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The Association of Volunteer Motivation and Thriving at Work of College Students During COVID-19: Job Burnout and Psychological Capital as Mediators

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Thriving at work is a type of mental state in which an individual feels vigorous and learning at the same time in the job. Previous studies have shown that individual internal motivation is relevant to thriving at work and volunteer behaviors, but the role of motivation is still to be further explored. Based self-determination theory, this study focuses on the mediating effects of job burnout and psychological capital on the relationship between volunteer motivation and thriving at work. Three hundred forty-nine college student volunteers who participated in psychological assistance volunteer activities during the COVID-19 pandemic were investigated using the Volunteer Function Motivation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, PsyCap Questionnaire, and Thriving at work scale. The results indicated that job burnout and psychological capital mediate the relationship between volunteer motivation and thriving at work. The results not only offer important theoretical insights of Volunteer Motivation and Thriving at Work, but also generate practical implications regarding how to use motivating Volunteer behavior and enhanced wellbeing at work.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
published: 22 June 2022
doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.923196
Frontiers in Public Health | www.frontiersin.org 1June 2022 | Volume 10 | Article 923196
Edited by:
Li Wang,
Institute of Psychology (CAS), China
Reviewed by:
Herison Pandapotan Purba,
Airlangga University, Indonesia
Vitale Elsa,
Bari Local Health Authority, Italy
*Correspondence:
Cao Ge
caoge101@126.com
Shiyi Li
lishiyi@tjnu.edu.cn
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Public Mental Health,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Public Health
Received: 19 April 2022
Accepted: 23 May 2022
Published: 22 June 2022
Citation:
Li J, Ge C and Li S (2022) The
Association of Volunteer Motivation
and Thriving at Work of College
Students During COVID-19: Job
Burnout and Psychological Capital as
Mediators.
Front. Public Health 10:923196.
doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.923196
The Association of Volunteer
Motivation and Thriving at Work of
College Students During COVID-19:
Job Burnout and Psychological
Capital as Mediators
Jun Li 1, Cao Ge 2
*and Shiyi Li 1,3,4
*
1Faculty of Psychology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China, 2College of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,
China, 3Tianjin Normal University, Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin, China, 4Tianjin Social Science Laboratory of
Students’ Mental Development and Learning, Tianjin, China
Thriving at work is a type of mental state in which an individual feels vigorous and learning
at the same time in the job. Previous studies have shown that individual internal motivation
is relevant to thriving at work and volunteer behaviors, but the role of motivation is still to
be further explored. Based self-determination theory, this study focuses on the mediating
effects of job burnout and psychological capital on the relationship between volunteer
motivation and thriving at work. Three hundred forty-nine college student volunteers
who participated in psychological assistance volunteer activities during the COVID-19
pandemic were investigated using the Volunteer Function Motivation Inventory, Maslach
Burnout Inventory, PsyCap Questionnaire, and Thriving at work scale. The results
indicated that job burnout and psychological capital mediate the relationship between
volunteer motivation and thriving at work. The results not only offer important theoretical
insights of Volunteer Motivation and Thriving at Work, but also generate practical
implications regarding how to use motivating Volunteer behavior and enhanced wellbeing
at work.
Keywords: volunteer motivation, thriving at work, job burnout, psychological capital, college student volunteer,
COVID-19
INTRODUCTION
During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many college volunteers participated in pandemic
prevention and control activities and performed various types of volunteering work in China (1).
Volunteering is a long-term and free act of helping those who actively seek help after careful
consideration in the context of an organization (2). Volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic’s
prevention and control period has certain characteristics, and every volunteer is not only a
participant, but also a witness to the pandemic (3). The vast majority were exposed to varying
degrees of anxiety and panic from being isolated at home (4). In this case, what factors are related
to the volunteers’ working state and mental status? On the one hand, individual motivation directly
has relations with the occurrence and development of voluntary behavior (5). On the other hand,
the content of volunteer work also impacts volunteers in many different ways (6).
Li et al. Thriving at Work in COVID-19
Volunteer Motivation and Thriving at Work
Thriving at work is a mental state where energy and learning
are experienced at the same time, and people with a thriving
sense of work feel their own growth and motivation (7). Previous
studies have found that thriving at work has a positive predictive
effect on individual job satisfaction and organizational loyalty (8),
and a negative predictive effect on job burnout (9). Some studies
also show that individual with higher thriving at work enjoy
the pleasure of work more and thus exhibit more organizational
citizenship behaviors (10). At the same time, thriving at work
plays an important role in individual growth and health (11).
Spreitzer et al. (12) found that after controlling for variables such
as depression and anxiety, subjects with high thriving at work
reported better physical and mental health. Because work status is
closely related to the effectiveness of psychological assistance, it is
of great significance to study psychological assistance volunteers’
thriving at work and mental state at work (13).
Volunteer motivation is an internal psychological process in
which individuals’ voluntary behaviors are guided, stimulated
and maintained by their goals or objects (14). Deci and
Ryan (15) proposed self-determination theory, believing that an
individual has an innate and inherent tendency to meet the three
psychological needs of competence, autonomy, and relationship
and to achieve psychological development. Competence needs
refer to the successful completion of challenging tasks and
achievement of desired results. Autonomy refers to the individual
feeling behavioral autonomy. Relationship needs refer to the
establishment of stable and reliable contact with others, groups
and organizations. If external conditions help meet the three
kinds of innate psychological needs, intrinsic motivation of
individuals will be enhanced, more spontaneous and active, so
as to have better mental health and behavioral performance. If
external conditions are not conducive to satisfaction of these
three basic psychological needs, then it is not conducive to
internal motivation, and the individual’s work attitude and
behavior performance are negatively affected to some extent
(16). With regard to mechanisms producing thriving at work,
based on self-determination, the socially embedded model of
thriving at work has been proposed (12). Baard et al. (17)
have shown that a work environment that meets individual
sense of autonomy, competence and relationship needs can
improve intrinsic motivation. At the same time, a large number
of studies have shown that individual intrinsic motivation
has a significant predictive effect on their job performance,
job satisfaction, job involvement, organizational commitment,
organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior, mental
health, and subjective wellbeing (1820). Based on previous
work, the current study presents hypothesis 1, as follows:
H1: Volunteer motivation is positively related to thriving
at work.
Job Burnout, Volunteer Motivation, and
Thriving at Work
Job burnout is a special type of work-related stress, which is
a state of physical or emotional exhaustion that also involves
a sense of reduced accomplishment and loss of personal
identity (21). It includes emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and
reduced personal accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion is
when an individual believes that all of his or her emotional
resources have been exhausted (22). Cynicism refers to the
willingness of individuals to deliberately distance themselves
from work and other people involved in the job (22).
Reduced personal accomplishment is when an individual
holds a negative opinion of himself or herself (22). Job
burnout does not only harm the health of individual (23,
24), which reduces work performance of individual (25), will
also increase the occurrence of bad behaviors and security
accidents (26).
Internal motivation is motivation with the highest degree
of autonomy, which refers to intrinsic satisfaction brought by
individual activities or work itself (27). The internal motivation
of work or activity is closely related to occupational stress and
burnout (28). Previous studies have found that internal work
motivation and external work motivation have different effects
on job burnout (29). Previous evidence indicated that controlling
motivation with low self-determination is in direct proportion to
job burnout, while autonomous motivation with a high degree of
self-determination is in inverse proportion to job burnout (30).
The weakening of voluntary motivation based on one’s own will is
an important factor that leads to job burnout (30). Recent, under
the framework of self-determined motivation theory, researchers
have proposed five modes of work motivation regulation (27).
Bethencourt (31) takes the theoretical model of self-
determination as its theoretical framework, with the three major
psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relevance as
independent variables, and individual participation as dependent
variables. It detects the correlation between each other and
predicts individual participation by using structural equations
and regression modeling of applied data sets. The results
show that there is a significant negative correlation between
autonomous motivation and job burnout, while there is a
significant positive correlation between controlled job motivation
and job burnout. Jowett et al. (32) also indicated similar
conclusions through the study of 211 professional athletes, and
further proposed that the degree of individual self-determined
motivation is an important factor in predicting their job burnout.
Another explanation is the job demands-resources model (JD-
R) proposed by Demerouti et al. (author?) (33). This model is a
theoretical framework to systematically study the process of job
burnout. In the JD-R model, one of the roles of work resources
is to stimulate personal growth, learning, and development (34).
At the same time, work resources correspond to the motivational
process. When work demands are high, work resources are more
closely related to workers’ motivation (such as job involvement
and job-related learning) and bring vitality to individuals (34).
Job burnout is a potential predictor of thriving at work
(35). Porath et al. (7) found that thriving at work can promote
sustainable development of people by influencing psychological
(reduced burnout) and physiological (perceived health) aspects.
Spreitzer et al. (36) pointed out that individual who were
consistent with their state of thriving at work reported lower
job burnout than their colleagues. Re-search by Spreitzer et al.
(36) showed that thriving at work can improve job performance,
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Li et al. Thriving at Work in COVID-19
reduce burnout, and improve health. Therefore, hypothesis 2 and
3 are presented as follows:
H2: Job burnout is negatively associated with thriving at work.
H3: Job burnout has a mediating effect on the relationship
between volunteer motivation and thriving at work.
Psychological Capital, Volunteer
Motivation, and Thriving at Work
Psychological capital refers to a set of resources a person can
use to help improve their performance on the job and their
success (37). It includes optimism, hope and self-efficacy, and
toughness of the four elements, respectively, representing current
and future positive beliefs (optimistic), the ability to target and
achieve the goal through appropriate path (hopefully), in the face
of challenging tasks believe they have the ability to succeed (self-
efficacy), and in the face of difficulties and adversity can stick to
and hard work (toughness) (38).
When an individual participates in voluntary activities,
if there is no positive psychological quality, the individual
is not willing to communicate with others (39). At the
same time, they tend to withdraw from difficulties and even
stop their voluntary activities (40). So psychological capital
plays an important role in promoting the development of
voluntary behavior (39). However, in the process of the
generation and development of voluntary behavior, voluntary
motivation is considered to be the most important factor
leading to the generation of voluntary behavior (2). That
is, voluntary motivation directly affects voluntary behavior
and promotes the generation and development of voluntary
behavior (2). Volunteers’ psychological capital quality, such
as self-confidence, optimism, responsibility and hope, can
stimulate individuals to produce higher voluntary motivation
(41). And the improvement of volunteer motivation will
further promote the generation and development of voluntary
behavior (42).
According to resource conservation theory, people strive
to pursue and maintain the resources they consider valuable,
including autonomy, self-efficacy, self-esteem (43). Psychological
capital can predict the individual’s psychological development
and working state (44). Individuals with a lower level of
psychological capital have lower health status and lower job
performance (38). Paterson et al. (45) found in their study that
individual with higher level of psychological capital and more
social sup-port showed more enjoyment of work and reported
higher sense of work vitality. Carmeli and Spreitzer (10) also
found that psychological capital has a positive effect on the
working state. Specific performance is, psychological capital
is higher, work is devoted, work exuberant feeling is higher.
Therefore, hypothesis 4 and 5 are presented as follows.
H4: Psychological capital can positively predict thriving
at work.
H5: Psychological capital has a mediating effect on the
relationship between volunteer motivation and thriving
at work.
The research model is presented as Figure 1.
FIGURE 1 | Mediation model tested.
METHODS
Participants and Procedure
A cross-sectional online survey of Chinese college student
between February 24 and April 19, 2020 was conducted. All
participants were random recruited using the “WeChat, a
popular Chinese social media APP. WeChat has location-based
online groups, and it was arranged for WeChat group (online
psychological assistance college student volunteers) moderators
from localities within a large urban city in Eastern China
(Zhengzhou, population =10 million) to invite their residents
to participate. Interested participants were shown an online
informed consent statement and, for those agreeing, a Chinese
language online survey. The survey was hosted on Survey
Star (www.wjx.cn), offering features to prevent automated
participation by bots. Specifically, the researchers sent links
of online questionnaires to WeChat groups dominated by
college student volunteers who had participated in a particular
volunteer activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. To further
screen participants, the self-reported questionnaire included
questions such as “How many times did you volunteer during
this year?”
The online survey system reminded individuals to complete
all items; therefore, there is no missing data. After deleting
participants entering the same response consecutively across
dozens of items, 349 participants remained (201 females; age:
mean ±SD =20.83 ±2.32 years).
Measures
In addition to surveying demographic data, the following
measures were administered.
Volunteer Function Motivation Inventory
The Volunteer Function Motivation Inventory (VFMI) compiled
by Clary et al. (46) and revised by Law et al. (47). The
questionnaire is recognized as an authoritative tool to measure
voluntary motivation. There are six subscales, namely, values
expression, social communication, learning and understanding,
career development, self-protection, and self-development. Each
subscale includes 5 items. Participants rated each item according
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Li et al. Thriving at Work in COVID-19
to how much it corresponded to their participation in voluntary
activities with Likert 7 points (1 =strongly disagree, 7 =
strongly agree). The average scores of each dimension were
calculated. The higher the score, the stronger the motivation
to volunteer. The Cronbach’s Alpha of the total questionnaire
and the six subscales were 0.917, 0.770 (value expression
motivation) 0.829 (learning understanding motivation) 0.756
(social interaction motivation) 0.718 (career development
motivation) 0.774 (self-protection motivation) and 0.804 (self-
enhancement motivation), respectively.
Thriving at Work Questionnaire
The questionnaire on thriving at work was compiled and revised
Porath et al. (7). The questionnaire consists of 10 items in
terms of learning and vitality with Likert 7 points (1 =strongly
disagree, 7 =strongly agree). The higher the score, the higher
thriving at work of individual. In this study, the overall internal
consistency reliability coefficient value of the questionnaire is
0.835, and that of the vitality and learning subscales are 0.780 and
0.719, respectively.
Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey
The Maslach Burnout Inventory was revised by Li and Shi
(48). There are three dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion,
Cynicism, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment. There
are 15 questions in total. Likert ratings with Likert 7
points are used for scoring. In this study, the overall
internal consistency reliability of the Burnout Inventory was
0.895. The internal consistency confidence of the three
dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion and pessimism is 0.938,
0.876, and 0.894.
Psychological Capital Questionnaire
The PsyCap Questionnaire (PCQ)was developed by Luthans et
al. (49) and translated by Li et al. (50). The scale includes four
dimensions: self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism. There
are 6 questions in each dimension, a total of 24 questions. Likert
responses are scored with Likert 6 points. The Cronbach of
the scale was 0.971. The internal consistency reliability of the
four dimensions of self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism
is 0.920, 0.904, 0.924, 0.921, respectively.
Data Analysis
SPSS software package was used to analyses the data (v. 26.0 for
Windows; IBM Corporation, 2019). Mediation tests (displayed
in Figure 1) were conducted using the PROCESS macro (51).
Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used. We
used the bias-corrected non-parametric percentile Bootstrap
confidence interval method to analyze the mediating effect.
In the case of unrotated, Harman S One-factor Test obtained
15 factors of eigenvalue 1. The variance explained by the first
factor is 30.5%, less than the upper limit of 40%. Therefore, there
is no serious common method deviation problem in this study.
RESULTS
Descriptive Analysis
The correlation matrix and descriptive information on the
sample and the measures used in the primary analyses for this
study were showed in Table 1.
There were significant correlations between the different
variables. People with higher volunteer motivation had a lower
level of job burnout, and showed greater psychological capital
and thriving at work.
Mediation Model Validation Analysis
The results showed that voluntary motivation had a significant
positive predictive effect on work vigor (β=0.16, p<0.001). Job
burnout had a significant negative predictive effect on thriving
at work (β= 0.42, p<0.001). Psychological capital has a
significant positive predictive effect on the thriving at work (β=
0.29, p<0.001; Table 2).
The mediating effect of job burnout and psychological capital
between voluntary motivation and work vigor were analyzed. The
results show that the indirect effect of job burnout on voluntary
motivation is 0.10. Moreover, the Bootstrap 95% confidence
interval does not contain 0, indicating that job burnout has a
significant mediating effect between voluntary motivation and
thriving at work. The indirect effect of psychological capital on
TABLE 1 | Description statistics and correlation analysis of each variable.
M SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. Protective 5.37 1.14 1
2. Values 6.19 0.68 0.45** 1
3. Career 4.50 1.22 0.68** 0.36** 1
4. Social 4.85 1.08 0.68** 0.44** 0.66** 1
5. Understanding 6.01 0.80 0.65** 0.60** 0.50** 0.55** 1
6. Protective 6.01 0.80 0.68** 0.63** 0.55** 0.58** 0.86** 1
7. Volunteer motivation 5.49 0.78 0.87** 0.66** 0.81** 0.83** 0.82** 0.85** 1
8. Job burnout 2.42 0.85 0.12* 0.28** 0.19* 0.14* 0.26** 0.33** 0.23** 1
9. Psychological capital 4.97 0.64 0.27** 0.43** 0.19** 0.29** 0.39** 0.43** 0.39** 0.61** 1
10. Thriving at work 5.97 0.72 0.24** 0.41** 0.14* 0.27** 0.43** 0.47** 0.37** 0.64** 0.61** 1
*p<0.05, ** p<0.01.
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Li et al. Thriving at Work in COVID-19
TABLE 2 | Regression analysis of mediation models (standardized).
Variable Dependent variable Dependent variable Dependent variable Dependent variable
thriving at work job burnout psychological capital thriving at work
βtβtβtβt
Volunteer motivation 0.37 7.39*** 0.23 4.30*** 0.39 7.78*** 0.16 3.96***
Job burnout 0.42 8.79***
Psychological capital 0.29 5.68***
R20.14 0.05 0.15 0.50
F 54.62*** 18.53*** 60.56*** 116.46***
***p<0.001.
TABLE 3 | Mediation effect size analysis.
Effect of type Effect size Boot SE Bootstrap 95%CI Relative mediation effect
BootLLCI BootULCI
Total indirect effect 0.21 0.04 0.13 0.29 55.83%
Job burnout 0.10 0.03 0.04 0.17 25.75%
Psychological capital 0.11 0.03 0.05 0.18 30.08%
Job burnout—psychological capital 0.02 0.05 0.11 0.09
Boot SE, BootLLCI, and BootULCI respectively refer to the standard error, lower, and upper limit of 95% confidence interval of the indirect effects estimated by the percentile Bootstrap
method of deviation correction.
voluntary motivation was 0.11. Moreover, the Bootstrap 95%
confidence interval does not contain 0, which also indicates
that the mediating effect of psychological capital between
voluntary motivation and work vigor is also significant (see
Table 3,Figure 2).
DISCUSSION
Volunteer Motivation Is Relevant to
Thriving at Work
The results of this study showed that volunteer motivation
can significantly positively predict thriving at work. It can
be explained from three different perspectives. First, from the
perspective of self-determination theory, thriving at work is
related to internal motivation, and the internal work motivation
of individual has a good predictive effect on their positive
emotional experience, work creativity and mental health (52).
Intrinsic motivation refers to the continuous interest, spirit of
exploration and curiosity aroused by individual in the workplace,
focusing on the effect of intrinsic motivation (53). This effect is
not based on material rewards, but on certain psychological needs
of the individual and the characteristics of the job itself. The main
purpose of individual with high internal motivation to participate
in work is not to obtain certain economic remuneration, but
tends to their own interest, work activity, competency and other
aspects of satisfaction (54). The cognitive state of individuals
motivated by internal dynamics tends to be characterized by
flexibility and persistence. And individuals are more likely to
exhibit high levels of creativity and vitality (53). A study found
that, other conditions being equal, individuals with high intrinsic
FIGURE 2 | Multiple mediation model. ***p<0.001.
motivation will put a lot of energy into active attempts in
the process of solving problems, and their perseverance and
persistence will be better (52).
The second perspective is that voluntary behavior is essentially
a higher level of prosocial behavior. When individuals have
prosocial motivation, they usually devote themselves to helping
specific benefit groups (55). Relevant studies have shown that
help-oriented prosocial motivation can produce a more lasting
sense of pleasure and meaning for individuals, reduce stress, and
enhance physical and mental health (56,57).
Thirdly, according to the Action Identification Theory, when
an individual takes an Action, he/she will be more concerned
about the meaning of the Action (58). Individuals tend to have
a high level of recognition. Work has become a carrier to express
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Li et al. Thriving at Work in COVID-19
personal values and goals, enabling individuals to find meaning
and sense of value in their work and making them full of
vitality (59).
It can be seen that volunteer motivation has an important
impact on thriving at work. Therefore, future research can
deeply discuss the relationship between volunteer motivation
and thriving at work from the perspectives of value expression,
knowledge acquisition, functional expansion, enhanced self-
esteem, self-protection, and social communication, so as to help
the positive development of individual thriving at work.
The Mediating Effect of Job Burnout and
Psychological Capital
As for the mediating effect of job burnout, under the influence of
volunteer motivation, individuals can reduce job burnout, and
then show a stronger thriving at work. The possible reasons
are: Volunteer motivation can predict job burnout (60). People
with high voluntary motivation have a relatively low sense of
frustration and pressure in work, so they are less likely to suffer
from job burnout, and thus have a higher sense of organizational
identity and thriving at work (61).
In addition, compared with job burnout, current study also
found that psychological capital played a stronger mediating
role in the relationship between volunteer motivation and
thriving at work. Psychological capital is the comprehensive
ability to meet the standard of positive organizational behavior
(POB), which conforms to resource-based view (62). In other
words, psychological capital is a key basic resource to manage
and adjust other psychological resources to obtain satisfactory
results. From the individual level, psychological capital is an
important factor to promote individual growth and development
and performance improvement (49). Reflected in the JD-R
model, psychological capital can enhance an individual’s internal
motivation, make the individual feel the meaning of work, and
continuously show the vitality, dedication, and concentration
of work.
This study investigates the parallel mediating effect of job
burnout and psychological capital, which is of great value and
significance. First, the study examines the internal mechanism of
thriving at work from the perspectives of emotion and cognition.
This helps to provide a dual-mode intervention guide for the
development of thriving at work dynamism. Secondly, this study
adopts the parallel multiple mediation model. It is explained
in two theoretical frameworks, namely the self-decision theory
and job demands-resources model (JD-R model).This is not
only conducive to the establishment of an empirical model of
the influence of volunteer motivation on thriving at work, but
also conducive to enterprises and organizations to take targeted
measures to improve the level of individual thriving at work
according to the different mechanisms of thriving at work.
In addition, this study belongs to cross-sectional study. It is
difficult to determine the relationship between job burnout and
psychological capital. In the future, a follow-up study design
could be considered to determine the relationship. To determine
other possible modes of action (such as chain mediating action,
etc.) of the two, thus enriching the model of thriving at work.
Limitation and Prospect
This study examine the mediating effect of job burnout and
psychological capital on the influence of volunteer motivation
on thriving at work. The internal mechanism of volunteer
motivation influencing thriving in volunteer work is clarified. It
enriches the research on the field of thriving in volunteer work.
At the same time, it also has important guiding significance for
the shaping and intervention of volunteers’ thriving at work.
However, this study also has the following two deficiencies:
(1) lack of longitudinal tracking data. It is difficult to make
causal inferences. Future research should attach importance
to longitudinal research design to reveal the development law
of thriving at work. Then discuss how to create a positive
environment conducive to the vigorous and healthy development
of volunteer work. (4) In addition to the mediating effect
of job burnout and psychological capital, some moderating
variables, such as responsibility and competence, may also have
relations with the relationship between volunteer motivation
and thriving at work. Future studies could explore further
mechanism of volunteer motivation on thriving at work in more
complex models.
In sum, the current study indicates that volunteer motivation
can significantly predict volunteers’ thriving at work. The
findings support a mediating relationship between job burnout
and psychological capital in the relationship between volunteer
motivation and thriving at work.
DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be
made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
ETHICS STATEMENT
The study was approved by the Local Ethics Committee at Tianjin
Normal University, Tianjin, China. Written informed consent for
participation was not required for this study in accordance with
the national legislation and the institutional requirements.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
JL conducted data collection, data management, cleaning, and
analysis. JL and SL wrote the first draft of the paper. SL and
CG substantially revised the manuscript and designed the study
protocol. All authors contributed to the article and approved the
submitted version.
FUNDING
This study received a grant from the National Social Science
Major Project of China (20ZDA079).
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Li et al. Thriving at Work in COVID-19
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Conflict of Interest: JL is a doctor student at Tianjin Normal University. CG is
a paid full-time faculty member at Zhengzhou University. SL is a paid full-time
faculty member at Tianjin Normal University.
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