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Spatial adaptation in coastal environments. New possible synergies between flood protection infrastructure and urban landscape design

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The current flood risk-related challenges induced by climate change place pressure on designing urban areas where natural and man-made conditions can be imbalanced. Today, flood risk is mostly managed to reduce the probability of flood events. However, the engineered probability approach to flood risk management might not always result in a well-designed landscape; especially in floodplain and coastal areas, water defence infrastructures significantly impact the urban structure. This project output highlights new possible synergies between flood protection infrastructure and urban landscape through integrated design. Designing, indeed, is the fundamental act to explore the spatial challenge of climate change in its complexity.
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Towards Improved
Flood Defences
Five Years of All-Risk
Research into the New
Safety Standards
Edited by
Matthijs Kok
Juliette Cortes Arevalo
Martijn Vos
Towards Improved Flood Defences
Five Years of All-Risk Research into
the New Safety Standards
Editors
Matthijs Kok | Juliette Cortes Arevalo | Martijn Vos
Project Summary
Overview of
All-Risk research
Storyline
Highlighting
All-Risk case studies
Reection
Discussing the
practical value of
All-Risk research
PREFACE
Dike reinforcement operation from Utrecht to Barcelona based
on new knowledge 7
Anouk te Nijenhuis and Erik Wagener
Executive summary 10
Acknowledgements and partners 12
CHAPTER 1 FLOOD RISK APPROACH
Introduction 15
Matthijs Kok and Maartje van Dijk
How does the risk-based approach work? 17
Wim Kanning and Bas Jonkman
Opportunities and challenges in the legal implementation of the
new risk approach in water safety management 19
Willemijn van Doorn-Hoekveld and Marleen van Rijswick
Table of Contents
Chapter 2
Risk Framework
Chapter 6
Law, Governance and
Implementation
Chapter 5
Reliability and Strength
of Flood Defences
Chapter 4
Subsurface
Heterogeneity
Chapter 3
Dynamics in
Hydraulic Loads
Chapters 2 and 6 address cross-cutting themes that are relevant
for the overall risk framework and the implementation cases.
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Article
Background
knowledge about
ood risk
iii
Looking beyond the dikes to improve the ood risk management
in the Netherlands and Germany 21
Marleen van Rijswick and Moritz Reese
The 2021 summer oods in the Netherlands: some ndings and
lessons 25
Bas Jonkman
A look at future ood risk prospects: ideas of All-Risk researchers 28
Matthijs Kok
CHAPTER 2 RISK FRAMEWORK
Introduction 33
Matthijs Kok
A1 - Life-Cycle Performance 35
Wouter Jan Klerk
A2 - Shared use of ood defences 39
Richard Marijnissen
A3 - Dike reliability analysis 43
Wim Kanning
A4 - Spatial adaptation in coastal environments 47
Luca Iuorio
A wide green perspective on dikes 51
Richard Marijnissen
Proof loading and monitoring to optimise ood defence asset
management 56
Mark van der Krogt and Wouter Jan Klerk
Double dikes: twice the protection with twice the responsibility? 59
Webinar team
Risk-based inspection and interactions between failure
mechanisms 64
Webinar team
CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS IN HYDRAULIC LOADS
Introduction 69
Tjeerd Bouma
B1 - Foreshore ecosystems management 71
Beatriz Marin-Diaz
B2 - Wave propagation over foreshores 75
Christopher Lashley
B3 - Large-scale uncertainty in river water levels 79
Matthijs Gensen
Cooperating with the river bifurcations 83
Matthijs Gensen
The biggest ood risk in the rivers – bifurcation points or piping? 88
Webinar team
Foreshores – useful for manageable ood safety or just beautiful
nature? 92
Webinar team
CHAPTER 4 SUBSURFACE HETEROGENEITY
Introduction 97
Hans Middelkoop
C1 - Subsurface-related dike failure mechanisms 99
Bas Knaake
C2 - Groundwater-related dike safety 103
Teun van Woerkom
iv
C3 - Geophysical measurements of the subsoil 107
Juan Chavez Olalla
From dike history to reinforcement practice 111
Teun van Woerkom
Better mapping of the subsurface structure 116
Webinar team
Data-driven dike reinforcements – Constructive feedback from
new and historical sources 121
Webinar team
CHAPTER 5 RELIABILITY AND STRENGTH OF FLOOD DEFENCES
Introduction 127
Bas Jonkman
D1 - Residual dike resistance 129
Guido Remmerswaal
D2 - Modelling of sheet pile reinforced dikes in organic soils 133
Arny Lengkeek
D3 - Time-dependent piping and interactions 137
Joost Pol
D4 - Incorporating past performance 141
Mark van der Krogt
D5 - Overtopping ow and cover erosion 145
Vera van Bergeijk
D6 - Berms and roughness elements 149
Weiqiu Chen
Increased ood safety due to time-dependent pipe growth 153
Joost Pol
Towards a realistic approach of resistance against wave
overtopping 158
Webinar team
Macro stability – better parameters or models, or do we need to
reinforce the dikes? 162
Webinar team
CHAPTER 6 LAW, GOVERNANCE AND IMPLEMENTATION
Introduction 167
Willemijn van Doorn-Hoekveld and Marleen van Rijswick
E1 - Legal aspects of implementation 169
Monica Lanz and Willemijn van Doorn-Hoekveld
E2 - Cross-sector collaboration 173
Emma Avoyan
E3 - Understanding knowledge arrangements 177
Martijn van Staveren
New ood safety standards and legal considerations 181
Willemijn van Doorn-Hoekveld and Monica Lanz
What makes collaboration a success? 187
Emma Avoyan
Looking beyond reinforcement 192
Webinar team
Bibliography 196
List of All-Risk dissertations 199
Colophon 200
47
Project Summary
A4 - Spatial adaptation in coastal
environments
New possible synergies between ood protection infrastructure and
urban landscape design
Outcome
The current ood risk-related challenges induced by climate change
place pressure on designing urban areas where natural and man-made
conditions can be imbalanced. Today, ood risk is mostly managed to
reduce the probability of ood events. However, the engineered proba-
bility approach to ood risk management might not always result in
a well-designed landscape; especially in oodplain and coastal areas,
water defence infrastructures signicantly impact the urban structure.
This project output highlights new possible synergies between ood
protection infrastructure and urban landscape through integrated de-
sign. Designing, indeed, is the fundamental act to explore the spatial
challenge of climate change in its complexity.
y B Luca Iuorio
Delft University of Technology
Project start: 09/2020
Project end: 09/2022
Contributors
Dr. ir. F.L. Hooimeijer
Delft University of Technology
Prof. dr. ir. M. Kok
Delft University of Technology
Figure 1: Ems bay seen from Delfzijl beach, Dutch Wadden Sea. Photo by Luca Iuorio.
48
Motivation and practical challenge
Especially in the Dutch context, awareness increases that design and
engineering are two sides of the same coin. In the last decades, this
awareness gave birth to several experimental programmes in which
ood risk management measures increasingly demand to overcome
the division and practical silos between urban planning and ood man-
agement. Making space for water has become one of the hallmarks of a
new generation of ood management plans and strategies that address
a renovated attitude in living closer with water. However, living with
water includes the discipline of spatial design more than the dominant
engineering-based risk paradigm. Spatial development is a part of the
risk approach, and engineering is a part of the spatial design. Therefore,
by better considering the history, dynamics, and transitional aspects of
urbanised areas, it is possible to envision alternative ways to adapt to
climate change and the environmental crisis through the means of the
design, in its infrastructural and spatial features.
Research challenge
The main question of the research is how to translate the risk approach (a
product of the probability of ooding and its societal and economic conse-
quences) into its spatial aspects. By better considering citizens’ attitudes of
perceiving and experiencing cities, landscapes and places, new possible
perspectives in the ood defence system emerge to integrate spatial di-
mensions of protected areas to reduce the overall risk.
Innovative components
The research explores the possibility to further demonstrate that ood
defence infrastructures can be developed within a spatial approach. We
recognised that ood defences are physical manufactures integrated
into the urban landscape that impact urban development and the way
people interact with water (and water-related risks) through the ood
defences. This research explores alternative models of coastal manage-
ment by integrating spatial planning and design. The spatial integration
into the landscape of the traditional dikes and innovative nature-based
measures, accepting water overtopping, implementing temporary dikes,
and land-use change are developed as the main actions to reduce the
overall ood risk of the Dutch coastal urban environments. Through this
exploration, we produce future visions to show how including whole ur-
ban areas in the design of water protection systems can establish more
complex and resilient ood management through spatial measures.
Figure 2: Family swimming in the Wadden Sea, Eemshaven, August 2021. Photo by Luca Iuorio.
49
Figure 3: Schematic representation of the innovative components. Future vision examples for
Southend-on-Sea drawn by Andrea Bortolotti and Luca Iuorio.
Relevant for whom and where?
This project is relevant for both ood risk and spatial planners. The re-
search deals with the big physical inheritance of the coastal built en-
vironment where changes in building and planning infrastructures by
specialists may also impact the attitude of perceiving and experiencing
cities, landscape and places by citizens.
Findings and practical application
Referring to the Vlissingen (NL) and Southend-on-Sea (UK) Interreg
SARCC project locations (see https://www.interreg2seas.eu/en/SARCC),
we proposed accepting wave overtopping and building a secondary de-
fence line instead of heightening the existing primary defence line. In
such a way, we adapted specic zones to function as a retention basin
for excess water in the case of extreme events while using the exist-
ing and enhanced drainage network that drains the area at the end of
the storm. The visions for these urban areas into oodable parks better
integrate the ood defences with new developments, enhance public
spaces, and consider recreational functions. Moreover, we designed the
new urban development inside the area to be ood-proofed (e.g., raised
on piles or alternative ground oor functions, such as car parks). The
resulting spatial interventions help stand a ood event in the future
by reducing its impacts. The dike continues shaping the city as a fun-
damental part of it but represents only an element of the complex and
broader territorial design. In contrast, the storage areas – where water
once overtopped the dike and that can now store water – are an active
part of the urban environment; the seasonal controlled oods change
the conguration of the open spaces, adapting urban fabric to the storm
events. For a detailed description of the ndings, check the project out-
puts on the next page.
50
Recommendations for practice
Design ood defences by also coming to terms with the spatial
form of the cultural landscapes and the technical construction of
urbanised areas.
Try to develop ood defence innovations by reducing the probabili-
ties and the consequences of ood risk.
Key project outputs
Iuorio, L. & Bortolotti, A. (2021). Integrated coastal ood design:
changing paradigm in ood risk management
Doi: 10.24404/616051311d74bb0008d549ca
The research includes pilot
locations in the Netherlands but
also in the UK and Italy. Note:
The designs for Vlissingen and
Southend-on-Sea have been
developed within the context of
the Interreg SARCC Project.
Double Dike. Photo by Waterschap
Noorderzijlvest.
Double Dike
Eemshaven
Houtribdijk/
Trintelzand
Vlissingen
Southend-on-Sea
(United Kingdom)
Venice Lagoon
(Italy)
Wide Green Dike
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