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Les bibliothécaires universitaires face à la recherche interdisciplinaire

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Academic libraries have always supported research across disciplines by integrating access to diverse contents and resources. They now have the opportunity to reinvent their role in facilitating interdisciplinary work by offering researchers new ways of sharing, curating, discovering, and linking research data. Spatial data and metadata support this process because location often integrates disciplinary perspectives, enabling researchers to make their own research data more discoverable, to discover data of other researchers, and to integrate data from multiple sources. The Center for Spatial Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the UCSB Library are undertaking joint research to better enable the discovery of research data and publications. The research addresses the question of how to spatially enable data discovery in a setting that allows for mapping and analysis in a GIS while connecting the data to publications about them. It suggests a framework for an integrated data discovery mechanism and shows how publications may be linked to associated data sets exposed either directly or through metadata on Esri's Open Data platform. The results demonstrate a simple form of linking data to publications through spatially referenced metadata and persistent identifiers. This linking adds value to research products and increases their discoverability across disciplinary boundaries.
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L’augmentation exponentielle de la quantité de données de recherche produites et réutilisées par les chercheurs pose des défis importants aux bibliothèques universitaires. Il s’agit pour celles-ci de mettre sur pied des services de gestion de données intégrés au cycle de vie de la recherche. Cela n’est possible qu’en assurant une collaboration active avec une série d’acteurs internes et externes, et en développant une formation spécialisée au sein des écoles de sciences de l’information. Cet article décrit le contexte de cette transformation, et identifie les principales activités et les responsables pour chaque étape du cycle de vie de la recherche.
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The increasing interdisciplinarity of scientific research creates both challenges and opportunities for librarians. The liaison model may be inadequate for supporting campus research that represents multiple disciplines and geographically dispersed departments. The identification of units, researchers, and projects is a first step in planning and providing support for research and publication. The proposed research audit model seeks to inventory research projects and personnel for interdisciplinary biomedical research using a relational database. The innovative use of a discipline-specific ontology as descriptive metadata holds promise for revealing connections that might not otherwise be discovered. © 2015 by The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD 21218.
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Studies show that reaching beyond disciplinary boundaries can be an effective method for understanding complex research problems and enriching student learning. However, despite the increased attention given to interdisciplinary thinking in higher education, there is much that remains to be understood about the growing centrality of interdisciplinary practice and its assessment. This paper argues that a new, more robust conceptualization of nonsingular disciplinary thinking must be formulated around the philosophical foundation of synoptics. A critical point when this type of learning can take place is in reference services. The paper begins by outlining the emergence of interdisciplinary inquiry in higher education. After reviewing the literature on interdisciplinarity and noting the lack of scholarship concerning applied synoptics in current library literature, it discusses the ways is which synoptics establishes the foundation for a broader based understanding of knowledge that cultivates and encourages a polymathic perspective for the patron. The study concludes by describing how the concept of critical and integrative interdisciplinary thinking, rooted in the worldview philosophy of synoptics, can apply to the practice of reference services and inquiry-based transactions between the librarian and the learner.
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Les trois termes les plus frequemment utilises et qui sont associes a l’interdisciplinarite – multidisciplinarite, interdisciplinarite, transdisciplinarite – constitutent la principale taxinomie pour comprendre les degres d’interaction et d’integration entre les disciplines ainsi que les degres de collaboration au sein des equipes de recherche. Les typologies distinguent egalement les activites methodologiques qui visent a ameliorer les resultats theoriques a la faveur d’une meilleure comprehension des enjeux epistemologiques. La construction d’un « pont » laisse intactes les approches existantes, alors que la restructuration produit de l’interdisciplinarite et des champs nouveaux. La resolution instrumentale ou opportuniste des problemes differe des formes critiques qui interrogent la structure existante de la connaissance et de l’education. La transdisciplinarite inclut la quete d’unite de meme qu’un nouvel encadrement en vue de comprendre les phenomenes complexes et la recherche trans-sectorielle qui implique les acteurs de la societe.
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This article describes a method that academic librarians can use to help established scholars and doctoral students become more cognizant of interdisciplinary approaches to their academic fields and areas. This method centers around the creation of knowledge maps: visually oriented aids tracing intellectual connections and linkages between and among various fields and areas that allow students and professors to get a good sense of emerging trends in a given academic specialty. Many professors want librarians to be proactive when it comes to suggesting new perspectives and new ways of seeing their research questions. Knowledge maps can be used by librarians as information-literacy tools in the facilitation of interdisciplinary knowledge among academic researchers. In addition, the creation of knowledge maps by librarians can be seen as a component of the changing nature of reference librarianship—a job that is becoming more intellectualized through one-on-one consultations between students, professors, and librarians.
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This article investigates transdisciplinarity in relation to information behaviour and information literacy. It demonstrates how these areas are especially suited to transdisciplinarity thought, notes the potential that transdisciplinarity offers in these contexts and presents the key components of transdisciplinarity in two complementary breakdowns designed to help academics and information professionals recognize the value of the concept to their own work. The article considers how transdisciplinarity may be understood in terms of transferable skills, collaboration across different areas, phenomena that affect various disciplines and the use in one field of ideas associated with another. It concludes with reflections on the overall strengths and weaknesses of transdisciplinarity.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the obstacles to interdisciplinary research and examine some ways that academic librarians can help to overcome them. Design/methodology/approach A broad review of the literature of the social sciences was reviewed for descriptions of difficulties that interdisciplinary researchers encounter. General developments in librarianship from library literature were then applied as a starting point for discussing ways that librarians can provide important services to interdisciplinary scholars. Findings Librarians, as “meta‐scholars”, can provide useful services to scholars engaging in interdisciplinary research. Social implications Interdisciplinary research has shown great potential for problem‐solving, being focused more on a problem than with disciplinary distinctions. This is a worthy area for librarians to target with their skills and services. Originality/value This is a discussion of ways that librarians can break into new roles and responsibilities, and simultaneously strengthen their profile at a time when some expect librarianship to fade away.
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In addition to developing deep knowledge of a single discipline, engineers must also be able to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries and develop interdisciplinary expertise to successfully address the complex challenges of the contemporary workplace. While numerous descriptions of interdisciplinary courses and projects appear in the literature, educators still lack rigorous research about learning barriers, outcomes, and concrete interventions to support this interdisciplinary development. This paper addresses that gap by pairing a review of the literature with a case study of students in a sustainable engineering program to identify the key challenges to success in interdisciplinary contexts. The findings suggest that students (1) lack the ability to connect interdisciplinary subjects to their own more narrowly defined fields of expertise, and (2) fail to identify and value the contributions of multiple fields to complex problems. This paper concludes with possible teaching interventions to address these barriers.
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Area Studies librarianship is a unique, interdisciplinary field, faced with an infrequently researched disciplinary-identity crisis. Although its place among traditional subjects creates many challenges, its unique appeal provides many promises as well. In the traditional, subject-based librarianship model, Area Studies librarians have to make very different decisions regarding collection development, liaison, and instruction than their subject specialist colleagues. The article identifies some challenges and promises of the unique position of being responsible for a geographic area rather than any one subject. It also describes the experience of Area Studies librarians at Miami University and their efforts to work together with their subject colleagues toward satisfying the needs of their users.
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In response to the increased complexity that comes from a shift away from government and toward governance, public administration programs need to adjust their traditional curriculum and encourage interdisciplinarity perspectives in students. Given the proper mind-set, administrators can be better prepared to face the challenges of governance in a highly integrated, real-life setting by having the capacity to integrate competing viewpoints, which includes a reintroduction of interdisciplinary theories, methods, and best practices to the classroom. Cognitive flexibility—the ability for an individual to understand, appreciate, and make use of various epistemological approaches—offers a theoretical perspective to guide practical pedagogy and practice.
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The last three decades have seen a dramatic increase in the field of inquiry known as cultural studies. This field has introduced new areas of study, new methodologies of investigation, and a growing body of literature. As an interdisciplinary field, cultural studies has also been a troubling discourse for academic librarians. Cultural studies programs signify different constellations of disciplinary affiliations, and the scope of the discourse's subject matter is wide. This study uses three methods to measure and describe the network of cultural studies. First, the authors provide a short epistemological description of the field as proponents of cultural studies lay it out. Second, the authors provide three profiles of cultural studies programs, distributing the departmental affiliation of faculty holding positions in those interdisciplinary pro-grams. Third, the authors conduct a bibliometric study of author ship characteristics of books classified as “Cultural Studies” by two promi-nent academic presses. In comparing the results of the three investigations, the authors find a significant difference between U.S. and British models of cultural studies literature and programs. The authors also find, in both their profile of the affiliated faculty in cultural studies programs and their bibliometric study, the prominence and influence of Literature and English Department faculty on cultural studies, a result the authors see as a challenge to the field's claim to interdisciplinarity.
In today's information-rich environment, business faculty are challenged to teach students how to conduct effective business research and evaluate information critically. We describe collaboration between business professors and reference librarians in an introductory business course. Students were surveyed before and after completion of a Business Discovery Project requiring use of print and electronic sources in writing a research paper on a publicly traded company. Student perceptions indicated increased abilities in communication skills, research skills, use of business information sources, and composition skills; paired t tests showed these increases to be significant.
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Embedded librarianship focuses on the user and brings the library and the librarian to the user, wherever they are—office, laboratory, home, or even on their mobile device. This article provides an overview of the various ways libraries and librarians are embedding themselves into research and learning environs. Several roles are highlighted, including course-integrated instruction librarians as members of research teams, librarians collaborating with faculty in scholarly communication activities and librarians as partners in multidisciplinary, global, and virtual collaborations. Definitions of key terms precede the overview and provide context; consideration of the human resources side of the equation follows. Reflections on organizational structure conclude the article.
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The ability to manage knowledge has become increasingly important in today’s knowledge economy. Knowledge is considered a valuable commodity, embedded in products and in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile individual employees. Knowledge management (KM) represents a deliberate and systematic approach to cultivating and sharing an organization’s knowledge base. It is a highly multidisciplinary field that encompasses both information technology and intellectual capital. This textbook and professional reference offers a comprehensive overview of the field of KM, providing both a substantive theoretical grounding and a pragmatic approach to applying key concepts. Drawing on ideas, tools, and techniques from such disciplines as sociology, cognitive science, organizational behavior, and information science, the text describes KM theory and practice at the individual, community, and organizational levels. It offers illuminating case studies and vignettes from companies including IBM, Xerox, British Telecommunications, JP Morgan Chase, and Nokia. This second edition has been updated and revised throughout. New material has been added on the information and library science perspectives, taxonomies and knowledge classification, the media richness of the knowledge-sharing channel, e-learning, social networking in KM contexts, strategy tools, results-based outcome assessments, knowledge continuity and organizational learning models, KM job descriptions, copyleft and Creative Commons, and other topics. New case studies and vignettes have been added; and the references and glossary have been updated and expanded.
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Using the Delphi technique, this study explored the information needs of faculty in a program long known to be transdisciplinary, namely Women's Studies. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research in collection development, instruction, and reference service.
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Large university libraries face particular challenges in selecting information resources, organizing them, and providing direct services to support interdisciplinary scholarship. The tension between generalization and specialization is manifested in these core activities and in the debate over branch versus centralized libraries. External factors affecting library strategies include the organization of interdisciplinary research and teaching, institutional downsizing, new management theories, changes in scholarly communication, and the forthright political nature of some interdisciplinary fields. Although this article focuses on describing the challenges posed by interdisciplinarity rather than recommending solutions, examples of innovative approaches are noted.
Article
Les professionnels de l'information traversent actuellement une période de redéfinition de leur profession provoquée par la transformation de l'information et des processus informationnels vers un mode de plus en plus électronique. Les systèmes d'information Web (SIW) — c'est-à-dire des systèmes d'information basés sur les technologies Web tels que les sites Web externes, les intranets, les systèmes de commerce électronique et les extranets — font partie des technologies à l'origine de ces changements. Ces systèmes sont de plus en plus adoptés par les organisations et, en particulier, par les gouvernements dans leur volonté de devenir électroniques. Le gouvernement fédéral canadien est reconnu comme un des plus innovateurs en matière de SIW et doit adapter son environnement informationnel, dont font partie les professionnels de l'information, à l'introduction de ces systèmes. Malgré l'innovation que les SIW représentent, peu d'études empiriques ont été menées pour identifier quels sont les intervenants nécessaires à leur mise en place. Aucun consensus n'émerge de la littérature quant à la nature de l'intervention des professionnels de l'information dans ces systèmes. Cette recherche vise à accroître les connaissances sur l'intervention des professionnels de l'information dans les SIW. Pour les besoins de cette recherche, les professionnels de l'information sont définis comme les personnes ayant une maîtrise en bibliothéconomie et sciences de l'information ou toute autre formulation équivalente. Cette recherche étudie quatre questions de recherche qui portent sur : (1) les rôles des professionnels de l'information décrits dans les politiques d'information pan-gouvernementales liées aux SIW ainsi que ceux des autres intervenants mentionnés en lien direct avec les SIW, (2) les types de SIW dans lesquels les professionnels de l'information interviennent, (3) les tâches des professionnels de l'information dans ces SIW, et (4) les autres intervenants qui travaillent dans ces systèmes. Une approche qualitative a été utilisée pour répondre à ces questions et implique quatre modes de collecte des données : (1) des entrevues en profondeur en personne avec des professionnels de l'information impliqués dans des SIW, (2) une analyse des SIW où interviennent ces professionnels de l'information, (3) une analyse des politiques pan-gouvernementales liées aux SIW, et (4) la documentation pertinente. Les professionnels de l'information rencontrés proviennent de sept ministères du gouvernement fédéral canadien, ministères retenus pour leur implication dans les SIW. Les résultats indiquent que les professionnels de l'information rencontrés interviennent dans les SIW aux niveaux micro et macro, c'est-à-dire dans des SIW spécifiques ainsi que globalement au niveau de l'ensemble des SIW d'un ministère ou du gouvernement fédéral. Ces professionnels de l'information sont impliqués dans toutes les dimensions et les phases de développement des SIW. Les tâches liées au contenu sont prédominantes mais les tâches technologiques sont aussi très présentes. Trois variables se dégagent de cette étude qui ont un impact sur l'intervention des professionnels de l'information dans les SIW : les types de SIW, les types de postes occupés par les professionnels de l'information et les types de gouvernance. Information professionals are rethinking their role, which is being challenged by the transformation to the electronic environment of information and information processes. Web information systems (WIS) — that is, information systems based on Web technologies such as external Web sites, intranets, extranets and electronic commerce systems — are one of the technologies that is bringing these changes about. Organizations are making massive investments in WIS. Governments are implementing WIS as they move toward e-government. The Canadian federal government is one of the most innovative in term of WIS, and has to adapt its information environment, including information professionals, to cope with these systems. Despite the innovative character of WIS, few empirical studies were found which try to gain a better understanding of the players needed to implement such systems. No consensus seems to exist in the literature on the role of the information professional in WIS. This study aims at increasing knowledge of the roles information professionals play in WIS. In this study, an information professional is someone with a graduate degree in library and information science or equivalent. The study examines four research questions: (1) the role of information professionals described in the WIS-related cross-governmental information policies as well as those of the other players directly related to WIS, (2) the types of WIS in which information professionals are involved, (3) the WIS-related tasks of information professionals, and (4) other players involved in WIS. A qualitative approach has been used based on four data collection techniques: (1) in-depth face-to-face interviews with information professionals involved in WIS, (2) an analysis of the WIS in which those information professionals are involved, (3) an analysis of the WIS-related pan-governmental information policies, and (4) relevant evidence in the existing documentation. The information professionals interviewed are from seven departments of the Canadian federal government. These departments were chosen because of their work in the area of WIS. The results show that information professionals are working with WIS at the micro and macro levels, involved with specific WIS as well as with all the WIS of a department or of the government. The information professionals are involved in all the dimensions and the development phases of WIS. Their content-related tasks on the WIS are predominant but the technological tasks are also very present. The study found that three variables impact on the role of information professionals in WIS: types of WIS, types of jobs of information professionals, and types of governance. Fondation J.A. DeSève Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines du Canada (CRSH) Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et l'Aide à la Recherche (FCAR)
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This article describes the evolution of the Health Sciences Library's plans for an interdisciplinary, technology-enhanced collaboration center, from a technology-driven space to one with a vision of support for peer-to-peer learning and research. The center offers an exciting opportunity to be an essential partner in collaborative and interdisciplinary programs such as the new Carolina Center for Exploratory Genetic Analysis. The Library is a centrally located and neutral place, which helps minimize geographical and territorial obstacles to effective collaboration. The collaboration center raises the Library's visibility and allows staff to demonstrate the value of knowledge resources, services, technology expertise, infrastructure, and facilities for group study and collaboration.
14 décembre). The research librarian of the future : data scientist and co- investigator
  • J Ekstrom
  • M Elbaek
  • C Erdmann
  • I Grigorov
New Media Consortium et Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (Chur)
  • L A Johnson