
political system and the difficulty of planning between the different actors of the city and the
country, extremely permeated in their respective ethnic interests, makes the post-conflict