Article

Are recreational fishing guides role models for their clients?

Authors:
  • The Two Oceans Aquarium Education Foundation
  • One Ocean Hub
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Abstract

Fishing guides are respected as opinion leaders of the recreational angling community, but little is known of their influence on angler behaviour. Given their social-standing, fishing guides may be perceived as role models by fishing clients – thereby potentially shaping the practices of many through their extensive networks of fishing clients. This influence may promote the adoption of best and/or worst environmental behaviours, depending on their individual knowledge, attitudes and actions. To understand if fishing guides are perceived to be role models by the recreational angling community, a digital survey containing a nine-question role model perception scale was designed to assess fishing clients’ attitudes towards fishing guides. The survey was designed to assess whether angling guides served the three role model functions proposed in the Motivational Theory of Role Modelling, which posits that role models function as Behavioural models, Representations of the Possible and Inspiration. Of the 492 fishing clients (27 countries), most agreed that fishing guides were competent, skilled, and worth emulating (91.1 %), suggesting they are perceived as Behavioural Models. Less agreed that fishing guides were Inspirational or Representations of the Possible (54.8 %), suggesting they are less likely to motivate anglers to adopt and/or pursue new goals. As Behavioural Models, fishing guide behavioural practices are likely to be emulated. These findings suggest that fisheries managers have an opportunity to influence general angler behaviour through focussed behavioural interventions with angling guides.

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... Opinion leaders are capable of shaping public preferences and altering behaviour (Nisbet and Kotcher, 2009). This is largely weighted on a sense of trust that citizens have for well-respected thought leaders in their specific social dynamics, as is the case in the recreational angling community, where well-known angling personalities and fishing guides are seen as behavioural role models whose practices are often emulated (Farthing et al., 2022). The findings of Nguyen et al. (2012) also suggest that a large portion of anglers prefer to source their sport-related information from other anglers via word-of-mouth, in addition to fishing websites. ...
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Knowledge of recreational fisheries in Brazil is scarce and remains a critical issue to determine management actions. By adopting a collaborative approach that involved fishing guides, recreational fishing from the Iguape and Cananéia Lagoon Estuarine System (south-eastern Brazil) was assessed. During the study period (from April 2009 to March 2010), 341 fishing operations (boat day−1) were monitored. A total of 10 051 fish specimens of 26 families and at least 51 species were examined. The fat snook, Centropomus parallelus Poey, was the most commonly caught species representing 51% of the fish caught. Annual fishing effort was estimated at 272 859 angler-hours, and the mean catch-per-unit-effort was 3.42 fish boat−1 h−1. Size structure of targeted species suggests that the populations are overexploited. The approach used in the study reinforces the importance of engaging different stakeholders in science and management and improving the communication among them.
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Purpose – An important concept for social marketing, role modelling has rarely been considered in detail. Instead the focus often lies with celebrity endorsement and has tended to be about product sales rather than behaviour change. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the role model is complex and offers a typology to identify variations that need consideration by social marketers in selecting the most appropriate role model. Gen Y provides a context for this discussion because they are a significant target market for social marketers. Design/methodology/approach – The article evaluates four theoretical perspectives of role modelling. Following this, an assessment is made of the types of interaction that can be instigated by role modelling variations. Findings – Social marketers often use role models in behaviour change interventions. The typology of role model interactions offers a starting point for research and a more nuanced view of role modelling. Originality/value – The design of role modelling programs is under‐researched. Through the provision of a typology of role model interaction the article begins to address this gap.
Article
In an effort to recruit and retain Hispanic students in higher education, some policymakers are advocating a program using Hispanic faculty as role models. This article has two objectives: to point out why such programs will fail and to offer a theoretical framework for developing policy that will make such programs successful.
Technical Report
[URL: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/effsize/effsize.pdf ]
Article
On average, 10.52% of the total population was found to fish for recreation across the industrialised world (N = 27 countries), amounting to an estimated 118 million (95% confidence interval 81–154 million) people in North America, Europe and Oceania. Participation rates declined with population density and gross domestic product, indicating a negative effect of urbanisation and post-modernisation on fishing interest. Participation rates also declined with increasing median age, average household size and unemployment rate, suggesting resource limitation to constrain participation in fishing. By contrast, two indicators of the cultural importance of fish (fish landings and per capita fish consumption) and an indicator of perceived need for leisure (weekly working hours) were positively correlated with fishing participation. Based on these findings, which explained 60% of the variance in fishing participation across the industrialised world, reduced fishing interest is to be expected with post-industrialisation. Dedicated management and marketing intervention is needed to reverse the track of diminishing fishing interest in industrialised countries.
Article
he role of recreational fisheries in the competition for marine resources is increasingly recognised. Their contribution in stock dynamics needs to be accounted for in assessments and management. Management regulations should be based on scientific advice on human and biological dimensions to be effective in reaching their goals. A survey among marine angling tourists staying in fishing camps in two study areas in Norway was conducted to study catch-and-release (C&R) behaviour. Although C&R has been assumed to be low in many marine recreational fisheries, this survey showed that for some species, more than 60% of the catch was released. As C&R may be associated with post-release mortalities, the current management system could be inefficient towards its aim of reducing fishing mortality. It was concluded that it is necessary to quantify release mortalities, to consider C&R behaviour in future management decisions, and to minimise the potential negative impacts of C&R through handling guidelines.
Article
Traditional regulatory options (formal institutions) imposed by government agencies such as harvest and gear restrictions represent the standard in recreational fisheries management, at least in developed countries. However, there exist a number of alternatives including the use of angler education programmes that attempt to evoke voluntary changes in angler behaviour, resulting in the emergence of volun-tarily motivated resource-conserving informal institutions. These 'softer' approaches to aquatic stewardship and fisheries management can be developed in cooperation with stakeholders and in many cases are led by avid anglers and angling groups. Examples of such measures include voluntary sanctuaries, informally enforced sea-sonal closures, personal daily bag limits, self-imposed constraints on gear, develop-ment of entirely live-release fisheries, and adoption of fish and aquatic ecosystem conservation-oriented gears and release practices. Education efforts that provide anglers with knowledge on best practices and empower them to modify their behav-iour hold great promise to meet formal management goals and objectives, but seem to be underutilized relative to formal regulations. This article highlights the benefits and challenges of relying on informal institutions as alternatives to traditional regu-latory options. Informal institutions that protect resources and help overfished stocks recover hold great promise in both developed and developing countries, par-ticularly when there is a single stakeholder group or when the capacity to enforce traditional regulations or to invest in stock assessments is limited. Informal institu-tions may help make formal institutions more effective or can even be alternatives to costly institutions that depend on enforcement to be effective.
Article
On-site interviews and a mail questionnaire survey of 377 anglers on two Virginia rivers were used to evaluate the concept of recreational specialization for differentiating angler subgroups. Specialization was defined for four dimensions of angler behavior: (1) fishery resource use, (2) experience, (3) investment, and (4) centrality of angling to lifestyle. Six types of anglers, representing low to high levels of specialization, were identified by cluster analysis. The experience dimension was the most important contributor to the framework, accounting for 24% of the variance in the data. A combination of the resource, investment, and centrality dimensions explained 48% of the variance. Highly specialized anglers were likely to cite resource-related motives (e.g., trophy fish), to rely on skill to catch fish, to prefer to catch and release larger fish, and to favor restrictive harvest regulations. Less specialized anglers cited escape and family-oriented recreation as motivations for fishing, placed greater emphasis on luck to catch fish, were satisfied with catching smaller fish, and favored liberal harvest regulations. Our results suggest that certain aspects of angler behavior, particularly frequency of fishing, investment, and consumptive habits, are important determinants of specialization that can be used to identify angler subgroups and to assist managers in maximizing satisfactions among their diverse clientele.
Article
In this study, three distinct segments of German anglers differing with respect to degree of catch orientation as the main fishing motive were identified in a nationwide telephone survey (N ¼ 474). Noncatch aspects of the fishing experience played a major role in the motivations of anglers: about 80% of the sample was classified as anglers with a low, or minimal, catch orientation. Angler satisfaction and its determinants were examined across degrees of catch orientation to improve understanding of the link between angler motivation and satisfaction. Highly catch-oriented anglers were significantly less satisfied with the previous angling season than were minimally catch-oriented anglers. An exclusivity of activity-specific, mainly catch-related, satisfaction components as predictors of overall angling year satisfaction was found in all angler segments, irrespective of catch orientation. Satisfaction was unrelated to actual catch or harvest rates, and no significant differences in catch and harvest were found across the three catch orientation groups. This suggested that catch expectation was the primary driver of angler satisfaction. This study revealed that there are anglers, most often the majority within the population, who can be characterized as attaching relatively little importance to catch motives but whose satisfaction is still mainly catch dependent. It is not warranted to conclude that there is a striking disconnect in this finding. The reasons for the apparently striking inconsistency between motivation and satisfaction are related to (1) the fundamental conceptual differences in meaning and definition of motivation and satisfaction and (2) the differential ease in satisfying activity-general and activity-specific aspects of the fishing experience. Care must be taken not to draw overly simplified management implications from motivational information. However, by knowing the determinants of angler satisfaction, the manager's ability to plan future management actions is improved, and satisfaction rather than motivation is the ultimate product of the fishing experience. Investigations of the motives that drive anglers to fish have been a frequent topic of research into the human dimension of recreational fisheries (Ditton 2004). Efforts to study angler motivations were stimulated by the assumption that providing quality fishing experiences to anglers (or influencing angler behavior and/or thinking) requires an understanding of what is important to the anglers (Fedler and Ditton 1994; Finn and Loomis 2001). The different experi-ences sought by recreational anglers can be viewed in terms of two sets of elements: those that are activity specific (unique to that activity), and those that are activity general (common to all outdoor recreation activities; Fisher 1997). Activity-specific elements include the species sought, size of fish, number of fish, setting in which fish are caught, disposition of the catch (e.g., releasing versus harvesting), pulling strength of the fish, and method by which the fish is caught. Activity-general elements are relaxation, asso-ciation with peers and friends, experiencing natural surroundings, ''escaping,'' and being outdoors, among other things (Fedler and Ditton 1994). Previous motivation research has revealed that recreational fishing constitutes a multifaceted outdoor experience in which people seek multiple benefits that are both catch and noncatch related (Hendee 1974; Driver and Knopf 1976; Driver and Cooksey 1977; Fedler and Ditton 1994). The importance of the catch along with noncatch experience preferences (synony-mously used in the literature with expected outcomes or motivations) has been shown to vary among angler segments (Bryan 1977; Fedler and Ditton 1986, 1994; Ditton et al. 1992; Aas and Kaltenborn 1995; Fisher 1997; Wilde et al. 1998). Many studies conducted on the relative importance of catch and noncatch motives found that catching fish was generally not as important to anglers as were noncatch motivations, and the primary motivations for fishing did not necessarily involve the catching or eating aspects of recreational angling (Driver and Knopf 1976; Fedler and Ditton 1994; Ditton 2004). The incorporation of this finding into fishery management has generated controversy between fish-ery managers and human dimensions researchers, and
Article
Abstract Effective management of recreational fishing requires understanding fishers and their actions. These actions constitute critical links between social and ecological systems that result in outcomes that feedback and influence recreational fishers’ actions and the management of these actions. Although much research exists on recreational fishers and their actions, this research is often disconnected from management issues. One way to help to overcome this disconnect is to illustrate how past research on the social component of recreational fishing fits within an emerging coupled social-ecological system (SES) framework. Herein, a conceptual SES is first developed with specific attention to recreational fisheries. This SES is then used to illustrate the importance of considering human dimensions research for articulating, studying and ultimately managing key outcomes of recreational fisheries (e.g. fish population conservation, fisher well-being) using the example of harvest regulations and a brief review of past interdisciplinary research on recreational fishing. The article ends by identifying key research needs including understanding: how factors such as management rules affect the diversity of actions by recreational fishers; how governance and management approaches adapt to changing social and resource conditions; and how recreational fishers learn and share information.
Article
Researchers in sonography, as well as other areas, often wish to measure the strength of relationship or association between two variables. For example, one may wish to determine if, on the average, total cholesterol level increases as age increases for adult American men. However, there are a very large number of measures or coefficients (i.e., a number that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables) from which to choose. It is not infrequent to find a researcher selecting an incorrect coefficient to measure a given association, thereby possibly rendering a false or misleading conclusion. The choice of the proper measure of association is based on, among other things, the characteristics of each of the two variables involved. This article enumerates every case that can be encountered by the researcher and provides an appropriate measure of association that can be used.
Article
This chapter extends our understanding of the paucity of women in senior leadership positions by identifying specific identity mechanisms that can hinder junior women’s transitions to more senior roles. We introduce the term impossible selves to describe these cultural prescriptions for leadership identity and behavior that many junior women found unattainable. In the two male dominated firms we studied the cultural prescriptions for a leader’s identity were associated with a traditionally masculine demeanor. We argue that second generation gender bias — cultural beliefs about gender, as well as workplace structures, practices, and patterns of interaction that inadvertently favor men — inhibited women from engaging in image and identity work that would align them with these cultural prescriptions. This transformed organizational models of success into impossible selves for the women in these demographically skewed contexts. Instead of working towards the organizational model of success we found that women engaged in image and identity work to craft a leader identity that allowed them to feel authentic and avoid disapproval from clients and colleagues. Women’s efforts to remain authentic, however, undermined their ability to craft identities that were congruent with the kind of professional they aspired to become.
Article
Purpose This is an empirical article which aims to examine the extent and nature of management role modelling and the learning achieved from role modelling. The article argues that the spread of taught management development and formal mentoring programmes has resulted in the neglect of practice‐knowledge and facets of managerial character formation, the learning of which are largely attributable to informal role modelling. Design/methodology/approach Empirical research was conducted with middle manager respondents who compiled portfolios of images representing the process of their “becoming” managers. Respondents then participated in in‐depth interviews to explore their portfolios. Findings Respondents typically learned from observing several positive role models and at least one negative role model. Positive role models were selected on the basis of charisma but also competence and contextual compatibility. The key lessons respondents learned from role models involved values, attitudes and ethical stances. Research limitations/implications The research study was limited to a particular group of middle managers, MBA student‐managers and recent graduates and ways of extending the research are suggested. Implications for HRD research include the significance of social learning in managers' lives and of social learning theory in explicating the processes of manager development. Practical implications Managers require training in recognising the contribution of role models to their practice, in selecting role models and in deriving learning from role models. Originality/ value Management role modelling has been little researched to date. Through in‐depth qualitative research and analysis, the article addresses this gap.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to outline a conceptual framework that can be used to organise and guide future research into how celebrity product endorsement creates equity for both the endorsed product‐brand and the endorsing celebrity. Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical perspective adopted in this study is that celebrity product endorsement is a form of co‐branding. Findings – The central thesis is that both endorser image and brand image serve as mediators in the equity‐creation process of celebrity product endorsement. Originality/value – Research contributions and directions for future research are provided.
Article
SUBJECTIVITY IN FACTOR ANALYSIS WAS DEFINED IN TERMS OF LACK OF OPERATIONAL INDEPENDENCE BETWEEN AN INVESTIGATOR'S SUBSTANTIVE HYPOTHESES CONCERNING FACTORIAL STRUCTURE AND THE PROCEDURES USED TO DETERMINE FACTOR STRUCTURE. SUBJECTIVITY IN THIS SENSE WAS SEEN TO BE DISTINCT FROM THAT INVOLVED IN "BLIND" VISUAL ROTATION. THE STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DEMONSTRATE THAT BY USE OF SUBJECTIVE, IN THE 1ST SENSE, ROTATIONAL PROCEDURES, RANDOM, COMPLETELY NONSENSICAL VARIABLES COULD BE MADE TO DEFINE WHAT SEEMED TO BE MEANINGFUL FACTORS. (15 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)