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The Quest for Quality in University Education in the Post COVID-19 Era: Do Anti-plagiarism Tools Still Matter?

  • Chuka Uniiversity


Plagiarism is a major global challenge to quality assurance in higher education. Various efforts have been made to overcome the menace including the use of anti-plagiarism tools. At the same time, many questions have been raised about the efficacy of the current generation of tools in detecting, preventing plagiarism, and guaranteeing the quality of education. This paper examines the limitations of plagiarism detection tools in enhancing quality in academic outcomes and proposes measures for improvement. The paper argues that while anti-plagiarism software has a role in preventing plagiarism in academic writing and academic integrity, they are not the panacea to the plagiarism pandemic, especially in the COVID-19 era. It proposes that there is a need to reform methods of assessment and implement forward-looking policies to address the underlying causes of plagiarism, provide students with appropriate information literacy skills training, and above all cultivate a culture of academic integrity in higher education institutions (HEIs).
The Quest for Quality in University Education in the Post COVID-19
Era: Do Anti-plagiarism Tools Still Matter?
Joseph M. Kavulya
Chuka University,
Vincent Bob Kiilu
Chuka University
Bernadetta N. Kyengo
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Citation Format
Kavulya, J.M., Kiilu, D.V and Kyengo, B.N. (2022). The quest for quality in university
education in the post-COVID-19 era: Do anti-plagiarism tools still matter? Paper
presented at the 3rd KLISC Annual International Conference Re-imagining
Library Services amidst COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond: Challenges and
Opportunities” 25th-26th May 2022, University of Eldoret,
Plagiarism is a major global challenge to quality assurance in higher education. Various
efforts have been made to overcome the menace including the use of anti-plagiarism tools. At
the same time, many questions have been raised about the efficacy of the current generation
of tools in detecting, preventing plagiarism, and guaranteeing the quality of education. This
paper examines the limitations of plagiarism detection tools in enhancing quality in academic
outcomes and proposes measures for improvement. The paper argues that while anti-
plagiarism software has a role in preventing plagiarism in academic writing and academic
integrity, they are not the panacea to the plagiarism pandemic, especially in the COVID-19
era. It proposes that there is a need to reform methods of assessment and implement forward-
looking policies to address the underlying causes of plagiarism, provide students with
appropriate information literacy skills training, and above all cultivate a culture of academic
integrity in higher education institutions (HEIs).
Keywords: Antiplagiarism software; Plagiarism; University Education; Quality; COVID-19
Plagiarism is a major global concern and a challenge to the goal of protecting academic
integrity in higher education institutions (Levine and Pazdernik, 2018; Ndebele, 2020).
According to Halgamuge, (2017), although plagiarism is not a new phenomenon and has
existed for as long as the art of writing itself, it is today an increasing problem amongst
students, academicians, and practitioners in various fields. Accordingly, plagiarism has
attracted all-around condemnation due to its negative impact on teaching, learning, and
research. Particularly for students, plagiarism denies them the opportunity to develop both
psychomotor and higher-level cognitive skills (Olutola, 2016).
Various efforts have been made to overcome the menace including the use of anti-
plagiarism software. However many questions have been raised about the efficacy of the
current generation of software to detect, and prevent plagiarism promote desirable
graduate traits, protect the integrity of student assessment, and consequently the quality
of university education. The paper argues that while anti-plagiarism software contributes
to identifying and preventing plagiarism in academic writing they are not the panacea to
the plagiarism pandemic. It emphasizes that the solution to the plagiarism pandemic lies
in reforming the methods of assessment and implementing policies to address the
underlying causes of plagiarism, providing students with veritable research skills and
particularly information literacy training, and above all cultivating a culture of academic
integrity in the institutions.
Definition and categories of plagiarism
The term “plagiarism” has been associated with the Latin word plagium, which means
“kidnapping” (Shin, (2019). This attribution is plausible because as summarized by Naik,
Landge, and Mahender (2015) as well as the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2017), the term
plagiarism as used today refers to the act of appropriating other people’s work and
presenting it as one’s own in literary works such as journal articles, term papers, and other
essays, textbooks, speeches, as well as photographs, songs, and even ideas and concepts.
Arising from this definition, plagiarism should be viewed as a despicable act, a vice, a threat
to intellectual property, an obstacle to the quality of student learning, and a problem whose
consequences are in real-life situations when graduates enter the job market.
Over the years various typologies of plagiarism have been proposed (Eisa, and Salim, 2015;
Mostofa, Tabassum, and Ahmed, 2021). According to Levine and Pazdernik (2018),
plagiarism can generally be divided into two categories; intentional and unintentional
plagiarism. Intentional plagiarism refers to situations where a person includes in their
writing ideas and sections lifted from other sources, fails to acknowledge it through proper
citation but rather submits it as their original work. Unintentional plagiarism occurs when
due to a lack of adequate academic writing skills individuals’ present material that is
borrowed from other sources without proper citation. At the same time, beyond this broad
taxonomy, whether intended or note, plagiarism has been grouped into several categories:
translation; copy and paste; disguised plagiarism; mosaic plagiarism; structural plagiarism;
idea plagiarism: self-plagiarism, and purchase of scholarly papers.
Plagiarism by translation involves lifting text from a source in one language and translating it to
another, either manually or using an automatic translation system, without indicating the source
(Naik et al, 2015). Copy and paste” on the other hand involves copying relevant sections of work
and using them in ones academic writing with little or no change at all without appropriate
referencing (Ma, Lu, Turner & Wan, 2007). Disguised plagiarism refers to the copying and
disguising of the copied material by removing, adding words, changing word order, or
paraphrasing the material without acknowledging the source (Lancaster, 2019). Mosaic
plagiarism occurs when culprits copy material from other sources, retain the original
structure of sentences and paragraphs but replaces words and phrases randomly, and fails
to acknowledge the source (Das & Panjabi, 2011; Roig, 2009).
Structural plagiarism involves copying others word for word, including ideas, their
arguments, quotations from other sources, as well as bibliography or footnotes without
providing citations (Naik et al, 2015). Idea plagiarism occurs when one appropriates
someone else's idea without permission or appropriate acknowledgment of the source
(Hollins & Perfect, 2007). Self-plagiarism involves reproducing one's ideas, data, or text
without reference to the source (Rao and Andrade; 2014). In other words, self-plagiarism
involves copying sections of one’s previous paper or even a whole paper and using these
sections in different manuscripts or presenting it as a new work, mostly with a new or
altered title (Ali and Alhassan, 2021). Ahmed, 2015)
Purchase of essays is perhaps the commonest form of plagiarism today. It involves
commissioning or outright purchasing of term papers, master’s theses, doctoral
dissertations as well other scholar papers from the so-called ghost-writers, paper-mills, and
online writing services (Pupovac, Bilić-Zulle & Petrovečki, 20014). There are myriads of
outfits that provide online writing services for a fee including term papers, short
assignments, master's theses, and doctoral dissertations (Chase, 2004 as quoted by
Pupovac, Bilić-Zulle & Petrovečki, 2008).
Current trends in plagiarism
A literature review indicates that, in recent years, the practice of plagiarism has taken an
upward trajectory (Reyneke, Shuttleworth, and Visagie, 2021; Ison, 2018). The vice is evident
in all parts of the world with cases being reported in countries on every continent for
example the USA (Higgins, Lin & Evans, 2016), Russia (Rostovtsev, 2017), across Africa
(Kigotho, 2017; Fuzile, 2013, Fengu, 2017; Opara, and, Ezeonye, 2021), Australia (Jacks, 2016),
Turkey and Pakistan (Yazici, Yazici, and Erdem, 2011), and China (Yang, Huang, and Chen,
There is also evidence that plagiarism occurs in all types of academic writing by both students,
and researchers including exams, scientific research, assignments, quizzes, research
projects, journal articles, and book publications (Mokdad, Bahrain, & Aljunaidi, 2020). As
a result, several authors argue that plagiarism has now reached “epidemic proportions” and
threatens to compromise quality in educational and research processes throughout the
world (Chireshe, 2014; Singh & Remenyi, 2016; Singh & Ganapathy, 2018).
Plagiarism occurs in face-to-face classes and virtual learning environments but is there is
an observation that it is more prevalent in online classes because students, aware that they
are alone in “hidden” fees that are not being observed by the teacher may resort to
plagiarism (Greenberger, Holdback, Steele, Dyer, 2016). Recent literature suggests that
during the COVID-19 pandemic period, plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty
have increased drastically due to the shift of education, research, and other operations to
virtual environments as a result of the prolonged COVID-19 lockdown (Gregory, 2020).
ODEL courses and increased work-at-home arrangements for researchers, undergraduate
and postgraduate students, are also associated with increased stress and pressure among
students, lack of clear norms on how to conduct themselves in online environments, and
higher use of online materials hence a higher propensity to engage in plagiarism
(Lederman, 2020; Mokdad, Bahrain & Aljunaidi, 2020).
Overview of causes and impact of plagiarism
Several factors have been proposed to explain the recent increase in cases of plagiarism.
Javaid, Sultan, and Ehrich, (2020) as well as Pecorari and Petric, (2014) have argued that
poor research skills are the major reasons why students plagiarize. This argument is echoed
by Burger (2018) as well as Eldin, and Ela, 2016) and Ibegbulam and Eze, 2015) who observe
that many forms of plagiarism result from a lack of information literacy skills such as
information searching and retrieval, writing skills coupled with difficult assignments,
sometimes beyond the abilities of students. Akbulut, et al. (2008) on their part have blamed
the vice on the desire to have better grades than others, in the face of stiff competition for
limited opportunities.
Several authors have observed that students often experience an excess workload and are
many times under immense pressure to produce pieces of academic writing which may
drive them to commit plagiarism (Ocholla and Ocholla, 2016; Pupovac, Bilić-Zulle &
Petrovečki, 2014 Catacutan, 2021). Postgraduate students have deadlines to publish to
graduate while academics earnestly strive for promotion or tenure both of which contribute
to ghost-writing (Elkhatat et al. Elsaid, Almeer, 2021, Global Times, 2016). Therefore the
tenet ‘publish or perish' which puts immense pressure on faculty members to publish more
and faster has been decried as a possible cause of plagiarism by academics (Catacutan, 2021,
Chandere, et al, 2021).
Ndebele (2020) has argued that the spread and availability of information technologies and
easy access to electronic information resources in form of e-journals, e-books, etc.
encourage copying, cutting, pasting, and editing to suit their research purposes. This view
is shared by Shankar and Ramasesh (2014), Levine & Pazdernik, 2018, and Sentleng and
King (2012). More fundamentally, the spread of plagiarism has been blamed on the absence
or existence of weak, unclear, or poorly implemented institutional policies and procedures
on plagiarism (Wheeler, Anderson, 2010). According to Ramzan et al. (2012), and Gullifer
and Tyson, (2014) an environment where culprits of plagiarism are not caught or go
unpunished due to a lack of policy or lack of its enforcement are likely to propagate all
types of plagiarism.
The foundational case for eradication of plagiarism is that it is a hindrance to quality in
educational processes such as teaching, learning, and research. Written assignments are
aimed at providing opportunities for students to learn cognitive knowledge in specific
subjects as well as develop skills of analysis, evaluating ideas from diverse sources, and
applying them in various contexts. By encouraging students to pass through an education
system without reflecting or assimilating knowledge, plagiarism hinders students’ learning,
intellectual growth, and development of skills for creative thinking, generating and
contributing to knowledge in their respective academic disciplines (Catacutan, 2021;
Dipongkor, et al, 2021, Ndebele, 2020; Atkins and Nelsen, 2001; Wheeler, and Anderson,
Plagiarism occurs mainly in the context of the assessment of learning which is geared
towards gauging academic performance and revealing the level of knowledge obtained by
the students (Youmans, 2011). Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty that gives an unfair
advantage to its perpetrators over other students (Svirina and Excelia, 2022; Dipongkor, et al, 2021).
In an environment where plagiarism is rampant, assessment of the academic achievement
of learners objectively is difficult and may produce misleading academic outcomes
(Dipongkor, et al, 2021; Nguyen, Keuseman, and Humston, 2020; Bilen and Matros, 2020;
Suseela, 2016)
Plagiarism is globally considered a dishonest, unfair practice and a violation of the law and
intellectual property rights of authors and publishers (Krimsky, 2021; Chandere, Satish &
Lakshminarayanan, 2021 Tsatsaronis, Varlamis, Giannakoulopoulos & Kanellopoulos,
2010). Students who engage in unethical practices such as plagiarism during their university
education process are likely to do the same upon graduation (Thomas & De Bruin, 2012;
Winrow, 2016). Indeed considerable literature suggests that plagiarism has long-term
damage to the moral sensitivity of students and therefore may be a predictor of future
corrupt behaviour among professionals when they join the workplace and in the wider
community. Catacutan, (2021) has underlined the corrupting nature of plagiarism where students
are habituated to corruptly receive an unfair advantage over others and cultivate a negative attitude
toward honest work which they carry within their adult life. Therefore this is a manifestation of a
lack of integrity and can damage not just the reputation of the educational system, academic
institutions, and its academicians, and disadvantage its graduates (Ndebele, 2020; Ramdani, 2018).
The Efficacy of plagiarism detection software
Educators, university administrators, academic leaders, publishers, librarians, and
researchers are desperately looking for solutions to the problem of plagiarism (Chireshe,
2014; Singh & Remenyi, 2016; Singh & Ganapathy, 2018). Many universities have used
various methods to minimize the occurrence of plagiarism among them by subjecting
scholarly works produced by both staff and students to plagiarism detection software
(Halgamuge, 2017). There are many kinds of free or commercial antiplagiarism software in
use by different institutions to detect plagiarism. Key among these are Turnitin, Plagscan,
Copyleaks, Whitesmoke, Paperrater, Grammarly, Essay Toolbox, ArticleChecker,
PlagiarismCheck, Dustball, Copyscape, search engine reports, Plagiarisma, Viper,
Plagtracker, among others (Chandere, et al, 2021; Sabeeh & Khaled, 2021; Ahmed, 2015;
Aarthi & Rajagopal, 2018; Saini, Bahl, Kumari & Singh, 2016; Lukashenko, Graudina &
Grundspenkis, 2007; Ali, Abdulla & Snasel, 2011).
Generally, antiplagiarism software prevents plagiarism through the following processes:
i. Identify the fragments of text borrowed from other sources (Dodigovic &
Jiaotong, 2013; Gosavi & Deshmukh, 2021; Tsatsaronis, Varlamis,
Giannakoulopoulos & Kanellopoulos, 2010; Gosavi & Deshmukh, 2021).
ii. Show written falsification rate through a similarity index (Gosavi & Deshmukh,
iii. Provides an “originality report which suggests the percentage of the authors
work that matches other academic sources in an online database (Davis &
Carroll, J. (2009).
iv. Indicate the percentage of matching text for each named source and presents
these in a ranked list in order of quantity. With each authors text, the reviewer
can click on a matched section and see the suggested ‘original’ text side-by-side
for an instant comparison between the two texts”.
The main limitation of anti-plagiarism software is that they do not detect plagiarism
directly. Rather, they identify phrases that match others in works created earlier hence the
term “similarity checks” which in many cases is mistakenly interpreted as a measure of
plagiarism (Mphahlele and McKenna, 2019; Royce, 2003). Secondly, several anti-plagiarism
software is not capable of searching all available online material and thus give incomplete
reports, and over-report similarity by flagging commonly used phrases, and legitimate
sections of the work as plagiarised which can lead to incorrect plagiarism index (Weber-
Wulff, Moller, Touras, Zincke, Berlin & Berlin, 2013; Royce, 2003).
Thirdly, the ability of these somewhere to detect similarity is very low in case the plagiarism
involves translation from different languages and virtually impossible if it involves material
that has not yet been digitized (Mphahlele and McKenna, 2019). Similarly, ghost-writing,
dot replacement, fake references, and data manipulation cannot be easily detected by
software in the same way as text plagiarism and so far indeed there is no effective solution
for it (Lancaster, 2019; Patel, Bakhtiyari, and Taghavi, 2011).
Fourthly, there are many cases and possibilities of manipulating work and plagiarism
results by the perpetrators. For example, writers may change sentences or keywords within
the passage so that they cannot be matched with the sources (Elkhatat et al. Elsaid, Almeer,
2021). In other cases, individuals can revise a non-authentic work until it passes the
plagiarism check, without consideration of possible quality deterioration. Particularly,
there is increased use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) plagiarism removers to “whitewash”
documents such that similarity cannot be detected even by the best plagiarism detection
software (Patel, Bakhtiyari, and Taghavi, 2011).
There are reported cases of anti-plagiarism software being used within institutions, as a
tool for policing rather than for furthering academic goals (Mphahlele and McKenna, 2019).
According to many experts, focusing on detecting plagiarism and punishing the culprits is counter-
productive since the root causes of plagiarism remain unresolved and do contribute to better
academic writing practices (Marjanović, Tomašević, and Živković, 2015).
Ways of improving the impact of plagiarism detection
Anti-plagiarism software has a significant role in the eradication of plagiarism. The key to
making plagiarism detection software more effective in this role is to adopt them as a
learning tool rather than a diagnostic tool for the ‘catch and punish” policy. Rather anti-
plagiarism tools should be used to identify, prevent, and eliminate plagiarism in
assignments and improve academic writing (Dodigovic, 2013; Patel, Bakhtiyari, and
Taghavi, 2011). Positive results have been reported in situations where these similarity
reports from antiplagiarism software have been used to engage students in evaluating and
improving their writing assignments. This practice gradually improves skills of analysis,
synthesis, and presenting ideas from other sources among students (Mostofa, Tabassum, and
Ahmed, 2021; Eisa, and Salim, 2015).
Another approach to augmenting the use of antiplagiarism software is a review of
pedagogical approaches in favour of a constructivist, evidence-based by creating an
environment where students are responsible for their learning (Reyneke, Shuttleworth, and
Visagie, (2021). This includes providing fewer class notes and handouts, providing more
general guidance on the purpose and expected learning outcomes of a particular course,
comprehensive course content, core-reading reading as well as revision quizzes to assess
learning. This enables students to directly engage with global experts of the subject one is
studying, engage in analyzing different issues, topics, and ideas, gain the expected
knowledge and skills and discover by themselves, deeper meaning and their application in
life situations
Another suggestion for combating plagiarism among students is the review of assessment
methods by focusing on assignments that test critical thinking, analysis, and application of
knowledge rather than the acquisition of cognitive knowledge. Additionally, there is a need
to avoid repetitions of assignments in any given course, in favour of multiple-choice
questions that require research, and those that require progressive build-up through other
tasks towards final submission (Patel, Bakhtiyari, and Taghavi, 2011)
Comprehensive, carefully-crafted, forward-looking and fully implemented policies have
been identified as key to addressing and eradicating academic scientific dishonesty such as
plagiarism (Olutola, 2016; Anney and Mosha
(2015), Pecorari and Petric, 2014 and Maxel, 2013). Useful policies, in this case, include
those on research integrity, intellectual property rights, and anti-plagiarism. Importantly,
these policies should not just focus on a deterrent measure of “catch and punish” but also
promote the proactive participation of members of the community in promoting values,
skills, and best practices in scholarship. According to several authors for policies to be
effective they should have a training component on techniques of quality research and
academic writing, intellectual property rights, and ethical values and laid down procedures
for detecting, removing, and remedying plagiarism.
A major solution to plagiarism is the impartation of information literacy skills to various
players in the scholarly communication eco-system, including students (Morris, 2016).
Information literacy includes skills and competencies of how to identify the information
required in a particular context, how to discover, access, information, analyze, synthesize,
and apply it and share them with others with due consideration to the ethical expectations
that preclude plagiarism. This includes the skill of academic writing techniques, and
respect for the ethical values and legal requirements in the use of use and sharing of
information in scholarly activities (Library and Information Association, 2018). Already
institutions across the globe have information literacy courses that include topics such as
citation techniques, and academic integrity (Khan, Richardson, and Izhar, 2021; Yang,
Stockwell, and McDonnell, 2019).
According to many writers, the ultimate solution to the plagiarism pandemic lies in
developing and sustaining a culture that values academic integrity and upholds best
practices in scholarship in the academic community (Stappenbelt and Rowles, 2009). This
includes training students on ethical practices in scholarship, dangers of plagiarism, and
respect for intellectual property (Olutola, 2016; Wheeler, and Anderson, 2010).
Conclusion and recommendations
Plagiarism in higher education largely occurs due to many factors including, a willful
attempt to earn undeserved academic credit, and a lack of competencies in research and
information literacy to support the proper use of information resources or other people's
ideas in learning and research. The vice is an increasing risk to quality in teaching and
compromises assessment of learning. Therefore concerted action by all stakeholders is
required to minimize its erosive effect on the quality of university education. Plagiarism
detection software is useful in detecting and removing plagiarism in student assignments
work and therefore components of quality assurance mechanism in university education.
However, these tools are not a panacea to the menace, since they do not address the root
causes of the problem and are ineffective in addressing some forms of plagiarism. However,
in overcoming the plagiarism menace there is a need to complement the use of anti-
plagiarism software such as the implementation of forward-looking policies, review of
methods of assessment, and improving the research and information literacy skills of
various players. Therefore the ultimate solution to the plagiarism menace lies in the
cultivation of a culture of academic integrity within academic and research institutions.
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Plagiarism has become a recurrent challenge in higher education institutions, threatening the integrity of universities and their academic standards. The exacerbation of this issue can be largely linked to the escalating presence of online resources, which are easily accessible to knowledge and information communities worldwide. Many universities have thus instituted reactive measures that focus on detecting and policing plagiarism with little consideration of proactive and educational measures that can address the primary reasons for plagiarism and foster a community of academic integrity on their campuses. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to interrogate the treatment of plagiarism in universities, and provide recommendations for better educational approaches to address this issue in proactive ways that also acknowledge the complex, contextual background of the South African higher education landscape. Understanding the primary reasons students plagiarise is critical in finding educational rather than punitive solutions to address the issue.
Purpose –This paper aims to analyse researchers’ awareness about plagiarism and impact of plagiarism detection tools on the actions that they take to prevent plagiarism. It also employs a structural model that examines whether awareness of plagiarism and anti-plagiarism tools have any significant effect on the actions taken by the researchers to avoid plagiarism. Design/methodology/approach – A survey questionnaire was distributed to researchers at a large public university in Bangladesh. The survey accumulated 184 valid responses. Descriptive statistics were obtained to assess researchers’ awareness about plagiarism and impact of plagiarism detection tools and the actions taken by them. The reasons that may cause plagiarism were also identified. The awareness of the availability of the antiplagiarism software that was being used by the university and its actual use by the researchers was gathered through the survey. Non-parametric Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests were conducted to investigate the differences in awareness levels and actions in terms of gender, age, discipline and current level of research. The chi-square test was carried out to examine the relationship between awareness about the availability of the antiplagiarism software and its use by the researchers. Finally, the survey data were analysed using structural equation modeling to examine the effects of awareness of plagiarism and anti-plagiarism software on the actions taken by the researchers. Findings – The study revealed that the level of awareness regarding plagiarism and impact of plagiarism detection software is generally high among the researchers. There are some significant differences between researchers’ demographic and personal characteristics and their awareness levels and actions with regard to plagiarism. The findings indicate that almost three-quarters of the researchers were aware about the antiplagiarism tool that is being used, whereas more than half of the researchers indicated that they used the software to assess their works. The results of the structural equation model do not show a good fit, although there is strong statistical evidence that awareness about plagiarism and anti-plagiarism software has significantly impacted researchers’ actions towards preventing plagiarism. Originality/value – There is no reported study on researchers’ awareness of plagiarism and its affiliated issues in Bangladesh. The findings of this study will not only provide useful insights regarding awareness about plagiarism but also assist university authorities to formulate relevant policy and take necessary actions against plagiarism in higher education institutions. Keywords: Plagiarism, Awareness, Public university, Anti-plagiarism software, Bangladesh, Prevention
Purpose The aim of this paper is to investigate the journey of academic professors who have engaged in ghostwriting. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts qualitative exploratory methods to investigate the ghostwriters' journey into academic ghostwriting. To achieve the goal, the authors interviewed academic ghostwriters, who were working for a diploma mill company, specifically focused on PhD thesis writing in the NIS setting. Findings This study revealed several interesting insights from ghostwriter perspective such as the origins and motivation of ghostwriters, ghostwriters life, ghostwriters' careers and impediments faced by them. Originality/value Given the dispersed and sensitive nature of the topic, this is one of the few studies to investigate ghostwriting and offer implications.
Plagiarism Detection Systems play an important role in revealing instances of a plagiarism act, especially in the educational sector with scientific documents and papers. The idea of plagiarism is that when any content is copied without permission or citation from the author. To detect such activities, it is necessary to have extensive information about plagiarism forms and classes. Thanks to the developed tools and methods it is possible to reveal many types of plagiarism. The development of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the availability of the online scientific documents lead to the ease of access to these documents. With the availability of many software text editors, plagiarism detections becomes a critical issue. A large number of scientific papers have already investigated in plagiarism detection, and common types of plagiarism detection datasets are being used for recognition systems, WordNet and PAN Datasets have been used since 2009. The researchers have defined the operation of verbatim plagiarism detection as a simple type of copy and paste. Then they have shed the lights on intelligent plagiarism where this process became more difficult to reveal because it may include manipulation of original text, adoption of other researchers' ideas, and translation to other languages, which will be more challenging to handle. Other researchers have expressed that the ways of plagiarism may overshadow the scientific text by replacing, removing, or inserting words, along with shuffling or modifying the original papers. This paper gives an overall definition of plagiarism and works through different papers for the most known types of plagiarism methods and tools.
Teaching and assessment practices rapidly moved online as a result of the global coronavirus pandemic. Academic integrity is paramount for the credibility and reputation of educational institutions regardless of their teaching modality. Students commit plagiarism when they copy, borrow, or steal others' work, without properly acknowledging their source(s). Especially in online environments, accounting students frequently fall prey to plagiarism and, as a result, transgress the fundamental values of integrity and honesty that should be deep-rooted in accountants. It is, therefore, critical that educators increase their students' plagiarism awareness and understanding. Drawing on the findings of conceptual, literature review-based research, the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study 5E (BSCS 5E) instructional model is applied as a frame of reference for accounting educators to promote their students' awareness of plagiarism while concomitantly enhancing their twenty-first-century skills. Both theoretical and practical contributions are envisaged through the application of this constructivist, student-centred approach. ARTICLE HISTORY