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Bulgur has long been regarded as the first processed food and one of the most popular conventional durum wheat products. It is made through parboiling followed by drying and grinding. Its production and consumption are increasing owing to its long shelf life, low cost, easy preparation, taste, high nutritional, and economic values. It is a nutrient‐dense food product that is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, protein, and fibers. Owing to its nutritional and medicinal properties, it is commonly regarded as a healthy food. Its nutritional and therapeutic properties have been demonstrated in various studies i.e., anti‐carcinogenic, anti‐microbial, anti‐diabetic, and anti‐oxidative properties. Moreover, bulgur lowers the risk of chronic illness, promotes weight loss, and increases digestion and gut health. Bulgur is a healthy food product that can be utilized for the production of value‐added and economic cereal‐based food products at the industrial level. Bulgur’s history, production technology, nutritional, and medicinal properties are also the limelight of the current review.
J Food Process Preserv. 2022;00:e16861.  
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© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
Cereal grains are a major source of the human diet, and their pro-
duction has gradually expanded in recent decades to satisfy the de-
mands of the growing population. The health advantages of whole
wheat food products are attributed to their bioactive components
such as phytochemicals and dietar y fiber (Liu et al., 2020). Bulgur is a
distinct and pleasing product made from raw wheat, predominantly
from the Triticum durum wheat variety. It has contributed hundreds
of products to Turkey and Middle Eastern cuisine for centuries, in-
cluding primary and dish options. Bulgur is a widely used ingredient
in a wide range of cuisines. Bulgur is a multipurpose food that can
be used in salads, soups, baked goods, stuffing, casseroles, and meat
substitutes in vegetarian recipes. Its popularity is growing in North
America because it is usually utilized as a healthier, faster- cooking
substitute for rice (Stone et al., 2020) Since the whole grain coun-
cil (WGC) recognized bulgur as a whole grain, it has become more
Bulgur is widely regarded as a nutritious food because of its nu-
trients such as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential fatty acids,
and folate. It is similar to cracked wheat; however, it is pre- cooked
in a quiet way that the cook/soak moisture is absorbed, prevent-
ing essential water- soluble nutrients from being leached, making it
a highly nutritious food (Yilmaz & Koca, 2017). Bulgur is a ready-
to- eat food product that can be prepared quickly by just dipping
it in hot water (Kartari et al., 2021; Valamoti, 2011). Bulgur can be
prepared quickly because it is parboiled, or partially cooked, com-
pared to other whole grains. Bulgur can be made from bread wheat
(Triticum aestivum), durum wheat, hulled wheat (such as einkorn and
emmer), barley, corn, and legumes, but durum (Triticum durum) is the
DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.16861
Biochemical and nutritional properties of wheat bulgur:
A review
Yasir Abbas Shah | Farhan Saeed | Muhammad Afzaal | Aftab Ahmad |
Muzzamal Hussain | Huda Ateeq | Mujahid Hassan Khan
Depar tment of Food Sciences,
Government College University
Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Afzaal and Farhan
Saeed, Department of Food Sciences,
Government College University
Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Email: and
Bulgur has long been regarded as the first processed food and one of the most popu-
lar conventional durum wheat products. It is made through parboiling followed by
drying and grinding. Its production and consumption are increasing owing to its long
shelf life, low cost, easy preparation, taste, high nutritional, and economic values. It
is a nutrient- dense food product that is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, protein,
and fibers. Owing to its nutritional and medicinal properties, it is commonly regarded
as a healthy food. Its nutritional and therapeutic properties have been demonstrated
in various studies, that is, anti- carcinogenic, anti- microbial, anti- diabetic, and anti-
oxidative properties. Moreover, bulgur lowers the risk of chronic illness, promotes
weight loss, and increases digestion and gut health. Bulgur is a healthy food product
that can be utilized for the production of value- added and economic cereal- based
food products at the industrial level. Bulgur's history, production technology, nutri-
tional, and medicinal properties are also in the limelight of the current review.
Practical applications
Bulgur is a rich source of macro, micronutrients, and important phytochemicals.
Value- added and economical cereal- based food product. Beneficial for both industry
and consumer from an economic and health perspective, respectively.
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   SHAH et al.
popular choice because of its crispiness and caramel coloring (Evlice
& Özkaya, 2019). Brown rice, which is a gluten- free cereal product,
contains vital nutritional components such as dietary fiber and phe-
nolic compounds. Bulgur prepared from brown rice is undesirable to
consumers because of its long boiling time, hard texture, and dark
color (Candal- Uslu et al., 2021).
Bulgur is one of the market's first completely wheat- based prod-
ucts. It has been cultivated since the start of wheat cultivation in
Anatolia and the Middle East. Various names have been known
throughout history, including cerealis, arisah, burghul, and par-
boiled wheat (Bayram, 2007; Evlice & Özkaya, 2020).With459,174 t
of annual output in 2018, Turkey is the world's top manufacturer
of bulgur (Turkish Statistical Institute, 2020). In addition, it is esti-
mated that Turkey produces over a million tonnes of bulgur, includ-
ing homemade production. Turkey is a frontrunner in exportation;
in2019,itexported 262,615 tofbulgurto107 differentcountries
(Evlice & Özkaya, 2020). The current review summarized the nutri-
tional composition, current status, antimicrobial aspects, production
technology, and potential therapeutic properties of bulgur.
Since Ancient Times, humans have been involved in wheat manufac-
turing and finding innovative approaches to produce wheat- based
products. The conversion of wheat to bulgur is an ancient technique
that started in modern- day Turkey's Anatolia region, the Middle
East, and the Mediterranean (Evlice & Özkaya, 2019). Bulgur was
one of the favorite dishes of the Mongol Emperor Genghis Khan's
troops, and it may have been one of the world's first “processed
foods” (Bayram, 2007).
Making bulgur from wheat is a centuries- old process that began
in the Mediterranean region and has been a staple of Middle Eastern
cuisine for thousands of years (Keramaris et al., 2022). Durum wheat
is the preferred raw material for the production of popular foods
worldwide such as bulgur due to its hardness and amber color
(Carcea, 2020). Hard wheat (Triticum durum) is typically used to
prepare bulgur because of its golden hue and higher protein con-
tent than other wheat varieties (Dorra et al., 2022). Bulgur can be
preserved for a longer duration and is resistant to mold and insect
attacks (Yüksel et al., 2018). Wheat was cultivated in ancestral ages
in the Fertile Crescent, and bulgur is believed to have a parallel back-
ground. Bulgur is still a primary ingredient in Middle Eastern cuisine,
India, and the Balkans. Bulgur is the key ingredient in tabbouleh (a
bulgur salad with tomatoes, onions, and herbs) and kibbeh (ground
meat patties with onions and spices) (Al- Rousan et al., 2018)
Bulgur is traditionally made by parboiling full- wheat grouts until
they break, then they are sun- dried before being ground into multi-
ple lengths in a stone plant. Bulgur that has been processed commer-
cially is parboiled, then oven- dried, ground, and sifted into particular
categories. Bulgur is commonly cooked like rice or other grains, but
it can also be fried, roasted, grilled, or soaked. Since bulgur is al-
ready partially cooked, it takes less time to prepare and has a longer
shelf life than most other whole grains (Hammami & Sissons, 2020;
Valamoti, 2011).
The old method of making bulgur, referred to the Old Testament as
Arisah, includes boiling whole wheat in open containers until it be-
comes tender (ALIMENTARE, 2009). After that, the cooked wheat is
spread out in a thin layer in the sun to dry. By sprinkling with water
and rubbing by hand, the outer bran layers are removed (Sfayhi-
Terras et al., 2021). Then the grains are cracked with a stone or in
a crude mill. Based on ancient bulgur- making procedures, modern
mechanical bulgur processing has been developed. The methods for
processing bulgur are almost similar in every country.
The critical steps in bulgur processing are washing, heating, dry-
ing, de- branning, cracking, and size classification; however, heating
and drying are essential steps that affect bulgur quality (Savas &
Basman, 2016). Multiple cooking (such as atmospheric, microwave,
pressure) and drying (such as sun, perforated oven, molted bed,
microwave, infrared) methods have been studied to determine the
effects of these methods on bulgur quality (Savas & Basman, 2016;
Tekin et al., 2021; Yilmaz & Koca, 2017). The most widely used meth-
ods in the literature are conventional (cooking under atmospheric
pressure) and autoclave cooking. The wheat variety selected for bul-
gur processing is another major component that impacts the qual-
ity of bulgur. Due to its high yellow pigment content, durum wheat
(Triticum durum) is preferred in the preparation of bulgur rather than
bread wheat. The bright yellow color of bulgur is a desirable feature
and to meet the demands of the customers producers tr y to get a
more yellowish bulgur color (Evlice & Özkaya, 2020).
Bulgur is commonly sun- dried after cooking; however, this dry-
ing procedure might lead to contamination and a reduction in qual-
ity. Modern bulgur plants often use drying with hot air to increase
production ability while also preventing contamination (Savas &
Basman, 2016). The effects of various drying methods (solar, sun,
microwave, tray drying) on bulgur quality attributes are studied in
various studies. There has been a growing trend toward using in-
frared as a drying technology to produce high- quality food in re-
cent years (Delfiya et al., 2021). The advantages of infrared heating
over traditional heating are driving this trend. Infrared has several
benefits over other technologies, including higher thermal effi-
ciency and a faster heating cycle, which results in a shorter drying
period.Comparedtosun-drying(72 h)andoven-drying(18 h),infra-
red treatment reduced drying time in bulgur processing (Savas &
Basman, 2016).
Additional research is needed to improve the quality of bulgur
and commercialize these products made with new technologies.
Some technological changes have become necessary as a result of
the trend toward increased bulgur production both in developed and
developing economies. In terms of energy, freshwater, and waste-
water utilization, each stage of manufacturing must be re- evaluated
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SHAH et al.
Bulgur is a nutrient- dense wheat- based product and a well- known
ancient food that has been industrially processed (Laus et al., 2022).
Due to its shelf- life, high nutrient content, friendly handling, and rel-
atively inexpensive, bulgur is recognized as a valuable food product
(Cankurtaran & Bilgiçli, 2021; Richard, 20 07). Wheat is high in B vita-
mins, especially thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic
acid (B5), and pyridoxine (B6). These compounds are mainly contained
in the aleurone layers and germ of grains (Shewry & Hey, 2015). During
the processing of bulgur, these parts of the grain are not entirely iso-
lated, and a significant amount of these vitamins remain in the bulgur.
On the contrary, the perce ntage of all these vit amins in bulgur depends
mainly on the bulgur processing methods (Kadakal et al., 2007).
The increasing evidence for dietary fiber's health- promoting
impact and consumer interest in nutritious foods has resulted in a
rise in the market for foods high in dietary fiber. According to the
American Heart Association's Eating Plan, a diet rich in dietar y fiber
is advised. The recommended daily consumption of dietary fiber
is between25and30 gfrom food, notfromsupplements(Krauss
et al., 2000). Bulgur is a healthy source of fiber in the diet, though
de- branning and cracking remove a considerable amount of fiber
(Saka et al., 2020). Even after these procedures, the bulgur also has
a higher pr oportion of die tary fiber a pproximately 18 g per 10 0 g
(Savas & Basman, 2016). Bulgur's health advantages are primarily
derived from its high fiber content as a whole grain. Grain having a
high fiber content helps digestion, gut health, and weight manage-
ment (Iversen, 2021). The water- soluble vitamin content of bulgur
was significantly affected by both cooking and drying. The bulgur's
thiamin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin con-
tent decreased significantly when cooked in an autoclave (Kadakal
et al., 2007).
Bulgur has higher protein levels, calcium, iron, vitamin B1, and
niacin than other cereals like bread and pasta (Yousif et al., 2018).
Bulgur is also a natural food since it is processed without the use
of chemicals or additives. Bulgur is a functional food appropriate
for vegetarian diets and, because of its folate/folic acid content,
is healthy food for pregnant mothers and babies. Folate (folic acid)
is essential for a baby's brain growth, particularly during the first
3 months of pregnancy (Irvine et al., 2022). Since metabolism con-
tinually depletes folate/folic acid, it must be replenished by diet.
Therefore, bulgur is an important food for fetal brain growth and
the health of expectant mothers. Bulgur's foliate/folic acid content
ranges from41to 150 μg/100 g, depending on wheat species and
processing parameters (Bayram, 2007). The nutritional composition
of the bulgur is shown in Table 1. The manufacturing process during
bulgur production also affects its composition.
Whole grains produce beneficial health effects against vari-
ous human diseases through antioxidant activity (Călinoiu &
Vodnar, 2018). The primary function of antioxidants is to react with
free radicals to protect self- lipids, protein, and DNA from free radi-
cal or reactive oxygen species attacks (Develaraja et al., 2016). The
free radical attack is a crucial initiator of many chronic diseases.
Bulgur from Whole Wheat grains is high in antioxidant compounds
that have been shown to have a powerful antioxidant function (Tacer
Caba et al., 2012). Whole- grain bulgur contains phenolic acids and
flavonoids, which are soluble antioxidant substances.
One of the most well- studied phenolic acids, ferulic acid, is a
powerful antioxidant by donating hydrogen atoms to free radicals.
Lutein, alpha- carotene, beta- carotene, and beta- cyptoxanthin are
carotenoids present in whole grains' bran and germ layers, and they
can also act as antioxidants (Develaraja et al., 2016). A study carried
out to explore the antioxidant components of bulgur found that gal-
lic acid, 3,4 hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, and feru-
lic acid are among phenolics present in bulgur samples (Tacer Caba
et al., 2012). The functional bioactive components of bulgur, such as
dietary fiber, resistant starch, total phenolic compounds, and antiox-
idant capacity, clearly revealed its health potential. Bulgur, a whole
wheat food, is shown to be a healthy choice with a lot of potential as
a cereal- based product.
Bulgur contains antioxidant phytonutrients that may assist in re-
ducing inflammation and preventing healthy cells from mutating and
TABLE 1 Nutritionalcompositionofwheatbulgur
Nutrient (unit) Bulgur
Carbohydrate 75.9 g
Water 9.0 g
Proteins 12.3 g
Lipids 1.3 g
Ash 1.5 g
Fiber (total dietary) 18.3 g
Calcium 110 mg
Copper 0.3 mg
Folate 150 mcg
Iron 2.90 mg
Magnesium 164 mg
Manganese 3.0 mg
Niacin 3.53 mg
Pantothenic acid 1.0 mg
Phosphorus 300 mg
Potassium 410 mg
Zinc 1.9 mg
Riboflavin 0.26 mg
Selenium 2 mcg
Sodium 17.4 mg
Vitamin A 2205 IU
Thiamine 0.44 mg
Vitamin B- 6 0.3 mg
Source: Narwal et al. (2020).
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   SHAH et al.
causing cancer. Bulgur is known for having a high antioxidant poten-
tial, unlike most grains and cereals (Tekin et al., 2021). Whole- grain
products should account for at least half of the total grain consump-
tion in ord er to minimize the risk of c ardiovascular dis ease, type 2 dia-
betes, obesity, and cancer. As a whole grain, bulgur provides many of
the health benefits associated with consuming whole grains (Yilmaz
& Koca, 2017). In the manufacturing of einkorn and durum bulgur,
research was carried out to look at the effects of cooking (conven-
tional, microwave, autoclave) and drying processes (microwave and
hot air) on total phenolic content (TPC), total yellow pigment (TYP),
and total antioxidant capacity of bulgur (Yilmaz & Koca, 2017). After
bulgur production, a significant amount of antioxidant capacity was
preserved in both wheat. In both wheat, ferulic acid was the most
phenolic acid, while chlorogenic acid was the least phenolic acid. The
findings of this study reveal that the antioxidant activity of bulgur is
preserved after processing. However, more studies are required to
examine bulgur for its antioxidant properties.
Some of the microorganisms found in cereals may be a concern
because their growth can change the properties of the grains, and
the mycotoxins formed by some molds may be harmful to humans
(Los et al., 2018). Microbial contamination of cereal grains oc-
curs shortly after harvesting from a variety of sources, including
dust, water, insects, dirt, fertilizers, and animal feces (Nowshad
et al., 2021). Pseudomonadaceae, Micrococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae,
and Bacillaceae are the most common bacteria found in grains, while
Alternaria, Fusarium, Helminthosporium, and Cladosporium are the
most common mold that is present in grains (Richard, 20 07). The
microbial quality of cereal crops is crucial for grain and flour pres-
ervation as well as end product prospective, as microorganisms can
develop and change the properties of the commodity at high mois-
ture levels.
Natural antimicrobials have been prescribed to treat
bacterialfood- borne infections as well as to combat the rise in bac-
terial resistance to antibiotics that are commonly used to treat. As
a result, the antimicrobial properties of natural food products are
an emerging research subject. Some plant kernels are anti- microbial
agents toward Gram- negative and Gram- positive bacteria in the past
(Takó et al., 2020). Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1927 and Bacillus
cereus KCTC1014 are strongly inhibited by wheat germ isolate from
Triticale (Shetty & Lin, 2007). Wheat germ is the nutrient- dense
embryo of the wheat kernel removed when whole wheat grains are
ground into white flour (Boukid et al., 2018). It's critical to develop
bioactive compounds that can counteract the pathogen microbiota
behavior (Meca et al., 2010).
Mold contamination in processed foods can occur before and
after harvest, during processing, storage, and even due to the cli-
mate (Li et al., 2021). Filamentous molds, most commonly found
in stored cereal grains, including wheat, are often Aspergillus,
Penicillium, and Fusarium fungi (Los et al., 2018). These molds cause
rotting, degradation, nutrient loss, changes in sensorial properties,
and reduction in shelf- life and can also produce various mycotoxins.
These species are also the most abundant in various foods, such as
bulgur, where they can produce aflatoxins at different manufactur-
ing processes. Halis et al. (2011) studied the contamination of afla-
toxins in mixed feed, wheat flour, and bulgur samples. The results of
the study showed that none of the bulgur samples out of 210 were
found to be positive for aflatoxin contamination. The findings of the
study demonstrated bulgur as a safer food product for public con-
sumption (Halis et al., 2011).
Sarita et al. (2014) studied the storage stability of bulgur with re-
spect to its sensory attributes and microbial aspects. The microbial
load of bulgur increased during storage, although it remained within
permitted limits Table 2. The product was highly acceptable and had
good microbiological stability, which contributed to its acceptability
(Sarita et al., 2014). Although more studies are required to explore
the antimicrobial properties of bulgur.
Since ancient times, cereal- based food products have been the basis
of the human diet. There is increasing evidence that wheat and
wheat- based products can promote health beyond simply providing
energy and nutrients. Wheat has many medicinal properties when
grown naturally (Kumar et al., 2011). Wheat contains starch and
gluten, which supply energy, the inside bran coats phosphates and
other essential minerals; and the outer husks, which provide much-
needed fiber and help bowel mobility. Wheat germ contains vitamins
B, E, and protein, these nutrients help in developing and regenerat-
ing muscle tissues. As bulgur is made up of whole wheat, it contains
all the nutrients that are present in whole wheat and offer potential
health benefits.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease and a
major source of morbidity and mortality. The history and discovery
of the benefits of traditional food products for a wide range of dis-
eases are fascinating. The epidemiology shows that eating whole
grains reduces obesity, type 2 diabetes, and the problems that come
with it. Many large- scale studies have concluded in the last decade
TABLE 2 Microbialstabilityofwheatbulgurwithrespectto
storage period
Storage period (months) Bacterial count (cfu g−1 )
0 1 × 102
1 3 × 102
2 5 × 102
3 6 × 102
4 7 × 102
5 7 × 102
6 8 × 102
Source: Sarita et al. (2014).
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SHAH et al.
that there is a strong inverse relationship between whole grain
consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (Bhupathiraju &
Hu, 2021;Jonnalagadda etal.,2011) and cardiovascular disease in
both sexes (Petersen & Kris- Etherton, 2021; Schatzkin et al., 2008).
Whole grain phytochemicals may have anti- diabetic and anti- obesity
properties and have a role in treating type 2 diabetes and metabolic
disorders (Tang & Tsao, 2017).
Bulgur is high in magnesium, a mineral that serves as a cofac-
tor for over 30 0 enzymes, some of which are involved in the body's
glucose metabolism and insulin production process (Al- Fartusie &
Mohssan, 2017). Whole grains are also high in calcium and other
health- promoting nutrients that help to prevent type 2 diabetes.
Bulgur is also beneficial for diabetes control since it is a low glycemic
food. Bulgur takes time to break down in the intestine, resulting in a
gradual and steady release of glucose in the bloodstream, prevent-
ing dangerous spikes, and dips in blood sugar levels in people with
Jenkins et al.(1986) investigated the GI and blood glucose re-
sponses after the consumption of wheat, rye, pumpernickel bread,
bulgur, wheat kernels, and rye kernels. When compared to whole
wheat kernels, they discovered that eating bulgur resulted in only a
minor increase in blood glucose (Bornhorst & Singh, 2012;Jenkins
et al., 1986). However, more extensive research is required to further
explore the antidiabetic properties of bulgur.
Bulgur has various bioactive components that offer various
potential therapeutic properties Figure 1. Potential therapeutic
properties of bulgur such as anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antiox-
idative, and antidiabetic are discussed below as well as the effects
of bulgur consumption on the immune and ner vous systems are also
Cancer is a significant public health problem and the leading
cause of death globally. Lifestyle and diet are critical factors in pro-
moting and maintaining good health throughout life and preventing
chronic diseases such as cancer (Martinon et al., 2021). Bulgur wheat
is a popular cancer- fighting food rich in magnesium, zinc, and fiber
(Vaclavik & Christian, 2008). According to studies, premenopausal
womenwhoconsumemorethan30 goffiberadayhavealowerrisk
of breast cancer (Cade et al., 2007). One cup of cooked bulgur wheat
contains approximately 8 g of fiber, which is one- third of your daily
fiber requirement (Stone et al., 2020). Food high in dietary fiber con-
taining15–20 gper100 g,suchasbulgur,hasbeenshowntoreduce
the risk of colorectal cancer (Aune et al., 2011).
Bulgur is made from whole wheat grains, high in fiber, phyto-
chemicals, B vitamins, and other active substances that can have
significant health benefits. When the germ and bran are extracted
from processed cereals, almost all of the starchy endosperm re-
mains. Whole grains are thought to protec t against colorectal cancer
through several possible mechanisms (Fardet, 2010). Bulgur is high
in dietar y fiber and resistant starch, which boosts the development
of short- chain fatty acids in the colon, such as butyrate, acetate,
and propionate (Slavin, 2003). Short- chain fatty acids, especially bu-
tyrate and, to a minor degree, propionate, boost mucosal cells and
have a lower risk of colorectal cancer (Gomes et al., 2020). Although,
there are very limited studies to explore the anti- carcinogenic prop-
erties of bulgur. However, more studies are needed to deeply under-
stand the influential role of bulgur as a potential anti- carcinogenic
food product.
Bulgur wheat contains a wide variety of vitamins and minerals
that can significantly affect the immune system. Zinc, in particular,
has been associated with a healthier immune response in the body
FIGURE 1 Potentialhealthbenefitsofwheatbulgur.
6 of 8 
   SHAH et al.
(Singh et al., 2021). Bulgur contains a substantial amount of zinc
in every serving— nearly 20% of the daily recommended amount
(Demirel et al., 2008). Due to magnesium's impact on developing
some calming neurotransmitters (McCabe & Colbeck, 2015), the
high magnesium content in bulgur makes it an excellent sleep aid.
Patients with insomnia or other sleep problems should include bul-
gur wheat in their diet for a few weeks to see a difference. This ce-
real grain's low- calorie, low- fat nature makes it perfect for people
on a diet. The high fiber content helps feel fuller, avoid overeating,
as well as contribute less fat and calories to the diet. However, more
extensive studies are needed to examine the effects of bulgur con-
sumption on the immune and nervous systems.
Bulgur is a plant- based food rich in beneficial nutrients, including
dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. It is simple to prepare and con-
sume, as well as a semi- or ready- to- eat meal. Its whole grain, high in
protein(12 g),lowinfat(1.3g),hasalongshelflife(18–24 months),
avoids mildew and insect attacks, inactivates enzymes and microbes
due to cooking and drying, and is savory and nutritious. The findings
discussed in this review add to our understanding of bulgur's nutri-
tional composition and potential health benefits. The nutritional and
therapeutic potential of bulgur, as well as the optimization of nu-
tritional quality in conjunction with processing parameters, are un-
derstudied. Bulgur can be utilized in the development of functional
foods due to its stability and significant nutritional profile. However,
more research is needed to explore the functional and therapeutic
properties of bulgur.
Yasir Abbas Shah, Farhan Saeed, and Muhammad Afzaal proposed
this idea and drafted the initial manuscript. Aftab Ahmad, Huda
Ateeq, Muzammal Hussain and Mujahid Hassan Khan helped in pre-
paring figures and tables and the overall quality of the manuscript.
Authors are thankful to Government College University for provid-
ing literature collection facilities.
The authors declare that no funds, grants, or other support were
received during the preparation of this manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Even though adequate data has been given in the form of tables and
figures, however, all authors declare that if more data is required
then the data will be provided on a request basis.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
Corresponding and all the co- authors are willing to participate in this
Yasir Abbas Shah
Farhan Saeed
Muhammad Afzaal
Huda Ateeq
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How to cite this article: Shah, Y. A., Saeed, F., Afzaal, M.,
Ahmad, A ., Hussain, M., Ateeq, H., & Khan, M. H. (2022).
Biochemical and nutritional properties of wheat bulgur: A
review. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 00,
... Results of current study are in agreement with [21] who found 14.9% of moisture in mushroom. The increasing of moisture rate may occur due to moisturizing processes that take place on the grains before grinding [22]. The percentage of moisture in dry mushroom is about 13.08 to 13.94% [23] and these ratios are close to the finding of current study. ...
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Current study was conducted to determine the effect of adding different rates of mushroom powder in the dough on the chemical composition and improve the nutritional value of domestic wheat flour. Three rates of mushroom powder (5%, 10% and 15%) were added into wheat flour to achieve the aim above. The experiment was arranged using complete randomized design (CRD) and means were compered at 0.05 using Duncan test. Results of chemical analysis showed that domestic wheat flour contents of protein, fat, ash, moisture, fibers, carbohydrates and pH were 11.1, 0.7, 1, 14.8, 1.7, 70.7 and 6.7 respectively. While these contents in mushroom powder, were amounted 36, 1.7, 1.3, 4, 12, 6.4, 42.2 and 5.6 respectively. Results also indicated that adding different rates of mushroom powder was increased protein, ash, fibers and fat, while, the percentage of carbohydrates was decreased compare to wheat flour without mushroom powder. Enhancing domestic wheat flour with mushroom powder can improve the nutritional value and the taste of bread.
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Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for development of non-communicable diseases, such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and increase the risk of early mortality. Diet and food consumption are among the most important factors in preventing and reversing overweight, obesity and their comorbidities. Whole grain has been associated with decreased risk of overweight and obesity in observational studies, but the results from interventions are inconsistent. This may be because very few interventions have been adequately designed for evaluation of the effects of whole grain on body weight management and these effects may differ between different whole grain sources. Rye is the cereal with the highest fiber content and has been suggested to be superior to wheat in inducing beneficial physiological effects with health implications, but large randomized controlled trials with well-characterized intervention foods are lacking. This thesis aimed to investigate the effects of rye-based cereals, compared with refined wheat-based cereals, on body weight loss and metabolic risk factors. Furthermore, the potential influence of subjective appetite and gut microbiota were investigated. High fiber rye-based cereal products were shown to induce greater reduction in body weight and body fat than corresponding refined wheat products after 6 and 12 weeks of intervention among overweight and obese men and women. No consistent effect of rye products on appetite response was found and the changes in body weight and body fat could not be linked to differences in subjective appetite or food intake. However, this may be due to methodological issues and warrants further research. Compared with refined wheat products, high fiber rye-based cereal products were shown to lower C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in two different populations. This effect was associated with reduction in abundance of certain bacteria in the gut that have previously been associated with decreased gut barrier integrity, suggesting that the effect of rye consumption on inflammation may, at least partly, be mediated through changes in gut microbiota composition and decreased gut permeability. In conclusion, the work included in this thesis suggests that replacing wheat-based cereals with high fiber rye-based cereals can aid the reduction of body weight and body fat, and reduce low-grade inflammation. These results can support the development of dietary guidelines and promote the development of healthier food products. Fullt text:
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Traditional Turkish couscous is produced by coating of durum wheat bulgur with wheat flour and water or milk in Turkey. In this study, einkorn bulgur was used instead of durum bulgur in couscous production. For coating of einkorn bulgur; emmer flour (EF) was used instead of wheat flour as control couscous. In other formulations, EF replaced with amaranth flour (AF), buckwheat flour (BF) and quinoa flour (QF) at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% ratios as separately to improve the nutritional properties of couscous. The couscous samples were evaluated for color values, chemical attributes, cooking quality, textural and sensory properties. The use of high levels of AF and QF in the couscous formulation increased the ash and fat content compared to the control and traditional couscous samples. Increasing levels of BF and QF increased total phenolic content, DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activity of couscous samples from 8535.40 mg GAE/kg, 13.04% and 2249.62 mg TE/kg up to 14752.25 mg GAE/kg, 51.52% and 6297.54 mg TE/kg for BF, from 8281.77 mg GAE/kg, 13.08% and 1990.10 mg TE/kg up to 10788.96 mg GAE/kg, 27.5% and 4442.50 mg TE/kg for QF. The use of 100% BF and QF instead of EF reduced the phytic acid content by 50.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Significant increases were observed in weight/volume increase and cooking loss values with pseudocereal addition level of 100%. The sensory analyses indicate that couscous prepared with AF was mostly liked by the panelist in terms of overall acceptability.