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Butterfly pea: An emerging plant with applications in food and medicine



Dyes and Food Colorings play an important role in the Food Industry. A trend was seen at that time for using natural dyes instead of artificial dyes. A natural dye can be extracted from Clitoria ternatea (CT/Blue pea) flower because of its vivid blue color. The reason for this deep blue color is because of the Anthocyanin compounds contained in the flower. Clitoria ternatea extraction was obtained through different methods and they vary with their manufacturing process. This plant was widely used in traditional medicine because it is rich in bioactive compounds. In treating diabetics, blood pressure, retinal damage, edema, and indigestion both the aerial and underground parts of this plant are being used. Researchers proved this plant's medicinal activities such as nootropic activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. Currently, this plant's uses are widely spread in the nanotechnology field as well.
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The Pharma Innovation Journal 2022; SP-11(6): 625-637
ISSN (E): 2277-7695
ISSN (P): 2349-8242
NAAS Rating: 5.23
TPI 2022; SP-11(6): 625-637
© 2022 TPI
Received: 02-03-2022
Accepted: 07-04-2022
Thilini Weerasinghe
Department of Food and
Nutrition, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University,
Punjab, India
Dayana Perera
Department of Food and
Nutrition, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University,
Punjab, India
Nethmi De Silva
Department of Food and
Nutrition, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University,
Punjab, India
Dinithi Poogoda
Department of Food and
Nutrition, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University,
Punjab, India
Hashani Swarnathilaka
Department of Food and
Nutrition, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University,
Punjab, India
Corresponding Author
Thilini Weerasinghe
Department of Food and
Nutrition, School of Agriculture,
Lovely Professional University,
Punjab, India
Butterfly pea: An emerging plant with applications in
food and medicine
Thilini Weerasinghe, Dayana Perera, Nethmi De Silva, Dinithi Poogoda
and Hashani Swarnathilaka
Dyes and Food Colorings play an important role in the Food Industry. A trend was seen at that time for
using natural dyes instead of artificial dyes. A natural dye can be extracted from Clitoria ternatea (CT/Blue
pea) flower because of its vivid blue color. The reason for this deep blue color is because of the
Anthocyanin compounds contained in the flower. Clitoria ternatea extraction was obtained through
different methods and they vary with their manufacturing process. This plant was widely used in traditional
medicine because it is rich in bioactive compounds. In treating diabetics, blood pressure, retinal damage,
edema, and indigestion both the aerial and underground parts of this plant are being used. Researchers
proved this plant’s medicinal activities such as nootropic activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic activity,
anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. Currently, this plant’s uses are widely spread in the
nanotechnology field as well.
Keywords: Clitoria ternatea, butterfly pea, ayurveda, antioxidant, nanoparticles
Clitoria ternatea is a plant that belongs to the family fabacean and is widely distributed in many
different countries. There are 58 species of Clitoria ternatea spread all over the world like India,
Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Philippine Islands, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Australia, and
around countries in the Indian ocean.
Soil and Climate Parameters
It has a fibrous root system, fertile loamy soil, and well- drained soil is preferable to its growth.
This plant can be grown easily, but it has a short life period and it is a tropical plant that grows
under 19°-28° C temperature in a moderate water range (700-1500mm). Furthermore, this plant
has the potential to survive up to 7-8 months even in drought conditions. (Oguis et al., 2019) [1].
There are different names used for Clitoria ternatea (CT) like Asian pigeon wing which is the
English name for blue pea flower and ‘blue pea’, ‘butterfly pea’, ‘bluebell’, ‘Cordofan- Pea’,
and ‘Chandra kanta’ are also known. (Vidana Gamage et al., 2021) [2].
Flowers, seeds, roots, and leaves are the edible parts of this plant that are being used in food
industries, culinary uses, folk medicine & also in religious activities. In Asian countries, mostly
Clitoria ternatea flower is blue/dark blue/purple color but white and light-yellow color flowers
are also seen.
Morphological Characteristics
The blue pea flower has a length, width of nearly 4cm, 3cm respectively and there are five petals
attached to the sepals and corolla of the blue pea flower which consists of two wings, two keels,
and one banner that has light yellow color markings in the middle. The blue pea plant is a
climbing legume with very thin leaves which have a length of around 2.5-5 cm and 1.5-3.5 cm
width respectively (Mukherjee et al., 2008) [12]. It is an evergreen plant with a fibrous root system
and its large nodules can fix nitrogen into a usable form of plants, with the association of
Rhizobium bacteria. Clitoria ternatea is a perennial plant that propagates by seeds that are black
in color and are located in pods that are about 7-11cm long. (Suarna et al., 2021). [4]
CT flower is used for culinary purposes and its extracted dye is used as a natural colorant in the
food industry and its roots and leaves are used for medicinal purposes and herbal drink
preparations. (Chusak et al., 2019) [6] Butterfly pea powder is the most famous product in the
market which is made from the blue pea flower.
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Roots and seeds are mainly used in traditional medicine and
young leaves can be used as side dishes.
It has health benefits like helping in digestion, improving
eyesight, lowering blood pressure, and making the skin
glowing. (Barik et al., 2007) [7], (Oguis et al., 2019) [1].
There are different types of bioactive compounds found in
Clitoria ternatea which are Anthocyanin compounds,
flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, resins, and phenols are some
of them. These bioactive compounds of the CT plant help with
Anti-diabetic activity, Antioxidant activity, Anti-Bacterial
activity, Anti- Inflammatory activity, and Analgesic activity
(Chusak et al., 2019) [6], (Gupta et al., 2010) [8].
Clitoria ternatea is rich in anthocyanin compounds and it is the
pigment that caused the deep blue color of the CT flower.
Therefore, it is used as a food colorant in the food industry.
Anthocyanin is one of the most unstable food colorants found
in nature and its stability depends upon temperature, pH, and
other enzymatic activities. (Vidana Gamage et al., 2021) [2].
Most importantly, in Clitoria ternatea the anthocyanin is
present in the form of polyacylated anthocyanin also known as
Ternatins which is one of the stable forms of anthocyanin
(Thuy et al., 2021) [10]. Anthocyanin can play the role of
antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity which help to
protect against several health issues like cancers, diabetics, and
cardiovascular diseases. (Jeyaraj et al., 2021) [9].
This report is focused on the overall description of Clitoria
ternatea plants’ nutritional & bioactive components,
utilization, and applications.
Nutritional Composition
This legume plant is high in minerals like Calcium (1.5-25.9
g/kg), Phosphorous (0.3-3.9 g/kg), Potassium (7.7-23.0 g/kg),
Sodium (0.3-1.1g/kg), Magnesium (3.2- 6g/kg), Manganese
(28-91 mg/kg), Zinc (25- 44mg/kg), Copper (6-9 mg/kg) etc.
Various types of fatty acids are also present in blue pea seeds
& petals like Linoleic acid, Arachidic acid, Palmitic acid &
Stearic acid which help to boost up brain health. (Mukherjee et
al., 2008) [12]. Crude protein and fiber contents are high in CT
and because of its fiber content, it can be used as forage (Heuzé
et al., 2016) [17]. The blue pea plant is loaded with Vitamin A,
Vitamin C, and E. B and is also rich in polyphenols like
flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, lignans, alkaloids,
terpenoids, and coumarins. It plays an important role in free
radical scavenging hence it can provide antioxidant properties
mainly by leaves and flowers and anti-cancer properties. There
are different types of extraction methods used to
separate polyphenolic compounds of this plant and its quality
depends upon the method and types of equipment used.
Polyphenols found in roots are pentacyclic triterpenoids,
taraxerol, and taraxerone. (Sing J et al., 2012) [14]. Nowadays
scientists are researching BP (Blue Pea) for making different
medicines, due to the presence of many functional compounds
in this plant. Currently, blue pea tea is available in the market,
and it has been a trending beverage in Asian countries.
Specially, “Starbucks” Asia launched a special edition of cold
beverages using blue pea flowers. But only a few value-added
products are available in the market. (Pasukamonset et al.,
2017) [13].
Clitoria ternatea has gained significant interest in a number of
fields: traditional medicine, food and agricultural applications
(Oguis et al., 2019) [1].
In Ayurveda, parts of CT have been using in treating health
issues. Clitoria ternatea flowers are used all over the world as
a food colourant and as ornamental flowers. In food
applications, CT flowers are used as a promising candidate
because of a wide range of pharmacotherapeutic properties,
safety, and effectiveness. CT is used as a nitrogen-fixing and
fodder crop (Jeyaraj et al., 2021) [9].
In Ayurveda, Clitoria ternatea possesses various
pharmacological activities, including antidiabetic, nootropic,
anesthetic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-
inflammatory, antidepressant, antistress, diuretic,
anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, insecticidal properties (Saptarini et
al., 2015) [16].
Researchers have shown that CT can be used in cancer and
diabetes which are considered to be some newly emerging
diseases. Scientists have found in various experiments that CT
is showing the hypoglycemic activity as it lowers the level of
blood glucose. In a study, the blood glucose levels were
significantly decreased when CT leaves extract and CT flowers
extract in aqueous form (@ 400mg/kg) were given orally to
alloxan-induced diabetic like conditions in rats (Daisy et al.,
2009) [19]. Same could be seen when CT leaves methanolic
extract was treated for Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats at
single dose treatment for 15 days (Mishra et al., 2015) [20]. The
aqueous extract of CT leaves (@ 100 mg/kg) for alloxan-
induced diabetic like conditions in rats caused a reduction in
the level of blood glucose when rats were treated for 14 days
(Gunjan et al., 2010) [21]. The CT seeds also possess anti-
diabetic properties, in a study the antidiabetic effect was shown
when the CT seeds ethanolic extract was used in the rats’
treatment for Streptozotocin-induced diabetes like conditions
(Kalyan et al., 2011) [22]. In a study conducted by Sharma and
Majumdar, CT flowers ethanolic extract also decreased the
blood glucose level when treated for alloxan-induced diabetic
like conditions in rats (Sharma et al., 1990) [23].
All over the world, the lives of many people are affected by
cancer, another emerging disease like diabetes. As CT is
affecting good on some cancer cell lines it can be used in the
treatment of some cancers. In one study, the crude methanolic
extract of seeds, stem bark, and leaves of CT was tested for
cytotoxic activity. As result, anti- cancerous activity was
shown in all the extracts, but compared to other CT extracts, a
significant higher cytotoxic activity was shown in the leaves
extract (Rahman et al., 2006) [42]. In one study, CT cyclotides
were found to possess the chemosensitizing and anticancer
activities in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells (Sen et al.,
2013) [40]. In a study, CT flower aqueous extract and the
methanolic extract of CT leaves and CT flowers has been
demonstrated for the cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines
(Akter et al., 2014 & Neda et al., 2013) [44, 45]. In a study
conducted by Kumar et al., the cytotoxic effect was also shown
by ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of CT flower in the
trypan blue dye exclusion method (Kumar et al., 2011) [48]. CT
seed also showed the anticancer activity as it was showing a
decrease in packed cell volume, tumor volume, viable count,
and an increase in tumor-bearing mice’s life span (Latha et al.,
2013) [24]. Therefore, researchers have demonstrated CT as a
good anticancer drug.
CT possesses antimicrobial properties, as it works against
microorganisms like bacteria, and fungi. In a study, the
methanolic extract of CT flowers was found to work against E.
coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumonia (Uma et al., 2009) [25].
In another study, the methanolic extract of CT flowers was
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found to work against Bacillus thuringiensis with MIC
(Minimum inhibitory concentration) values between 12.5-25
mg/ml (Kamilla et al., 2014) [26]. In a study, CT leaves
methanolic extract is also reported bactericidal activity in
Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi,
Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris (Anand et al.,
2011) [27]. In other studies, anthocyanins of CT flower ethanol
extract paste showed antibacterial activity against K.
pneumonia and the MIC (value was between 1.6-25 mg/ml
(Leong et al., 2017) [28]. In another study, an isolated protein
called finotin from CT seeds showed antimicrobial properties
(Kelemu et al., 2004) [29]. The antimicrobial activity against A.
formicans, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. subtilis, K. pneumonia, S.
agalactiae, and A. hydrophila was shown by the various
extracts of CT leaves (Ponnusamy et al., 2010) [30].
Antibacterial activity was shown by the ethanol extract of CT
leaves against antibacterial Bacillus spp. and Streptococcus
spp. (Shahid et al., 2009) [31]. The methanolic extract of CT
leaves (@0.8 mg/mL) (a minimum inhibitory concentration)
showed the antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger
(Kamilla et al., 2014) [26].
In Ayurveda, CT has been used in the treatment of serious liver
problems as it is showing promising hepatoprotective effects.
In a study, CT leaves methanolic extract (@200 mg/kg) was
used against paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice. It
showed a protective effect as it decreases the alanine
aminotransferase level, bilirubin along level, aspartate
aminotransferase level and improves histopathological levels
(Nithianantham et al., 2011) [32]. In another study,
hepatoprotective activity was found to have in the extract of CT
leaves in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
More hepatoprotective effect was shown in the extracts of
white-flowered CT leaves than in the extracts of blue-flowered
CT leaves (Jayachitra et al., 2012) [33].
Some Antioxidant activities are also possessed by CT. In a
study, antioxidant activity was shown when rats were treated
with the aqueous extract of CT flowers against ketoconazole-
induced testicular damage (Iamsaard et al., 2014) [46]. In one
study CT extracts (@400 mg/mL) were found to protect canine
erythrocytes against hemolysis and oxidative damage as CT
showed antioxidant activity (Phrueksanan et al., 2014) [47]. The
aqueous extract of CT flowers (Kamkaem et al., 2009) [34],
methanolic extract of CT leaves (Nithianantham et al., 2011)
[32], methanolic and acetone extract of CT flowers (Jain et al.,
2010) [35], aqueous extract of CT flower petals (Phrueksanan et
al., 2014) [47] also showed the antioxidant activity.
CT does possess anti-inflammatory activities. In a study, anti-
inflammatory effects were found to have in the methanolic
extraction of CT roots (@200 mg/kg and 400 mg/ kg) in rats as
CT inhibits acetic acid induced rat paw oedema (Parimala et
al., 2003) [36]. Anti-inflammatory activity was also shown in the
ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of CT (Suganya et al.,
2014) [37]. In another study, the extract of CT roots (@200
mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) has shown inhibition of oedema at
percentages of 21.6% and 31.8%, respectively.
Besides all the above-mentioned uses, in treating various
diseases like infections, body aches, anthelmintic and
urinogenital problems, the extracts of CT leaves and roots are
used. CT leaves are also beneficial for hepatopathy and otalgia,
while the seeds are cathartic. Furthermore, in India, flowers,
roots, and stems are used to heal snake bites and scorpion
stings. CT roots and seeds are used as a tonic and laxative for
the nerves (Nithianantham et al., 2011) [32].
The presence of delphinidin anthocyanin contributes to the
bright, deep-blue blossoms of Clitoria ternatea. Due to its
strong anthocyanin pigment content, CT flower is used as a
natural blue colorant in food and beverages all over the world.
This colorant is commonly used in various quantities with a
mocktail, cake, ice cream, candy, and other traditional meals
and desserts. It's also recognized for the purplish-blue color of
anthocyanins in its blossoms, which can be used as a natural
culinary coloring. CT extract is often used as a food colorant.
Because the color parameter of CT may be utilized to correlate
and anticipate the extract's pH value, there is a lot of room for
CT flower extract to be developed further into more inventive
uses: to monitor the pH intelligent packaging from CT. The
bloom of CT has been utilized as a colorant in many meals,
beverages, and sweets throughout Asia, in addition to the
biological pigment. This colorant flower is commonly used in
various quantities with rice, cookies, bread, flours, and
desserts. CT colorant is particularly used in the local culinary
scene. (Sutakwa et al., 2021) [43].
Considering positive health effects and attractive colorants in
the food processing system, the demand for anthocyanin has
been continuously increasing. CT flower rice is loaded with
antioxidants. It has anti- inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic
properties. It’s linked to reducing cases of obesity, diabetes,
and heart disease. And also, fresh pods, young shoots and
leaves are used as a vegetable or as a side dish. The leaves'
natural green color is used in a variety of meals as a colorant
(Chusak et al., 2019) [6].
Extraction methods
For agricultural uses and other industrial uses, extraction
should be done to separate components of butterfly pea.
Traditional extraction methods (conventional method) and
modern methods (Non-conventional method) are the types of
extractions. (Jeyaraj et al., 2021) [9] Both these are successful
extraction methods, but the efficiency of the methods depends
on the compound extracted. The yield of this extraction method
depends on various factors like temperature, pH, types of
solvent used, & extraction time. Since the 1970s, conventional
extraction methods were maneuvering for blue pea plants.
(Lakshan et al., 2019) [3] Traditional extraction methods are
maceration extraction, Soxhlet extraction, & cold/hot water
extraction. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave
extraction are examples of non-conventional extraction
Maceration extraction is used for dye extraction from blue pea
flower. A powder form sample of a blue pea plant is used for
maceration extraction and this is a process done at 25-95 °C,
for 40-80 min. Water is added to the power form sample and
gradually it is made for heating. The extracted liquid is strained
through the process & residue solid material is pressed to
increase the liquid yield. This liquid is dried at 60 °C to remove
water & strain dye. By maintaining temperature and time
45.52% of yield can be obtained at 54 °C, for 74min. This is a
simple method and does not require special equipment or
technology. (Baskaran et al., 2019) [11].
Hydroalcoholic extraction is a conventional extraction method,
used to extract anthocyanin compounds (Jaafar et al., 2020) [49].
In this process, dried powder form is used as the sample.
Ethanol, methanol, or distilled water is the solvents used in
hydroalcoholic extraction. According to the FDA (2018),
distilled water is class one solvent & best solvent for extraction
of anthocyanin compounds. The yield of anthocyanin
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extraction of blue pea flower is 56.1% when the water is used
as solvent at 60 °C for 60min (Jeyaraj et al., 2021) [9].
Ultrasound-assisted extraction is an effective non-
conventional method to extract anthocyanin compounds from
blue pea flower. Because high yield can obtain within a short
extraction period (Anthika et al., 2015) [50]. The powder form
of the sample is taken for the extraction. Distilled water is used
as the solvent, at 30 °C for 15-45min. Extraction is taken at an
ultrasonic bath and constant temperature should be maintained.
In this process, anthocyanin compound will be soluble in
distilled water and the extract can strain through filter paper.
However, maceration is more effective than ultrasound
extraction in the case of flavonoid extraction under aqueous
ethanol. Besides using ultrasound extraction flavonoid content
of aqueous ethanol was high after 7 days. So longer time is
required to complete this process. In one study RMS (Response
Surface Methodology) was used to find the best extraction for
anthocyanin. According to a report (Chong et al., 2015) [51],
anthocyanin extraction yield was 246.6% higher by RMS
compared to ultrasound-assisted extraction. (Baskaran et al.,
2019) [11]
Coldwater & hot water extraction methods are most commonly
used in conventional extraction methods.
These techniques are used to separate various bioactive
components of blue pea that can be taken without leaving any
residues behind the extraction chamber (Baskaran et al., 2019)
[11]. Phenolic extraction yield is 185.3mg/g in cold water
extraction. Total phenolic extraction yield is high in hot water
extraction, that of 239.5mg/g. Flavonoid extraction value is
high in hot water extraction, that of 128.3mg/g. Ascorbic acid
value also can be detected using cold water extraction. The
value is 10.36mg/g. Ascorbic acid value could not detect by the
hot water method as the increasing temperature is caused due
to degrading ascorbic acid. (Minh et al., 2020). [52].
Various solvent mixtures are used to extract bioactive
components of the CT plant. Ethanol and Methanol are the
major solvents used in most extractions. Anthocyanins extract
efficiency in a mixture of ethanol and methanol is one of them.
According to the scientists, ethanol extraction is competent
because of its high extraction percentage at polar molecules
(Pham et al., 2019 & Satria et al., 2022) [53, 15].
Microwave-assisted extraction can be processed in a domestic
microwave oven to extract medicinal plants. It is a non-
conventional & environmentally friendly technique, used to
extract dye from blue pea flowers. Distilled water is the solvent
using between 300MHz to 300GHz frequency and wavelength
between 1cm to 1m Sample and the solvent ratio is 1:20g/ml.
It takes only a few minutes to complete the process. The
extracted dye can stain through filter paper. The extraction
yield of microwave-assisted extraction is 48.61% (Marsin et
al., 2020) [54].
Although traditional extraction methods have been widely
employed to extract these flowers, non- conventional
extraction methods (ultrasound aid) have proven to be superior
and advantageous for phytochemical extraction. Exploration of
alternative nontraditional extraction methods that are deemed
as "green techniques" might thus be advantageous in
determining the efficiency of extraction.
Functional compound and its bioactivities
Anthocyanin is the major functional compound present in
Clitoria ternatea. They are water-soluble pigments belonging
to the Flavonoids. Flavonoids are a subclass of the polyphenol
family. Fruits, vegetables and plants look in various colors like
violet, blue, orange and red which are produced by the
chemicals mentioned above (Vidana Gamage et al., 2021) [2].
Due to this reason, Butterfly pea flowers are looking much
more attractive. There were more than 700 types of
Anthocyanins identified by the Scientists. Anthocyanins are
responsible for protecting the plant cells from UV radiation as
well they are contributing to pollination. 6 most common
anthocyanidins have been found, they are Pelargonidin,
Peonidin, Delphunidin, Cyanidin, Petunidin, and Malvidin
(Vidana Gamage et al., 2021) [2]. The pH of the solution is the
main factor affected to obtain the various colors of
Anthocyanins. That means the chemical structure of the
Anthocyanins can be changed by the slight variations in pH of
the surrounding medium.
In the Butterfly pea flower, polyacrylate anthocyanins are the
most abundant source of Anthocyanins because their stability
is higher than the Non-Acylated Anthocyanins. The big
advantage of polyacrylate anthocyanins is, that they are known
to be used as natural food coloring agents. (Marpaung et al.,
2020) [55]. As mentioned earlier, the color of the anthocyanins
of Butterfly pea flower extract can change with pH like this,
Red color obtains at the pH lower than 3.2, color changes from
violet to blue when the pH changes from 3.2 to 5.2, the light
blue color occurs at the range of pH 5.2 to 8.2 and the color
changes from light blue to dark green color when the pH
changes from 8.2 to 10.2 (Sutakwa et al., 2021) [43]. The reason
behind this color change is the structural alternation that takes
place in molecules of Anthocyanins with the change in
hydrogen ions and the concentration of the hydrogen ions
present in the medium. Red color occurs due to the presence of
ion flavylium, green color occurs due to the presence of ionic
chalcone and due to the neutral quinoidal base, the blue color
occurs (Salacheep et al., 2020). [56].
The major bioactivity of Anthocyanin is the Antioxidant
activity. Antioxidants are substances that inhibit oxidation and
protect the cells against free radicals. The antioxidant activity
has the ability to donate the hydrogen atoms or electrons to free
radicals and then relocate free radicals and prevent the damage
occurring from the free radicals (Tan et al., 2015) [58].
Anthocyanins exhibit two types of antioxidant activities that
are in vivo and vitro (Escher et al., 2020 & Vidana Gamage et
al., 2021) [57, 2]. Due to its antioxidant capabilities, Butterfly pea
anthocyanins could prevent the types of diseases such as
neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and
diabetes (Cazarolli et al., 2009) [59], (López et al., 2019) [60].
Some of the studies have proven the toxicological safety of
using the petal extract of the butterfly pea.
The petal aqueous extract of the butterfly pea showed no of
cytotoxicity effects in fibroblast cells of human and protective
effects have been shown in humans’ red blood cells. Moreover,
the oxidation of pBR322 plasmid DNA was inhibited by this
extract (Mehmood et al., 2019 & Escher et al., 2020) [61, 57]. The
vitro antioxidant properties of anthocyanin were displayed by
extracts of the water of butterfly pea and up to 625µg/mL there
were no toxic effects occurred on RAW264.7 cells. In one of
the studies, they have found the Anthocyanin extract of
Butterfly pea demonstrated considerable antioxidant activity
against peroxyl radicals and DPPH. But IC50 of the
Anthocyanin extracted from Butterfly pea (0.47mg/L) was
considerably high amount when compared to the 0.002mg/L
amount of Ascorbic acid. The term IC50 is, how much
concentration of Anthocyanin required to reduce the free
radical concentration by 50% (Phrueksanan et al., 2014) [47].
One of the scientists studied, how does the antioxidant activity
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contribute to the prevention of lipid oxidation (López et al.,
2019) [60]. Lipid oxidation takes place, when the free radicals
are present in surrounding medium.
After the 48 hours of treatment, the formation of 7- keto
cholesterol in an emulsion of cholesterol was prevented by
Anthocyanins (6mg/mL) that was extracted from CT by
distilled water and then inhibited the generation of free radicals
by 79.8% (López et al., 2019) [60]. Due to the dehydration of 7-
hydroperoxycholestrol, the cholesterol free radical chain
reaction produces 7-keto cholesterol (Xu et al., 2005) [62].
Therefore, the quantity of lipid oxidation can be measured by
the amount of 7-keto cholesterol generated. The antioxidant
property is helpful to reduce the diseases like hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia is the disease of increasing the serum glucose
levels in the body after a meal. Due to this, some complications
occur in the body. In mitochondria, the reactive oxygen species
(ROS) are produced and they deplete the serum antioxidant
enzymes. Some of the studies proved anthocyanins of butterfly
pea are able to inhibit the actions of the digestive enzymes of
Carbohydrates like pancreatic α- amylase and intestinal α-
glucosidase which caused to the reduction of the postprandial
hyperglycemia (McDougall et al., 2005) [63].
Nanosciences for future improvements
Several studies conducted various methodologies to synthesize
a variety of nanoparticles from blue pea. Silver nanoparticles,
which have antifungal, anti- inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and
anti-permeability properties, are employed in the medical
industry like Antibacterial agents in catheters that have been
surgically placed to prevent infection effects generated in
surgery (Gurunathan et al., 2009) [64]. Nanocrystalline silver
particles offer a wide range of uses in biomolecular detection
and diagnostics, antimicrobials and treatments, catalysis, and
microelectronics (Sahayaraj et al., 2011) [65].
For silver nanoparticles synthesis, fresh flowers of CT were
randomly picked and washed thoroughly in tap water for about
5 min. Then CT petals were removed from the flower and kept
for drying in the tray at room temperature. Next preparation of
curd extract, in here finely crushed dried 10g of flower petals
mixed with 100ml of methanol and filter it using watchman 1
filter paper. And the filter obtained dried in a vacuum drier and
the powder was stored at 40C. Add 100ml distilled water to the
powder to get the aqueous extract. Then do the UV-VIS
Spectral analysis; 1ml of aqueous flower extract was added into
the 10ml of 5mM Sliver Nitrate, then the drop of Ag+ to AgO
(silver oxide) remained shown by determining the UV. VIS is
spectrum at time range from 5- 120min within the range of 400-
480nm wavelengths in a spectrophotometer. Finally, the
sample was deducted by Scanning Electrons Microscope for
the analysis of the size and the presence of silver nanoparticles.
The opinion of that practical was plants have been considered
a leading candidate for nanoparticle synthesis. Those biogenic
nanoparticles are less expensive, easier to make, and more
environmentally friendly. Clitoria ternatea flower extract
showed a lot of promise. Lowering effect on Ag+ silver
nanoparticles reduction at the temperature in the room UV Vis
Spectroscopy was used to characterize the samples. The
production of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by SEM
(scanning electron microscope). The particles produced ranged
in size from 5 to 50 nm, with a diameter of 5 to 50 nm. The
shape that is consistent (cubic or spherical). The particles also
tend to stick together. Aggregate, implying that they could be
beneficial in applications that require the process of coating
materials Nanoparticles with a wide range of sizes and
characteristics can be obtained by tapping the many plants in
the wild environment. (Anitha et al., 2013) [66]
Moreover, nanoparticles made by biological techniques have
been used in human healthcare systems like nanomedicine,
diagnosis, and commercial product manufacturing (Bar et al.,
2009; Cruz et al., 2010) [67, 68]. Nanoparticles have been found
to have a variety of biological functions due to their unique
physical and chemical properties (Haverkamp et al., 2009) [69].
Plant extracts have recently been utilized to make a variety of
environmentally benign metal nanoparticles, including silver
(Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), gold (Au), magnesium oxide (MgO),
titanium oxide (TiO2), platinum (Pt), and nanoparticles of iron
oxide (Fe3O4) (Zhan et al., 2011 & Masarovicova et al., 2013)
[71, 72]. Metabolites, both primary and secondary found in crude
extracts from plants were used in a redox process to convert the
ionic form to metallic nanoparticles that are good for the
environment (Kim et al., 2007 & Aromal et al., 2012) [73, 74].
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a naturally occurring inorganic substance
with physical, optical, and antimicrobial properties that are
widely used in a variety of products like ceramics, glass,
concretes, car tires, lubricants, paints, etc. (Sabir et al., 2014)
[70]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are harmless and can be utilized
as an alternative to molecule UV-absorbers to protect against a
wider range of UV rays. In this process, whole plants were
harvested. All of the pieces were rinsed in distilled water twice
and then precisely honed to the small parts. plant extracts
preparation was done by 5 gm of plant material and15 minutes
in a 250 ml Beaker with 50 mL Milli-Q water, then using
standard filtration method herbal extract were collected to a
separate conical flask and stored in 4 C in a refrigerator. Then
preparation of precursor; Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate is used to
make a 1 mM zinc nitrate solution. [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and
Milli- Q water and it is stored in the refrigerator. Finally, the
synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles is the process of three boiling
tubes were used a).10 ml of 1mM Zinc nitrate solution b) 10 ml
of aqueous plant extract (plant extract used to reduce metal ions
to nanoparticles of metallic oxide) 9 mL Zinc Nitrate Solution
(1 mM) c) 9 ml of 1 mM Zinc nitrate solution. After 2 to 3
hours, the mixture (third tube) was centrifuged for 15 minutes
at 5000 rpm to extract the tablet. The particle is dissolved in
Milli-Q water after the supernatant is discarded.
Characterization of ZnO nanoparticles (UV-VIS spectra
analysis) the UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to measure
ZnO nanoparticles' absorption spectrum produced by lowering
metal ion concentrations in solutions of various extracts. The
current study looks at how to make nanoparticles of ZnO from
diverse sources of the healing properties of CT. It ensures that
the technique is environmentally friendly and that the approach
can be obtained easily for future needs. Because of the
significance of this plant, the nano compositions could be
useful in the prevention and treatment of patients, according to
Ayurveda a variety of illnesses. (Jogam et al., 2020) [75].
In another experiment Biosynthesis of silver and gold
nanoparticles with the help of ultrasound and the Clitoria
ternatea flower. UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis and the
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron
microscope (TEM) and x-ray diffraction, are the methods used
to detect nanoparticles. The impact of the ultrasound approach
on the nanoparticles' physicochemical properties as compared
to that of the reflux method. The antibacterial activity of the
nanoparticles was tested by different bacteria to see how the
character affected their biological activity. Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and
Streptococcus pyogenes are some of them. The antioxidant
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activity of the nanoparticles was assessed using a radical
inhibition experiment utilizing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
activists (DPPH). Clitoria ternatea flower showed decreased
ability to create nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from
18 to 50 nm, according to the findings. In general, when
compared to the reflux approach, ultrasound produces lower
particle sizes for both silver and gold nanoparticles. When
compared to the Reflux approach, the ultrasound-assisted
method produced smaller particles with better antibacterial
activity against tested pathogens. The antioxidative activity of
the nanoparticles was demonstrated by a DPPH inhibition and
it should be exceeded 50%. The findings suggest that making
silver and gold nanoparticles with Clitoria ternatea flower
extracts as just a reducing agent with ultrasound-assisted
synthesis is a green technique. (Fatimah et al., 2020) [76].
Ternatin, Anthocyanins and Quercetin Glycosides from
Butterfly Pea Petals Protect Macrophage Cells from
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation. It is using
high-performance liquid chromatography, diode array
detection, and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry,
Clitoria ternatea's blue blooms yielded 12 phenolic
metabolites such as nine ternatin anthocyanins and three
glycosylated quercetins. Three anthocyanins were previously
unknown in this species show ternatin fragmentation patterns.
Flavonols and ternatin anthocyanins were separated from the
extracts. Polyphenols from Clitoria ternatea were found to
have anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7, macrophage
cells when they were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
COX-2(Cyclooxygenase-2) enzyme activity was powerfully
inhibited by flavonols, with a small reduction in ROS The
ternatin anthocyanins inhibited nuclear NF-B (nuclear factor
that enhance the activity of B cells) translocation, iNOS(Nitric
Oxide Synthase) protein expression, and NO production via a
non-ROS suppression technique. As a way, quercetin
glycosides and ternatin anthocyanins found in the blue flower
petals of Clitoria ternatea could be used to make
pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals that protect against chronic
inflammatory diseases by lowering macrophage cells'
excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators (Nair et
al., 2015) [77].
Table 1: Nutritional composition of Clitoria ternatea
Amount (%)
Crude Fiber
Table 2: An exploration of various parts of Clitoria ternatea and their functional importance in the diet
Part used
Utilization in foods
Supportive Evidence
Above ground parts
Tea powder Soft
cheeses Cheesecake
Ice cream Yogurt
Ethanolic extraction of CT flowers induced anti diabetic activity at 200 to
400mg/kg dosage in rats (Sharma et al., 1990) [23].
Folin-Ciocalteu test, AlCl3 colorimetric method, and pH differential method were
used to define the concentration of total quantity of phenolic components,
flavonoid, and anthocyanin in an aqueous extract of CTE at 0.25-1.00 mg/ml, etc.
(Chayaratanasin et al., 2015) [39]
The antioxidant activity of flower petal and eye gel of CT was 2 mg/mL.
(Kamkaem et al., 2009) [34]
Using Clitoria ternatea flower extract shows antioxidant activity at 50 and 100
mg/kg and protects rats from testicular type damage caused by ketoconazole
(Iamsaard et al., 2014) [46].
CT flower petal extract at 400 µg/mL protects canine erythrocytes beside free
radical- induced hemolysis and oxidative damage. (Phrueksanan et al., 2014) [47]
CT flower has chemical composition for antiproliferative activities (Neda et al.,
2013) [45].
Ethanolic and petroleum ether extraction of CT flower showed cytotoxicity effect
by using trypan blue exclusion method (Sen et al., 2013) [40].
Clitoria ternatea Linn. floral extracts in vitro cytotoxic activity research. (Bhat et
al., 2011) [41]
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Beverages- Herbal
tea (caffeine free,
Natural food dye in-
Ice cream
Bakery industry
400mg dosage were lower the blood glucose level, insulin, and glycosylated
hemoglobin urea and creatinine. (Chusak et al., 2019) [6], (Oguis et al., 2019) [1]
Methanol extraction on the glycemic response, 1-2g of blue pea extraction was
ingested with 50g sucrose resulting plasma glucose level suppressed. (Chusak et
al., 2019) [6]
Methanol extraction of Clitoria ternatea leaves were showed DPPH scavenging
activity & reduced the DNA damage (Jiji et al., 2020) [79].
Ethanolic and aqueous extraction of Clitoria ternatea leaves are showed
antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria in the presence of Bacillus
cereus and Bacillus subtilis. (Shahid et al., 2009) [31].
Powder form of Clitoria ternatea shows (400mg/kg) acid induced inflammation
in rats-anti-inflammatory activity by methanol extraction. (Singh et al., 2018) [5].
Anti-inflammatory activity measured by ethanol extraction of Clitoria ternatea
100- 400mh/kg reduction in carrageenan induced paw oedmea (Shen et al., 2014)
Anti-inflammatory activity evaluated against acetic acid and carrageenan, change
the cell count in bronchoalveolar fluid level of immunoglobulin. (Singh et al.,
2018) [5].
Below ground parts
Powder and
extraction used as
Ethanolic extraction of Clitoria ternatea root showed same level of memory
retentivity by increasing Acetylcholine content at a dose of 300mg/kg for 7 days
in electroshocked rats. (Taranalli et al., 2000) [81], (Rai et al., 2002) [82].
Aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea root showed memory improvement in
neonatal rats at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 30 days. (Rai et al., 2002)
Aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea root increased the amount of
acetylcholine notably in their hippocampus at the dose of 100 mg/kg for 30
days in rats. (Rai et al., 2002 & Mukherjee et al., 2008) [82, 12].
Methanol extraction of C.T root exhibited anti-inflammatory effect and
inhibited rat paw oedema at doses of 200 and 400 mg/ kg, induced by acetic
acid in rats (Lijon et al., 2017) [83]. (Singh et al., 2018) [5].
Methanolic extract of C.T root lowered the yeast-induced elevated body
temperature of Wistar rats notably at doses of 200, 300, 400mg/kg that had
Barik et al., 2007) [7].
Aqueous extract of Clitoria ternatea roots increased dendritic intersection,
branching points and changed dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons at
50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 30 days in rats (Rai et al., 2005) [84].
Ethanolic extracts of Clitoria ternatea roots exhibited anti-asthmatic effect in
rats induced by mast cell degranulations and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis
at a dose of 100-150mg/kg. (Taur et al., 2010) [85]
Table 3: Health Benefits of Clitoria ternatea
Test model
Dose/ concentration/
Mechanism of action and Potential
a) Neurological
Electro shocked
Clitoria ternatea was
administrated at 300
mg/kg rate of body
weight for 7 days.
Passive avoidance test
The extraction obtained from the aerial parts
increased the acetylcholine content in the
brain and its activity increased in cortex and
midbrain except in the medulla oblongata
and cerebellum and also exhibited 66.66%
of memory retentivity.
Clitoria ternatea root extraction showed a
notable increment in ACh content.
However, there was a decrease in its activity
in the areas of midbrain and medulla
oblongata. but its effect is not so important.
Taranalli et al.,
2000 [81]
Gollen et al., 2018
Electro shocked
Clitoria ternatea was
administrated at 500
mg/kg rate of body
weight for 7 days.
Passive avoidance test
The aerial extract of CT exhibited memory
retentivity of 50%. This effect was not
affected to the cholinergic markers when
making a comparison with normal rats.
When the root extract of C.T is
administered to rats, it increased the AChE
content in the brain and AChE activity in
the cerebral cortex. However, AChE
activity in the areas of the medulla
oblongata and cerebral cortex notably
decreased. Also, slight decrease of ACHE
activity is observed in mid brain. Moreover,
AChE activity in the cerebellum had not
shown any change.
b) Learning and
Neonatal rat
Clitoria ternatea
Aqueous extraction of CT roots showed
Rai et al., 2001
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memory enhancing
about 7 days
administrated at 50 &
100 mg/kg rate of body
weight for 30 days.
Open field behaviour
test, Passive avoidance
test, T-maze test
active retention in avoidance. In this test
rats increased the responses for alterations
and responses. These values were decreased
in T-maze test. Rat pups showed constant
behavior changes with root extract of CT.
Neonatal rats
about 7 days
old and 60 days
old rats.
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at
100mg/kg rate of body
weight for 30 days.
Aqueous extraction of CT roots showed
nootropic activity in 48h-30days. CT extract
increased the Ach amount in hippocampus
of rats.
Rai et al., 2002 [82]
Young adult
rats (60 days
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at
100mg/kg rate.
Elevated plus maze test
and Recognition test
On 9th day of CT aqueous extract
administration, rats showed high amount in
inflexion ratio and lowered the transfer
Rats showed high discrimination index
when new object introduced to the
environment in object recognition test.
Rai et al., 2002 [82]
Young adult
rats (60 days
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at 50-
100 mg/kg rate of body
weight for 30 days.
Aqueous extraction of Clitoria ternatea
roots showed memory enhancing effect.
This extract contained nerve growth factor.
It has neuron survival ability, cholinergic
effect and dopaminergic plasticity in central
nervous system.
Rai et al., 2005 [84]
Young diabetic
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at
100mg/kg rate of body
Ethanolic extraction of Clitoria ternatea
roots were showed protective effect on
dentate gyrus and frontal cortex neurons.
Ravishankar et al.,
2013 [87]
c) Seizures
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at
100mg/kg rate of body
Methanolic extraction of leaves and flowers
of Clitoria ternatea showed anti-convulsant
Activity. It has an effect of reducing limb
extension on maximal electroshock.
Jain et al., 2003
d) Depression
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at 100-
400 mg/kg rate of body
Tail suspension test
Methanolic extraction of Clitoria ternatea
showed effect on depression. CT extract
decreased the period of immobility. At
400mg/kg dose showed highest effective
compared to 10mg/kg fluoxetine.
Jain et al., 2003
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at 150-
300 mg/kg rate of body
Ethanolic extraction of CT roots showed
anti- depressant activity. Z)-9,17-
octadecadienal and n- hexadecanoic acid are
two compounds which has ability to
developing novel selective MAO-
A(Monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
inhibitors. This herbal remedy was used to
treat psychiatric disorders. It showed result
in anxiety and depression in mice.
Parvathi et al.,
(2013) [89]
Margret et al.,
2015 [78]
e) Anxiety
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at 100-
400 mg/kg rate of body
weight. Light/dark
exploration test
Methanol extraction of Clitoria ternatea
showed anti- anxiety activity. The oral
administration of CT for 60 min, increased
the time period in the dark/light exploration
test. When, the CT dose was increased the
time period mice spent also increased.
Relationship between, amount of time spent
in the box and dose is dependent manner.
Jain et al., 2003
f) Lithium
induced head
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at
100mg/kg rate of body
The CT extract was administered 60
minutes before the injection of lithium
sulphate (Li2SO4) of 3 mEq/kg. CT extract
was reduced the head twitches above 60
Jain et al., 2003
g) Analgesics
Rats and mice
Clitoria ternatea
administrated at
10mg/kg rate of body
Ethanolic and petroleum extraction of
Clitoria ternatea leaves showed analgesic
activity. It showed higher effect than
diclofenac sodium for 1hour treatment.
Shen et al., 2014
Clitoria ternatea was
administrated at 200-
400 mg/kg rate of body
Methanolic extraction of Clitoria ternatea
roots demonstrated analgesic activity by
acetic acid induced withing test. CT showed
50.1%-63.8% withing at 200-400mg/kg
In experiments CT leaves mwthanolic
extraction showed antinociceptive activity.
Kamilla et al.,
2014) [26]
Clitoria ternatea
was administrated at
Anti-ulcer activity was detected by
measuring ulcer index in rats after
Jain et al., 2003
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100-400 mg/kg rate
of body weight.
administration of CT extract. Rats were
held at 4 °C for two hours on wooden
plank. Methanolic extraction of CT
revealed anti-stress activity when it
injected 60min before the test.
diabetic rat
Clitoria ternatea
was administrated at
100mg/kg rate of
body weight for 30
Hippocampal area of rats was protected
by defatted alcoholic extraction of
Clitoria ternatea roots for 30 days.
Parvathi et al.,
2013 [89]
Clitoria ternatea
was administrated at
100mg/kg rate of
body weight.
Clitoria ternatea leaves ethanol extract
showed the antidiabetic activity.
Continuous oral administrated for 28
days significantly lowered the blood
glucose level in rats.
Gunjan et al.,
2010 [21]
Clitoria ternatea
was administrated at
200mg/kg rate of
body weight.
Clitoria ternatea leaves methanolic
extraction showed effect opposed to
paracetamol. It has effect with liver
toxicity by reducing aspartate
aminotransferase, bilirubin & alanine
aminotransferase with the
improvement of histopathology.
et al., 2011 [32]
Oedema and Peritoneal
Clitoria ternatea
was administrated at
200-400 mg/kg rate
of body weight.
Methanolic extraction of CT roots
reduced paw oedema, that vascular
permeability and carrageenan caused
by lactic acid in rats.
Oedema was inhibited 21.6%-31.8% at
the doses of 200-400mg/kg.
Diclofenac inhibition was high at
400mg/kg dose than 20mg/kg.
Peritoneal inflammation also reduced
by 35.9%- 55.1% at the dose of 200-
Clitoria ternatea ethanolic extraction
showed anti- inflammatory activity.
Parimala et al.,
2003 [36]
Suganya et al.,
2014 [37]
Rats with
pyrexia Rats
Clitoria ternatea
was administrated at
230-460 mg/kg rate
of body weight.
Clitoria ternatea,
400mg/kg sample
was administrated.
The ethanolic extract of aerial parts of
CT had the effect for antipyretic
activity. That had been depended
according to the dose. Ethanol and
acetone extracted CT leaves showed
antipyretic effect in yeast. Significantly
it decreased the fever.
et al., 2014[18]
Fig 1: Food and Pharmaceutical applications of Clitoria ternatea
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Fig 2: Functional compounds of Clitoria ternatea
Clitoria ternatea has a long tradition and is found in several
countries. It is not just an ornamental flower but also a good
medicinal plant which has numerous benefits. It has been
experimented several years back by various scientists and have
found a number of pharmacological uses as well. With the
advancement of technology and Ayurvedic traditional
medicine and the improvement of scientific research, different
classes of plant species and their leading compounds have been
studied. Extractions obtained through different methods of the
roots, seeds, flowers, and leaves of CT have been experimented
in Ayurvedic studies. Earlier different parts of Clitoria ternatea
have been used for the treatment of Asthma, skin diseases,
constipation, fever, Inflammation, Indigestion, snakebite and
scorpion sting, etc. Later on, this plant is used for many
pharmacological activities such as, memory enhancer (by
increasing of acetylcholine content), act as a good stress,
anxiety, and depression reliever, to gain calmness in mind and
helps to have a good sleep. Moreover, it helps to lower the body
temperature and also acts as a good pain reliever, the seeds are
used to treat when joints in different parts of the body got
swollen. It can be used to treat when difficulties in urination
occur and improves the flow of urination, treat boils, blisters,
and ulcers, and act as a neutralizer for poisons that enter the
body. One of the most important benefits of this plant is its
antidiabetic activity. Furthermore, it shows properties like
antiseizure, tranquilizing, sedative, antimicrobial, insecticidal,
and inhibition of blood platelet aggregation, etc.
Extractions of this plant are also useful to treat many diseases
still where the proper medications have not been discovered
such as cancers, neuro problems, kidney-related disorders,
hyperglycemia, urinary disorder, goiter, disorders in the
respiratory system, etc. This plant has a good source of
evidence to be used as a memory enhancer. and anxiolytic
agent. Nowadays different parts of Butterfly pea are
incorporated into foods. When considering nanosciences and
technology new nanomaterials and concepts have developed.
Those can be used to produce energy by using sources like
glucose, movement, light, etc. It gives a great conversion
efficiency. These nanoparticles are helpful to minimize its side
effects and also improving the bioavailability of Clitoria
The plant has various important phytochemicals. The main
phytochemicals enriched in Clitoria ternatea are flavonoids,
anthocyanins, alkaloids, ternatins, saponins, tannins, taraxerol,
and taraxerone. Due to the presence of Anthocyanins, it gives
a blue purplish color so that it can also use as a natural food
dye. Processing and extraction of Clitoria ternatea are done by
conventional and non-conventional methods. It can be utilized
as a starting point for the development of new phytoceuticals
for the treatment of CNS illnesses and to improve memory
function. Still, proper treatments and medications are not
available for these conditions. Also, depression, stress, and
anxiety are some of the major problems which are persisting
nowadays. So, this plant can be used to make drugs for
medicine in the future. All these data and scientific studies
prove that Clitoria ternatea is fully safe and effective to be used
as phytoceuticals.
We would like to convey our heartfelt gratitude to Lovely
Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab for providing us
with this wonderful opportunity to work on a project with the
topic Butterfly pea: An emerging plant with applications in
Food and Medicine and for guiding us in a comprehensible
way. This work would not have been possible without the
constant support, guidance, and Assistance of Professors in the
School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University,
Phagwara, Punjab. We are thankful for their encouragement
and for letting us explore our talents in the area of the research
field in these difficult times of Covid 19 when we were under
pressure to complete this project. We would like to thank our
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The Pharma Innovation Journal
parents and friends who helped us a lot in gathering different
information and guiding us from time to time in making this
project, despite their busy schedules, they gave us different
ideas for making this project unique.
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J, Xu Z, Prinyawiwatkul W. Effects of different solvents
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... Nguồn gốc của Đậu biếc được xác định là từ Đông Nam Á và loài này phân bố rộng khắp nơi. Đậu biếc là một dược liệu được sử dụng khá phổ biến trong y học dân gian với nhiều chức năng như tăng cường trí nhớ, giảm lo lắng căng thẳng, tác nhân an thần [1,2]. Nhiều nghiên cứu trước đây đã báo cáo về các tác dụng dược lý của cây Đậu biếc cho thấy rằng loài này có nhiều tác dụng như kháng khuẩn, kháng ký sinh trùng, kháng viêm, chống oxy hoá, chống ung thư, hạ đường huyết, tác động lên thần kinh trung ương [3,4]. ...
Cây Đậu biếc (Clitoria ternatea L.) thuộc họ Đậu (Fabaceae), có nguồn gốc từĐông Nam Á và phân bố rộng khắp nơi. Hiện nay, các nghiên cứu về thực vật học của câyĐậu biếc vẫn còn chưa nhiều. Do vậy, tìm hiểu về đặc điểm thực vật học (đặc điểm hìnhthái, cấu trúc giải phẫu và cấu tử ở bột dược liệu) của cây Đậu biếc ở Việt Nam được thựchiện một cách chi tiết. Nhóm tác giả hướng đến nghiên cứu chi tiết về các đặc điểm hìnhthái, đặc điểm vi học, thành phần hóa thực vật của cây Đậu biếc tại vườn thực vật củaTrường Đại học Quốc tế Hồng Bàng. Các nghiên cứu đặc điểm thực vật học được thực hiệnbằng cách khảo sát và mô tả hình thái và giải phẫu; bột dược liệu được soi bằng kính hiểnvi; sơ bộ thành phần hóa thực vật được phân tích bằng phương pháp Ciuley cải tiến. Kếtquả của quá trình nghiên cứu đã mô tả được đặc điểm thực vật học của cây Đậu biếc trêncơ sở khảo sát, đồng thời xác định và phân tích các đặc điểm giải phẫu các bộ phận của câymà các nghiên cứu khác chưa có. Nghiên cứu của nhóm đã cung cấp một cách chi tiết vàminh họa rõ nét về đặc điểm hình thái bên ngoài và cấu tạo giải phẫu bên trong
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Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans ) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) pathogenicity that alter biofim, has become one of risk factor in orthodontic treatment. The medicinal plant’s Butterfly pea efficacy as an antibacterial agent should be confirmed in dentistry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of Medan butterfly pea corolla extract (BPCE) against S. mutans ATCC®25175™ and S. aureus ATCC®6538™. This is a laboratory experiment with Post Test Only Group Design. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BPCE is 6.25 mg/mL. The best concentration of butterfly pea extract to inhibit biofilm formation (antibiofilm) is 100 mg/mL. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) for antibiofilm activity assays and determination of intramembrane cellular leakage. Although Medan BPCE was inadequate enough in forming antibiofilm and caused intramembrane leakage of S. mutans and S. aureus , further studies in exploring the potential morphological traits of these herbs related to orthodontic products are quite promising.
Full-text available
Blue pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.) is known as the source of anthocyanin and has potential as a natural blue dye. The present study aimed to determine the effect of additional blue pea flower (BPFE) to yogurt from various types of milk. The study used dried blue pea flowers, extracted with water in 3:1 (g.L-1) ratio, at the extraction condition of 60 ˚C and 45 minutes. The fermentation was processed by adding BPFE to (A) liquid skim milk, (B) ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, (C) pasteurized milk, (D) UHT milk with skim powder, and (E) pasteurized milk with skim powder. Then, the yogurt starter was added to all milk samples, evenly mixed and incubated for 24 hours at 37 ˚C. The fermentation of all five different milk to make plain yogurt also processed with same method without addition of BPFE. The antioxidant activity and color intensity of yogurt are evaluated to investigate the effect of BPFE in yogurt. The result showed that the plain yogurt without the addition of BPFE has antioxidant activity and increases with the addition of BPFE. Skim milk BPFE yogurt has the highest antioxidant activity (437.04 ppm) with the values of L*, a*, b* was 37.35; 2.02; -1.32, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the other BPFE yogurt, which was added with skim milk, also increased. The BPFE yogurt made from skim milk or added skim milk had higher antioxidant activity than the other types of milk.
Full-text available
Clitoria ternatea is a herbaceous plant with many health benefits. Extraction is crucial to obtain its bioactive components which contribute to its antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study was conducted to find an optimum extraction condition of C. ternatea flower on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity) as well as to determine its total flavonoid content (TFC) and anthocyanin content based on the optimum extraction condition generated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)-Design Expert 7.1.5. TPC, TFC and total anthocyanin of C. ternatea were conducted by Folin Ciocalteu (FC), calorimetric assay and pH differential method, respectively. The ranges of selected independent variables were ethanol concentration (30°C-90% v/v), time (60-120 min) and temperature (30°C-70°C). The optimum extraction condition was obtained at 39.62% v/v ethanol concentration, 90 min and 44.24°C. However, these values were slightly adjusted according to the convenience of equipment to operate in which ethanol concentration was adjusted to 37% v/v, time remain at 90 min and temperature at 45°C. The predicted values of TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 41.60 mg GAE/g dry samples and 68.12% inhibition and were experimentally verified to be 41.17 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g dry samples and 63.53 ± 0.95% inhibition of TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity respectively. This result has showed RSM can optimise TPC and radical scavenging activity of C. ternatea. Upon the optimum condition, the TFC determined was 187.05 ± 3.18 mg quercetin/g dried sample which was higher than TPC and the total anthocyanin content was 28.60 ± 0.04 mg/L. Hence, the extractable phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin compounds indicated that C. ternatea is a good source of natural antioxidant.
Full-text available
A method consist of co-crystallization, agglomeration, drying has been applied to develop a powder drink from butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea) extract. The butterfly pea flower extract was concentrated by vacuum evaporation and incorporated with supersaturated sugar solution (more than 90 Brix), agglomerated and dried at 60 o C for 12 hours. The anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of the powder drink was evaluated for 28 days at three levels of temperature (27 o C, 40 o C, and 50 o C). The stability of anthocyanin decreased as the storage temperature increased. The half-life of anthocyanin in the powder drink at 27 o C, 40 o C, and 50 o C was 27.99, 16.53, and 9.81 days, respectively. Despite the anthocyanin significantly degraded, the decrease of antioxidant activity of the powder drink was not significant. Hence, the beneficial effect of the butterfly pea powder drink was retained.
Full-text available
This research focused on biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Clitoria ternatea flower extracts under the ultrasound-assisted method. The synthesized nanoparticles were detected by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The effect of ultrasound method on physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles was compared to the use of reflux method. The influence of the character on biological activity of the nanoparticles were tested for their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. Chemical activity of the nanoparticles was also evaluated as antioxidant by using radical inhibition by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) assay. The results showed that Clitoria ternatea flower exhibited reduction capability to form nanoparticles with the particle size ranging at 18-50 nm. In general, the ultrasound produces smaller particle size compared with reflux method for both silver and gold nanoparticles. The smaller particle size obtained from the ultrasound-assisted method compared to the Reflux method was found to give higher antibacterial activity toward tested bacteria. The nanoparticles demonstrated the antioxidative activity as shown by the DPPH inhibition at more than 50 %. The results suggest that the use of Clitoria ternatea flower extracts as reducing agent and ultrasound-assisted synthesis are fit as a green method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles.
Anthocyanins are considered as the largest group of water-soluble pigments found in the vacuole of plant cells, displaying range of colors from pink, orange, red, purple and blue. They belong to flavonoids, a polyphenolic subgroup. Application of anthocyanins in food systems as natural food colourants is limited due to the lack of stability under different environmental conditions such as light, pH, heat etc. Anthocyanins esterified with one or more acid groups are referred as acylated anthocyanins. Based on the presence or absence of acyl group, anthocyanins are categorized as acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins. Acylated anthocyanins are further classified as mono, di, tri, tetra acylated anthocyanins according to the number of acyl groups present in the anthocyanin. This review classifies common anthocyanin sources into non-acylated, mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-acylated anthocyanins based on the major anthocyanins present in these sources. The relative stabilities of these anthocyanins with respect to thermal, pH and photo stress in beverage systems are specifically discussed. Common anthocyanin sources such as elderberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant mainly contain nonacylated anthocyanins. Red radish, purple corn, black carrot also mainly contain mono acylated anthocyanins. Red cabbage and purple sweet potato have both mono and diacylated anthocyanins. Poly acylated anthocyanins show relatively higher stability compared with nonacylated and monoacylated anthocyanins. Several techniques such as addition of sweeteners, co-pigmentation and acylation techniques could enhance the stability of nonacylated anthocyanins. Flowers are main sources of polyacylated anthocyanins having higher stability, yet they have not been commercially exploited for their anthocyanins.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic composition of crude lyophilized extracts (CLE) and partially purified (PPE) extracts of C. ternatea blue petals as well as the anthocyanin stability against pH, temperature and light in the presence and absence of fructooligosaccharides. Twelve compounds were tentatively identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS in CLE and PPE extracts. In direct/reverse spectrophotometric titration, anthocyanins showed colour changes between pH 2.25 to 10.20, and colour reversibility, maintaining antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. The aqueous extracts at pH 3.6 and 5.4 exhibited thermal stability with the presence and absence of fructooligosaccharides with activation energy higher than 99 kJ/mol. The addition of fructooligosaccharides in the extracts at pH 5.4 exposed to light provided a protective effect against anthocyanin photodegradation. The data show the technological potential of aqueous extract of C. ternatea blue petals as a natural colourant in a functional beverage model system.
The current study provides an enhanced and reproducible micropropagation system in Artemisia vulgaris L. using nodal explants of mature plants. The explants were cultured on basal Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium augmented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Kinetin (Kin) concentrations individually. Direct regeneration of shoots (7.7 ± 0.36 shoots per explant) from nodal meristems was attained on MS medium combined with 1.5 mg L −1 BAP alone. Sub-culturing of these cultures on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L −1 BAP and 0.5 mg L −1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) helped in further multiplication of shoots (75.8 ± 1.00 shoots per culture vessel). Elongated shoots were transferred to half strength MS medium contained 1.0 mg L −1 IBA for roots formation. Rooting was also stimulated from the sliced ends of the shoots via ex vitro rooting method by pulse treating the shoots with 300 mg L −1 IBA for 5 min. Well rooted plants were shifted into small paper cups having manure: sand: soil in 1: 1: 1 proportion for hardening. The acclimatized plants were shifted to the natural field conditions for complete plant growth. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers and universal DNA barcoding (rbcLa gene primers) were applied to analyze the genetic stability of micropropagated plants with the mother plant. The banding patterns of regenerants were found to be mono-morphic in nature, representing the similarity with the mother plant and no somaclonal variations were observed. Similarly, foliar micro-morphological characters like stomata, trichome and vein pattern of leaves were studied from in vitro and acclimatized plants to focus on the developmental adaptation of micropropagated plantlets towards survival in field conditions. This study explores the highly reproducible procedure for A. vulgaris through nodal propagation without any somaclonal variations. It is the first report on foliar micro-morphological analysis at subsequent stages of in vitro propagation and genetic homogeneity of micropropagated plants with the mother plant. The current study paves the way for the development of genetically uniform A. vulgaris plants regenerated from nodal shoot segments and successful survival in field.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract anthocyanins, antioxidants and phenolic compounds from butterfly pea petals, as an alternative to traditional methods. Taguchi method with three factors: extraction time (30, 45, 60 min), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and liquid–solid ratio (5, 7.5, 10 mL distilled water/mg butterfly pea) was used to obtain the high extraction yield. Grey relational analysis was employed to convert multi-response problem into single response optimization. The high extraction efficiency could be achieved at optimal parameter condition using 45 min of extraction time, 40 °C and 10 ml distilled water/mg butterfly pea. Liquid–solid ratio exhibited the highest contribution for anthocyanin and total phenolic content. A high temperature of ultrasonication resulted in a negative effect on antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The findings from this study indicated that the UAE process optimization would be an efficient and sustainable method for the preparation of bioactive compounds from medical plants with saving of reaction time and cost in which extraction yields of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also increased. The color response analysis results suggested that the gelatin film incorporated with butterfly pea extract can be potentially used as pH-indicator for detecting food spoilage for intelligent packaging.