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Abstract

Introduction: Sustainability within the pharmaceutical industry is becoming a focal point for many companies, to improve the longevity and social perception of the industry. Both additive manufacturing (AM) and microfluidics (MFs) are continuously progressing, so are far from their optimisation in terms of sustainability; hence it's the aim of this review to highlight potential gaps alongside their beneficial features. Discussed throughout this review also will be an in-depth discussion on the environmental, legal, economic, and social particulars relating to these emerging technologies. Areas covered: Additive manufacturing (AM) and microfluidics (MFs) are discussed in depth within this review, drawing from up-to-date literature relating to sustainability and circular economies. This applies to both technologies being utilised for therapeutic and analytical purposes within the pharmaceutical industry. Expert opinion: It is the role of emerging technologies to be at the forefront of promoting a sustainable message by delivering plausible environmental standards whilst maintaining efficacy and economic viability. AM processes are highly customisable, allowing for their optimisation in terms of sustainability, from reducing printing time to reducing material usage by removing supports. MFs too is supporting sustainability via reduced material wastage and providing a sustainable means for point of care analysis.

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... In addition, transdermal administration can prevent the discomfort, injuries, and infections associated with needle use, whether because of medical staff's lack of understanding or as a result of the individuality of each human body. Most importantly, microneedles can be utilized on patients who are needle-phobic or have difficulties adapting [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. ...
... An appealing feature of microneedles is their sustainability [5]. Over 16 billion injections are performed annually worldwide, a figure that is constantly increasing, particularly ...
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Shaping silica like a polymer Glass is tremendously useful, but it is energy intensive to make because of the high melting temperature and processing methods that require melts. Mader et al. circumvented the need for melting glass using a plastic silica nanocomposite for injection molding (see the Perspective by Dylla-Spears). The low-temperature injection molding can produce parts in as little as 5 seconds with high spatial resolution. The strategy provides a different and potentially less energy-intensive method for mass producing parts made of glass. Science , this issue p. 182 ; see also p. 126
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The worldwide development of agriculture and industry has resulted in contamination of water bodies by pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other xenobiotics. Even at trace levels of few micrograms per liter in waters, these contaminants induce public health and environmental issues, thus calling for efficient removal methods such as adsorption. Recent adsorption techniques for wastewater treatment involve metal oxide compounds, e.g. Fe2O3, ZnO, Al2O3 and ZnO-MgO, and carbon-based materials such as graphene oxide, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, and carbon/graphene quantum dots. Here, the small size of metal oxides and the presence various functional groups has allowed higher adsorption efficiencies. Moreover, carbon-based adsorbents exhibit unique properties such as high surface area, high porosity, easy functionalization, low price, and high surface reactivity. Here we review the cytotoxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs and pesticides in terms of human risk and ecotoxicology. We also present remediation techniques involving adsorption on metal oxides and carbon-based materials.
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Additive manufacturing (AM) in supply chain management (SCM) is one of the most emerging research topics nowadays, due to increased competition among manufacturing industries. AM techanology has capabilities to revolutionize manufacturing industry due to its huge advantages over traditional manufacturing (customized design, complex free and flexibility). AM technology provides small quantities of customized, personalized and geometrically complex products relatively at low cost as compared to traditional manufacturing. AM technology also provides customized shape, digital interaction with customers, direct manufacturing that give benefits in terms of lower cost, reduced supply chain complexity and lead times, etc. AM technology has been already adopted in fields of dental, biomedical, fashion and apparel due to its hyper flexibilities in supply chain. This review explores future scope, opportunities and challenges associated with supply chain management in adoption of AM technologies and also highlights the research gap by researchers from research background. AM technology is developing since 1980s and undergone huge transformation, but the integration of AM in supply chain is not explored so much. Therefore, this topic has good research scope. Systematic literature review has been done to find impacts (challenges, risks opportunities, advantages, etc.) of AM technologies on supply chain as well as future scope of AM in SCM. This review paper can serve as basis for future research related to this topic and add value to existing literature.
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Solvents are chemical in nature and can suspend, extract, or dissolve other substances without bringing any change in the chemistry of either the substance or the solvent. Solvents can be classified as inorganic, organic, and green solvents; they are generally grouped as oxygenated solvents, halogenated solvents, and hydrocarbon solvents. Currently, green solvents are one of the most used solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Various types of solvents used in pharmaceutical industry are: cyclopentyl methyl ether solvents, water, octanoic acid-based supramolecular solvent, n-butanol and acetone, bio-based green solvent disulfides, and eutectic solvents. Each type of solvent is characterized with various properties such as viscosity, biocompatibility, physiochemistry, extraction potential, biodegradability, renewability, hydrophobicity, polarity, conductivity, hydrophilicity, and solubilizing-stabilizing abilities. The most suitable solvents include organic solvents having good properties including volatility, acid-base properties, low boiling point, suitable density, etc. Solvents play many roles in the pharmaceutical industry including as excipients, bioavailability of orally administered protein active, as intermediate of pharmaceutical solvents, semiempirical models mediated solubility, and antisolvent crystallization technique in the pharmaceutics. According to recent trends, it is cautioned that solvents other than green solvents are a major source of pollution and such solvents should be avoided in pharmaceutical industry.
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Purpose This paper, a pathway, aims to provide research guidance for investigating sustainability in supply chains in a post-COVID-19 environment. Design/methodology/approach Published literature, personal research experience, insights from virtual open forums and practitioner interviews inform this study. Findings COVID-19 pandemic events and responses are unprecedented to modern operations and supply chains. Scholars and practitioners seek to make sense of how this event will make us revisit basic scholarly notions and ontology. Sustainability implications exist. Short-term environmental sustainability gains occur, while long-term effects are still uncertain and require research. Sustainability and resilience are complements and jointly require investigation. Research limitations/implications The COVID-19 crisis is emerging and evolving. It is not clear whether short-term changes and responses will result in a new “normal.” Adjustment to current theories or new theoretical developments may be necessary. This pathway article only starts the conservation – many additional sustainability issues do arise and cannot be covered in one essay. Practical implications Organizations have faced a major shock during this crisis. Environmental sustainability practices can help organizations manage in this and future competitive contexts. Social implications Broad economic, operational, social and ecological-environmental sustainability implications are included – although the focus is on environmental sustainability. Emergent organizational, consumer, policy and supply chain behaviors are identified. Originality/value The authors take an operations and supply chain environmental sustainability perspective to COVID-19 pandemic implications; with sustainable representing the triple bottom-line dimensions of environmental, social and economic sustainability; with a special focus on environmental sustainability. Substantial open questions for investigation are identified. This paper sets the stage for research requiring rethinking of some previous tenets and ontologies.
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The wound dressings prepared by electrospinning technology are particularly prominent. These dressings have a high surface area and porosity and can also be loaded with drugs that are beneficial to wound healing in different ways to meet the treatment needs. This review introduces classification of electrospun wound dressings, followed by focusing on the analysis of some polymer materials commonly used in electrospinning. In addition, we summarize several techniques for preparing electrospun wound dressings. Finally, we analyze the recent research progress and provide the perspective to develop wound dressings in the future.
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Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, joins materials layer-by-layer under the control of a computer to create three-dimensional objects. 3D printing is used in many applications, including the automotive industry, the environment, electronics, airplane engines, agriculture, and even architecture. One of the most critical applications of this ultra-modern technology is medicine. 3D printing permits new methods of surgical planning and tissue regeneration, as well as personalization of medical devices and implants. With the development of materials that are both biocompatible and printable, additive manufacturing is becoming increasingly useful in medicine.
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Pharmaceutical three-dimensional (3D) printing is a modern fabrication process with the potential to create bespoke drug products of virtually any shape and size from a computer-aided design model. Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3D printing combines the benefits of high printing precision and capability, enabling the manufacture of medicines with unique engineering and functional properties. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art in SLS 3D printing, including the main principles underpinning this technology and highlights the diverse selection of materials and essential parameters that influence printing. The technical challenges and processing conditions are also considered in the context of their effects on the printed product. Finally, the pharmaceutical applications of SLS 3D printing are covered, providing an emphasis on the advantages the technology offers to drug product manufacturing and personalised medicine.
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“ Candidatus Liberibacter” species are associated with incurable plant diseases that have caused billions of dollars of losses for United States and world agriculture. Chemical control of these pathogens is complicated, because their life cycle combines intracellular vascular stages in plant hosts with transmission by highly mobile insect vectors. To date, “ Candidatus Liberibacter” species are mostly unculturable, except for Liberibacter crescens , a member of the genus that has been used as a model for in vitro assays. Here, we evaluated the potential of Zinkicide (ZnK) as an antimicrobial against “ Candidatus Liberibacter” species in batch cultures and under flow conditions, using L. crescens as a biological model. ZnK displayed bactericidal activity against L. crescens in batch cultures and showed increased mobility and bactericidal activity in microfluidic devices resembling “ Candidatus Liberibacter” species natural habitats. ZnK performance observed here against L. crescens makes this compound a promising candidate to control plant diseases caused by vascular pathogens.
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During our method development for residual formaldehyde detection in a drug substance, unusually high levels of formaldehyde were detected when using a mixed solvent of EtOH/DMSO (4:1, v/v) as sample diluent in headspace GC analysis (HS-GC). Initial investigation found that formaldehyde is used in the preparation for one of the starting materials of the drug substance. Nevertheless, there is neither other source of formaldehyde in the manufacturing process of the drug substance, nor would formaldehyde be generated during the process. In the ensuing root cause investigation, it was found that once the solvent DMSO is replaced by other solvent [e.g., N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)], while keeping other method parameters unchanged in the HS-GC analysis, the level of formaldehyde in the same batch of the drug substance became undetectable (LOD: 3 ppm). All the evidence suggested that the observed formaldehyde in the HS-GC analysis might be due to the decomposition of DMSO, which could be facilitated by the presence of this particular drug substance. In other words, the presence of the drug substance (in the form of HCl salt) would cause a minor decomposition of DMSO to produce formaldehyde. To prove this hypothesis, a GC-MS experiment of the drug substance was conducted in which deuterated DMSO (DMSO-d6) was used in place of regular DMSO; the expected deuterated derivatization product, i.e., diethoxymethane-d2 (C2H5OCD2OC2H5), was observed in the HS-GC-MS analysis. Therefore, it became clear that this drug substance facilitates the minor decomposition of DMSO in the HS-GC analysis. In such a case, formaldehyde is an artifact peak, or ghost peak, rather than a true impurity of the drug substance. The false positive results of formaldehyde were also found in other four compounds (three drug substances and one reagent) which are all in the form of HCl or HBr salts, suggesting that generation of formaldehyde from DMSO could be a widely occurred phenomenon in HS-GC analysis of alkyl amines in the form of HCl or HBr salts, when DMSO-containing diluents are used during sample preparation.
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Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a drug product (Spritam®) and many medical devices manufactured by 3-dimensional printing (3DP) processes for human use. There is immense potential to print personalized medicines using 3DP. Many 3DP methods have been reported in the literature for pharmaceutical applications. However, selective laser sintering (SLS) printing has remained least explored for pharmaceutical applications. There are many advantages and challenges in adopting a SLS method for fabrication of personalized medicines. Solvent free nature, availability of FDA approved thermoplastic polymer/excipients (currently used in hot melt-extrusion process), minimal/no post-processing step, etc. are some of the advantages of the SLS printing process. Major challenges of the technology are requirement of at least one thermoplastic component in the formulation and thermal stability of drug and excipients. This review provides an overview of the SLS printing method, excipient requirements, process monitoring, quality defects, regulatory aspects and potential pharmaceutical applications.
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Recycling rubber in the production of structural concrete is not considered a feasible option due to a significant reduction in the strength and elastic modulus of concrete. A novel concrete casting method is developed in this work that can greatly increase the strength and elastic modulus of rubber concrete. The mix design used in the study is the same as that for natural aggregate concrete (NAC), apart from replacing some of the natural coarse aggregate (NCA) by chipped rubber. Concrete specimens were cast with 0–100% chipped rubber in replacement of NCA. The fresh rubber concrete was then condensed in a specially designed mold to compress the volume of wet concrete for a period of time before demolding. Stress-strain behaviour of compressed and uncompressed rubber concrete specimens was evaluated and compared with the NAC specimens. Results show that improved stress-strain behaviour i.e., higher compressive strength and elastic modulus, are observed for compressed rubber concrete specimens as compared with uncompressed specimens, which show the effectiveness of the compression technique in enhancing the performance of rubber concrete. Compressed rubber concrete specimens with a 20% replacement ratio of chipped rubber show 35% and 29% increase in strength and elastic modulus as compared with NAC specimens, respectively. Based on the results, up to 30% of NCA can be replaced by chipped rubber to obtain compressed rubber concrete with the compressive strength and elastic modulus greater or similar to those of NAC. The proposed method encourages the utilization of waste rubber in concrete and can be easily adopted by the precast industry to manufacture precast concrete products leading towards sustainable and environment-friendly construction.
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Selective laser melting (SLM) technology has broad prospects and important significance for developing high-performance and complex structural materials. Magnesium alloy, as one of the lightest structural materials, is well known to have high bio-compatibility, excellent specific strength and specific stiffness. Therefore, significant progress has been made on processing parameters and the structures of the SLM fabricated Mg alloys. We review the current state of research and progress from different perspectives of the SLM, SLM parameters, metallurgical process and microstructure evolution, metallurgical defects, and mechanical properties as well as corrosion properties in order to provide a basis for follow-on-research that leads to the development of high productivity. In addition, the problems in the research and future development of SLMed Mg alloys are also discussed in the final part.
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The fourth industrial revolution and the underlying digital transformation, known as Industry 4.0, is progressing exponentially. The digital revolution is reshaping the way individuals live and work fundamentally, and the public remains optimistic regarding the opportunities Industry 4.0 may offer for sustainability. The present study contributes to the sustainability literature by systematically identifying the sustainability functions of Industry 4.0. In doing so, the study first reviews the fundamental design principles and technology trends of Industry 4.0 and introduces the architectural design of Industry 4.0. The study further draws on the interpretive structural modelling technique to model the contextual relationships among the Industry 4.0 sustainability functions. Results indicate that sophisticated precedence relationships exist among various sustainability functions of Industry 4.0. ‘Matrice d’Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée àun Classement’ (MICMAC) analysis reveals that economic sustainability functions such as production efficiency and business model innovation tend to be the more immediate outcome of Industry 4.0, which pays the way for development of more remote socioenvironmental sustainability functions of Industry 4.0 such as energy sustainability, harmful emission reduction, and social welfare improvement. This study can serve Industry 4.0 stakeholders – leaders in the public and private sectors, industrialists, and academicians – to better understand the opportunities that the digital revolution may offer for sustainability, and work together more closely to ensure that Industry 4.0 delivers the intended sustainability functions around the world as effectively, equally, and fairly as possible.
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This study investigates the effects that carbon policies and green technologies may have on the integrated inventory of a two-echelon supply chain with consideration of carbon emissions during the processes of product production, transportation, and storage. The three carbon emissions policies: limited total carbon emissions, carbon taxation, and cap-and-trade, are considered in the study. The proposed model can assist firms in determining their corresponding optimal production quantity, delivery quantity, and green investment amount with an aim of minimizing the costs under different carbon emissions policies. Moreover, this study also provides practical implications for the government to make appropriate policies and regulations in balancing the trade-off between environmental protection and economic growth. Finally, the results indicate that firms adopting the carbon tax policy would prefer to invest in a relatively efficient green technology. With regard to the sources of carbon emissions, the effects of unit carbon emissions during production and unit distance of transportation are the most dramatic, and the cap limit has greater effects than the carbon emissions reduction factor of the green technology. Besides, the government should set the limit of carbon emissions within a reasonable range under the cap-and-trade policy to avoid suppliers overly trading their quotas of carbon emissions.
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The aim of this paper is to review the recent evolution of additive manufacturing (AM) within the medical field of preoperative surgical planning. The discussion begins with an overview of the different techniques, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages as well as an in-depth comparison of different characteristics of the printed parts. Then, the state-of-the-art with respect to preoperative surgical planning is presented. On the one hand, different surgical planning prototypes manufactured by several AM technologies are described. On the other hand, materials used for mimicking different living tissues are explored by focusing on the material properties: elastic modulus, hardness, etc. As a result, doctors can practice before performing surgery and thereby reduce the time needed for the operation. The subject of patient education is also introduced. A thorough review of the process that is required to obtain 3D printed surgical planning prototypes, which is based on different stages, is then carried out. Finally, the ethical issues associated with 3D printing in medicine are discussed, along with its future perspectives. Overall, this is important for improving the outcome of the surgery, since doctors will be able to visualize the affected organs and even to practice surgery before performing it.
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Catheter associated infections are a common complication that occurs in dialysis patients. Current strategies to prevent infection include catheter coatings containing heparin, pyrogallol or silver nanoparticles, which all have an increased risk of causing resistance in bacteria. Therefore, a novel approach for manufacture, such as the use of additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, is required. Filaments were produced by extrusion using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TC) in various concentrations (e.g. 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%). The extruded filaments were used in a fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D-printer to print catheter constructs at varying concentrations. Release studies in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), microbiology studies, thermal analysis, contact angle, ATR-FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Micro Computer Tomography (μCT) analysis were conducted on the printed catheters. The results suggested that TC was uniformly distributed within the TPU matrix. The microbiology testing of the catheters showed that devices containing TC had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10788 bacteria. Catheters containing 1% TC maintained inhibitory effect after 10-day release studies. After an initial burst release in the first 24 h, there was a steady release of TC in all concentrations of catheters. 3D-printed antibiotic catheters were successfully printed with inhibitory effect on S. aureus bacteria. Finally, TC containing catheters showed resistance to S. aureus adherence to their surfaces when compared with catheters containing no TC. Catheters containing 1% of TC showed a bacterial adherence reduction of up to 99.97%. Accordingly, the incorporation of TC to TPU materials can be effectively used to prepare anti-infective catheters using FDM. This study highlights the potential for drug impregnated medical devices to be created through AM.
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Colloidal crystals are of great interest to researchers because of their excellent optical properties and broad applications in barcodes, sensors, displays, drug delivery, and other fields. Therefore, the preparation of high quality colloidal crystals in large quantities with high speed is worth investigating. After decades of development, microfluidics have been developed that provide new choices for many fields, especially for the generation of functional materials in microscale. Through the design of microfluidic chips, colloidal crystals can be prepared controllably with the advantages of fast speed and low cost. In this Review, research progress on colloidal crystals from microfluidics is discussed. After summarizing the classifications, the generation of colloidal crystals from microfluidics is discussed, including basic colloidal particles preparation, and their assembly inside or outside of microfluidic devices. Then, applications of the achieved colloidal crystals from microfluidics are illustrated. Finally, the future development and prospects of microfluidic‐based colloidal crystals are summarized. Microfluidics provide a new option for the preparation of high quality colloidal crystals. Microfluidic devices based on different materials have been used for the assembly and synthesis of colloidal crystals. These colloidal crystals have been used in barcodes, sensors, displays, and drug delivery. Colloidal crystals from microfluidics have good prospects and commercial value.