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Psihologija subjektivnega blagostanja: znanstvena spoznanja o sreči

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Abstract

V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
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Research on psychological flow is well established, although criticisms remain regarding conceptual and measurement issues associated with the construct. This scoping review maps flow-related research across scientific disciplines, examining the conceptualization, measurement instruments, and outcomes of flow between 2012 and 2019. Across 236 sources that met the review criteria, 108 different flow-related constructs were measured by 141 instruments, and 84 possible antecedents were identified. Despite the varied approaches, a common set of overarching antecedent constructs included "optimal challenge" and "high motivation," and recurring characteristics of the flow experience itself included "absorption," "effort-less control," and "intrinsic reward." Applied studies-albeit inconsistent in approach and largely correlational in nature-predominantly linked flow to "positive development" (i.e., well-being and health), "high functioning," and "further engagement." We contextualize the findings of the review relative to important work on flow that has recently emerged (following the review period)-in doing so, we hope this review offers a contemporary framework that can be used for the study of flow across scientific disciplines. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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COVID-19-related burden has a significant impact on mental health and has led to an increase of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Physical activity has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and to foster mental health. The present study aimed to investigate, whether sense of control might mediate the supposed beneficial effects of physical activity on positive (PMH) and negative mental health (NMH) in unpredictable extraordinary situations. Data were assessed in a sample of 568 students (Mage = 19.90, SDage = 4.52) from Germany via an online survey in fall 2020. Mediation analyses revealed that sense of control mediated the relation between physical activity and PMH as well as depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. The findings indicate that physical activity may be a promising strategy for fostering sense of control and thus mental health. Due to its practical implications and practicability, engagement in physical activity could be an effective way to reduce the NMH consequences of the current COVID-19 situation, and therefore should be addressed in actions for long-term prevention and intervention.
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Objective: Chronic health conditions (CHC) can have severe impacts on an individual's life, affecting well-being and mental health. Nonetheless, individuals can show different response patterns of psychological adaptation following a CHC onset. This study aimed to identify profiles of subjective well-being (SWB) at 1 year before (T - 1), 1 year after (T + 1), and 4 years after (T + 4) the onset of a physical CHC using seven indicators (health satisfaction, life satisfaction, energy, joy, worry, sadness, anger), examine transitions between the identified profiles, and determine predicting factors of these transitions. Method: Latent profile analysis and latent transition analysis was conducted using a sample of 357 participants reporting a physical CHC drawn from the Swiss Household Panel dataset. Results: Three profiles were identified at T - 1: low, high, and very high SWB. At T + 1 and T + 4, a fourth vulnerable profile emerged. Transition analysis showed that, overall, the most probable transition was to stay in similar profiles across time. However, recovery toward higher SWB profiles and delayed reaction toward lower SWB profiles appeared between 1 and 4 years following the CHC onset. Factors predicting recovery patterns from low to high SWB are better health status, fewer negative life events, and financial scarcity, whereas lower emotional stability was related to a delayed reaction from high to low SWB. Conclusion: This study underlines the importance of personal factors in the adaptation following CHC onset. Routine assessment of personality traits would enable identifying individuals at greater risk of lower SWB following the onset of a CHC. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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Personality traits have been found to be related to a variety of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine how personality traits were associated with adjustment to the COVID pandemic in college students. The sample included 484 first-year university students (76% female) attending a northeastern university who completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality assessment at the beginning of a semester that was disrupted by the COVID pandemic. Using a phone-based app, students completed daily ratings of mood, perceived stress levels, and engagement in a number of health promotion activities (exercise, mindfulness, adequate sleep, etc.) throughout the semester both before and after the onset of the pandemic (e.g., a within-person longitudinal design). Results, as expected, showed that mood and wellness indices generally declined during the COVID period, although stress levels actually decreased. Further, irrespective of COVID, improved mood, less perceived stress and greater participation in health promotion activities were significantly associated with a number of personality traits including neuroticism (lower), extraversion (higher), agreeableness (higher), and conscientiousness (higher). Of primary interest, mixed-effects models were used to test how major personality traits interacted with any changes in daily ratings from the pre-COVID to COVID period. Significant interactions terms were found suggesting differential impacts of the COVID epidemic for students with low versus high levels of particular traits. Higher levels of extraversion, for example, were found to be related to decreases in mood as the pandemic progressed in contrast to those with lower extraversion, for whom there was a slight increase in mood over time. These data support the conclusion that personality traits are related to mental health and can play a role in a person’s ability to cope with major stressful events. Different traits may also be more adaptive to different types of stressors.
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Previous studies have noted that personality traits are important predictors of well-being, but how big five personality influences social well-being is still unknown. This study aims to examine the link between big five personality and five dimensions of social well-being in the Chinese cultural context and whether social support can play the mediating effect in the process. This study included 1,658 participants from different communities in China, and regression analyses were conducted. Results revealed that five personality traits were significantly related to overall social well-being; extraversion was significantly related to social integration; agreeableness was positively related to all five dimensions of social well-being; conscientiousness was positively related to social actualization, social coherence, and social contribution; neuroticism was negatively related to social integration, social acceptance, social actualization, and social coherence; openness was positively related to social integration, social acceptance, social coherence, and social contribution. Social support plays mediating roles in the relationships between extraversion/agreeableness/conscientiousness/neuroticism/openness and social well-being, respectively.
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The purpose of this study was to examine measurement invariance of the Subjective Happiness Scale across countries, gender, and age groups and across time by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Altogether, 4,977 participants from nine European, American, and Australian countries were included in the study. Our results revealed that both configural and metric invariance held across countries, but scalar invariance was only partially confirmed with one item yielding varying intercepts in different countries. Measurement invariance was also confirmed across gender and age groups. Longitudinal measurement invariance was examined on a subsample of 478 English-speaking participants and was fully confirmed across five consecutive assessment points. Factor means were compared between groups and across time, and good convergent validity of the Subjective Happiness Scale was found in relation to a measure of temporal satisfaction with life. Overall, our results demonstrate that self-reported happiness was measured similarly in nine different countries, gender and age groups and over time, and provide a solid foundation for meaningful cross-group and cross-time comparisons in subjective happiness.
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The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988 ) is a popular self-report questionnaire that is administered all over the world. Though originally developed to measure two independent factors, different models have been proposed in the literature. Comparisons among alternative models as well as analyses concerning their robustness in cross-national research have left an inconclusive picture. Therefore, the present study evaluates the dimensionality of the PANAS and differences between English and translated versions of the PANAS using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach. Correlation matrices from 57 independent samples ( N = 54,043) were pooled across subsamples. For both English and non-English samples, a correlated two-factor model including correlated uniquenesses provided the best fit. However, measurement invariance analyses indicated differences in factor loadings between subsamples. Thus, cross-national application of the PANAS might only be justified if measurement equivalence was explicitly tested for the countries at hand.
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Introduction A novel dual-process model based upon the affective-reflective theory which distinguishes between affective attitude and instrumental attitude at an explicit and implicit level was used to predict physical activity. Method Undergraduate students (N=114) completed a lab-based study at two time-points, spaced two weeks apart. Participants completed self-report measures of the theory of planned behavior constructs, including explicit affective attitude and explicit instrumental attitude. Implicit affective attitude and implicit instrumental attitude were measured using single category implicit association tests. Results Explicit affective attitude and perceived behavioral control indirectly predicted physical activity through intention, and explicit affective attitude, implicit affective attitude, and intention predicted physical activity directly with a modest effect size (R²=.24). Discussion Findings suggest explicitly and implicitly held evaluative information are conceptually distinct, and affective evaluations are key in guiding physical activity behavior regardless of whether such evaluations are implicit or consciously accessible.
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Background Sleep, physical activity, and diet have been associated with mental health and well-being individually in young adults. However, which of these “big three” health behaviors most strongly predicts mental health and well-being, and their higher-order relationships in predictive models, is less known. This study investigated the differential and higher-order associations between sleep, physical activity, and dietary factors as predictors of mental health and well-being in young adults. Method In a cross-sectional survey design, 1,111 young adults (28.4% men) ages 18–25 from New Zealand and the United States answered an online survey measuring typical sleep quantity and quality; physical activity; and consumption of raw and processed fruit and vegetables, fast food, sweets, and soda, along with extensive covariates (including demographics, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, and health conditions) and the outcome measures of depressive symptoms [measured by the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale (CES-D)] and well-being (measured by the Flourishing Scale). Results Controlling for covariates, sleep quality was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms and well-being, followed by sleep quantity and physical activity. Only one dietary factor—raw fruit and vegetable consumption—predicted greater well-being but not depressive symptoms when controlling for covariates. There were some higher-order interactions among health behaviors in predicting the outcomes, but these did not survive cross-validation. Conclusion Sleep quality is an important predictor of mental health and well-being in young adults, whereas physical activity and diet are secondary but still significant factors. Although strictly correlational, these patterns suggest that future interventions could prioritize sleep quality to maximize mental health and well-being in young adults.
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Razglasitev epidemije je skupaj z ukrepi za njeno zajezitev pri večini ljudi povzročila precejšen stres. Kljub temu so bile med posamezniki opazne razlike v odzivanju na to stresno situacijo. V raziskavi nas je zanimalo, koliko lahko različno doživljanje stresa razložimo z razlikami v osebnostnih lastnostih. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 2722 oseb (25 % moških), starih med 18 in 82 let, ki so izpolnile vprašalnik petih velikih faktorjev osebnosti in stresa v zadnjem tednu. Rezultati so pokazali, da osebnost veliko prispeva k temu, koliko stresa so udeleženci doživljali v prvem tednu epidemije. Natančneje, najbolj so bili v stresu bolj nevroticistični, sprejemljivi in manj vestni posamezniki.
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Virusne epidemije dokazano vplivajo na duševno zdravje ljudi. V vzdolžni študiji smo spremljali subjektivno blagostanje, zaznan stres in stresnost različnih vidikov življenja, povezanih z epidemijo, od začetka do konca uradno razglašene epidemije COVID-19 v Sloveniji. V prvem tednu epidemije je sodelovalo 2571 odraslih (74 % žensk), starih od 18 do 82 let; ob vseh naslednjih štirih merjenjih v naslednjih treh mesecih pa 142 oseb. Rezultati kažejo, da so se ljudje uspešno prilagodili na spremenjene razmere, saj je s časom raziskave prišlo do upada doživljanega stresa in porasta blagostanja. Stres zaradi možnosti okužbe z novim koronavirusom udeležencev ali njihovih bližnjih je od začetka epidemije ves čas upadal. S trajanjem epidemije so bolj kot okužba stres ljudem povzročale dolgoročne posledice epidemije, spremenjene življenjske okoliščine in skrbi v zvezi s službo.
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Razglasitvi epidemije COVID-19 je sledilo sprejetje številnih ukrepov za zajezitev širjenja virusa, ki so močno zaznamovali vsakodnevno življenje ljudi. V raziskavi nas je zanimalo, koliko zaskrbljenost zaradi zdravstvene ogroženosti, trenutnih spremenjenih življenjskih okoliščin in morebitnih dolgoročnih posledic epidemije koronavirusa pojasnjuje raven stresa in blagostanja med epidemijo COVID-19. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 438 oseb (od tega 81 % žensk) povprečne starosti 38 let. Rezultati regresijskih analiz so pokazali, da so ob kontroli spola, starosti in izobrazbe stres in blagostanje najmočneje napovedovale spremenjene življenjske okoliščine (npr. na področju medosebnih odnosov, prostega časa, omejitev gibanja). Pomemben napovednik stresa je bila tudi zaskrbljenost zaradi dolgoročnih, predvsem finančnih posledic epidemije. Skrb zaradi zdravstvene ogroženosti je stres napovedovala šibko, na blagostanje pa ni imela učinka.
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and attendant lockdown measures present serious threats to emotional well-being worldwide. Here, we examined the extent to which being outdoors (versus indoors), the experience of loneliness, and screen-time are associated with emotional well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic using an experiencing sampling method. In April 2020, Austrian adults (N = 286, age M = 31.0 years) completed a 21-day experience sampling phase in which they reported their emotional well-being (i.e., happiness), whether they were indoors or outdoors, and loneliness at three random time-points each day, as well as their daily screen-time. Results indicated that being outdoors was associated with higher emotional well-being, whereas greater loneliness and greater daily screen-time were associated with poorer well-being. Additionally, the impact of loneliness on well-being was weaker when participants were outdoors than indoors. These results have health policy implications for the promotion of population well-being during pandemics.
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The governmental lockdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic have forced people to change their behavior in many ways including changes in exercise. We used the brief window of global lockdown in the months of March/April/May 2020 as an opportunity to investigate the effects of externally imposed restrictions on exercise-related routines and related changes in subjective well-being. Statistical analyses are based on data from 13,696 respondents in 18 countries using a cross-sectional online survey. A mixed effects modeling approach was used to analyze data. We tested whether exercise frequency before and during the pandemic would influence mood during the pandemic. Additionally, we used the COVID-19 pandemic data to build a prediction model, while controlling for national differences, to estimate changes in exercise frequency during similar future lockdown conditions depending on prelockdown exercise frequency. According to the prediction model, those who rarely exercise before a lockdown tend to increase their exercise frequency during it, and those who are frequent exercisers before a lockdown tend to maintain it. With regards to subjective well-being, the data show that those who exercised almost every day during this pandemic had the best mood, regardless of whether or not they exercised prepandemic. Those who were inactive prepandemic and slightly increased their exercise frequency during the pandemic, reported no change in mood compared to those who remained inactive during the pandemic. Those who reduced their exercise frequency during the pandemic reported worse mood compared to those who maintained or increased their prepandemic exercise frequency. This study suggests that under similar lockdown conditions, about two thirds of those who never or rarely exercise before a lockdown might adopt an exercise behavior or increase their exercise frequency. However, such changes do not always immediately result in improvement in subjective well-being. These results may inform national policies, as well as health behavior and exercise psychology research on the importance of exercise promotion, and prediction of changes in exercise behavior during future pandemics.
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The spread of COVID-19 within any given country or community at the onset of the pandemic depended in part on the sheltering-in-place rate of its citizens. The pandemic led us to revisit one of psychology's most fundamental and most basic questions in a high-stakes context: what determines human behavior? Adopting a Lewinian interactionist lens, we investigate the independent and joint effects of macrolevel government policies and microlevel psychological factors-that is, personality-on whether individuals sheltered-in-place. We analyzed data collected in late March and early April 2020 from 101,005 participants in 55 countries, a time period that coincided with the early and accelerating stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. This time period also contained substantial variation in the stringency of governmental policy toward sheltering-in-place, both between countries and within each country over time. Analyses revealed that personality and the stringency of governmental policies independently predicted sheltering-in-place rates. Policy stringency was positively related to sheltering-in-place. For the personality dimensions, Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism all predicted higher rates of sheltering-in-place, whereas Extraversion was negatively related to staying at home. In addition, two personality traits-Openness to Experience and Neuroticism-interacted with governmental policy to predict whether individuals sheltered-in-place; openness and neuroticism each had weaker effects on sheltering-in-place as governmental policies became stricter. Theoretically, the findings demonstrate that individual differences predict behavior (i.e., sheltering-in-place) even when governments take strong action targeting that behavior. Practically, they suggest that even if governments lift their shelter-in-place restrictions, some individuals will shelter-in-place less than others. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is an important means of enhancing well-being. Although previous research has typically documented the cross-sectional associations between LTPA and wellbeing, the longitudinal bidirectional association remains relatively unexplored. Using a latent growth curve model, this study examined the longitudinal association between the intensity of LTPA, psychological well-being, and social well-being. The results revealed that the longitudinal associations differed, depending on the intensity of the LTPA and the type of well-being. Specifically, the longitudinal associations of moderate LTPA with psychological and social wellbeing were bidirectional. However, psychological and social wellbeing at baseline directly influenced the growth of vigorous LTPA, but not conversely (i.e. vigorous LTPA at baseline ! change in psychological and social well-being), indicating no bidirectional association. These findings could contribute to a better understanding of ways in which different intensities of LTPA are associated with distinct types of well-being over a long time.
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The development of academic fields is often described through the metaphor of ‘waves.’ Following the instantiation of positive psychology (the first wave), scholarship emerged looking critically at the notions of positive and negative, becoming known as its second wave. More recently, we discern an equally significant shift, namely scholarship that in various ways goes beyond the individual and embraces greater complexity. This includes going beyond the individual person as the primary focus of enquiry to look more deeply at the groups and systems in which people are embedded. It also involves becoming more interdisciplinary and multicultural, and embracing a wider range of methodologies. We submit that these interrelated ripples constitute a form of epistemological ‘broadening’ that merit the label of an incoming ‘third wave.’ This paper identifies the key dynamics of this wave, allowing appreciation not only of the field’s leading edge, but also its developmental potential into the future.
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Background: Sedentary behaviour (SB) has been identified as an important mortality risk factor. Health organizations have recognised SB as a public health challenge with major health, social, and economic consequences. Researchers have alerted the need to develop specific strategies, to monitor, prevent, and reduce SB. However, there is no systematic analysis of the SB changes in European Union adults. We aimed to examine SB changes between 2002 and 2017 in the European Union (EU) adult population. Methods: SB prevalence (>4h30mins of sitting time/day) of 96,004 adults as a whole sample and country-by-country was analysed in 2002, 2005, 2013, and 2017 of the Sport and Physical Activity EU Special Eurobarometers' data. The SB question of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was considered. SB prevalence between countries and within years was analysed with a χ2 test, and SB between genders was analysed with the Z-Score test for two population proportions. Results: An association between the SB prevalence and the years was found (p < 0.001), with increases for the whole sample (2002: 49.3%, 48.5-50.0 95% confidence interval (CI); 2017: 54.5%, 53.9-55.0 95% CI) and men (2002: 51.2%, 50.0-52.4 95% CI; 2017: 55.8%, 55.0-56.7 95% CI) and women (2002: 47.6%, 46.6-48.7 95% CI; 2017: 53.4%, 52.6-54.1 95% CI) separately. The adjusted standardised residuals showed an increase in the observed prevalence versus the expected during 2013 and 2017 for the whole sample and women and during 2017 for men. For all years, differences were observed in the SB prevalence between countries for the whole sample, and men and women separately (p < 0.001). Besides, the SB prevalence was always higher in men versus women in the overall EU sample (p < 0.001). Conclusions: SB prevalence increased between 2002 and 2017 for the EU as a whole and for both sexes separately. Additionally, differences in SB prevalence were observed for all years between EU countries in the whole sample and both sexes separately. Lastly, SB was consistently higher in men than women. These findings reveal a limited impact of current policies and interventions to tackle SB at the EU population level.
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Background The current COVID‐19 pandemic comes with multiple psychological stressors due to health‐related, social, economic, and individual consequences and may cause psychological distress. The aim of this study was to screen the population in Germany for negative impact on mental health in the current COVID‐19 pandemic and to analyze possible risk and protective factors. Methods A total of 6,509 people took part in an online survey in Germany from 27 March to 6 April. The questionnaire included demographic information and ascertained psychological distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and risk and protective factors. Results In our sample, over 50% expressed suffering from anxiety and psychological distress regarding the COVID‐19 pandemic. Participants spent several hours per day thinking about COVID‐19 (M = 4.45). Psychological and social determinants showed stronger associations with anxiety regarding COVID‐19 than experiences with the disease. Conclusions The current COVID‐19 pandemic does cause psychological distress, anxiety, and depression for large proportions of the general population. Strategies such as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and social contacts, acceptance of anxiety and negative emotions, fostering self‐efficacy, and information on where to get medical treatment if needed, seem of help, while substance abuse and suppression of anxiety and negative emotions seem to be associated with more psychological burden.
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As a public health emergency, a pandemic increases susceptibility to unfavourable psychological outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the buffering role of personal resilience in two aspects of psychological functioning, mental health and stress, among Slovene adults at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Within five days after Slovenia declared epidemics, 2722 participants (75% female) completed an on-line survey measuring mental health and perceived stress as outcome variables and demographics, health-related variables, and personal resilience as predictor variables. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses demonstrated that women, younger, and less educated participants had higher odds for less favourable psychological functioning during the COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, poorer health indicators and COVID-19 infection concerns predicted diminished psychological functioning. The crucial factor promoting good psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemics was resilience , additionally buffering against detrimental effects of demographic and health-related variables on mental health and perceived stress. While previous research suggests that mental health problems increase during pandemics, one way to prevent these problems and bolster psychological functioning is to build individuals' resilience. The interventions should be targeted particularly at younger adults, women, less educated people, and individuals who subjectively perceive their health to be rather poor.
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The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between subjective happiness and subjective and objective sleep. The participants were 24 healthy university students (11 males, 13 females; mean age 22.4 ± 2.1). Their subjective happiness was measured by the Japanese Subjective Happiness Scale (JSHS). Furthermore, their subjective and objective sleep evaluation was measured by Ogri-Shirakawa-Azumi sleep inventory MA version (OSA-MA) and a non-contact sheet sensor (SS). The results indicated that participants with higher subjective happiness had objectively shorter sleep onset latency, higher sleep efficiency, and lower heart rate during sleep. On the other hand, no such correlations were found between subjective sleep evaluation with OSA and subjective happiness. These results suggest that subjective happiness is related with the ability to more easily fall asleep and better sleep efficiency.
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Longstanding research suggests a positive relation between physical activity and health. However, when investigating this relation most studies focused on the absence of disease or infirmity as health indicators. The relation between physical activity and positive healthrelated constructs such as subjective well-being (SWB) remains oftentimes unexplored. The present meta-analysis offers a rigorous test of the relation between physical activity and SWB in healthy individuals, by including all different kinds of physical activity and SWB facets from childhood to old age. Random-effects meta-analysis using robust variance estimation revealed a positive relation (d = 0.360, 95% CI [0.301, 0.420]). Our results demonstrate a small beneficial main effect of physical activity on SWB, independent of the prior fitness level of the participants and various characteristics of the physical activity intervention. This effect was found in experimental studies as well as in correlational and quasi-experimental studies. Physical activity was more strongly related to positive affect compared to cognitive well-being and was unrelated to negative affect. Our results provide evidence for the importance of physical activity in the context of well-being. Further, we also systematically review and discuss the large heterogeneity of studies published on this relation and warrant further research regarding underlying mechanisms.
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The dual-continua model of mental health suggests that mental illness and positive mental health reflect distinct continua, rather than the extreme ends of a single spectrum. The aim of this review was to scope the literature surrounding the dual-continua model of mental health, to summarise the evidence, highlight the areas of focus for individual studies and discuss the wider implications of the model. A search was conducted in PsycINFO (n = 233), PsycARTICLES (n = 25), Scopus (n = 137) and PubMed (n = 47), after which a snowballing approach was used to scope the remaining literature. The current scoping review identified 83 peer-reviewed empirical articles, including cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies, which found overall support for superior explanatory power of dual-continua models of mental health over the traditional bipolar model. These studies were performed in clinical and non-clinical populations, over the entire life-course and in Western and non-Western populations. This review summarised the evidence suggesting that positive mental health and mental illness are two distinct but interrelated domains of mental health; each having shared and unique predictors, influencing each other via complex interrelationships. The results presented here have implications for policy, practice and research for mental health assessment, intervention design, and mental health care design and reform.
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Experience sampling and daily diary methods have become increasingly popular among psychologists. The repeated assessment of persons in their daily lives allows capturing how a person feels, thinks, or behaves or what he or she desires in the very moment. The current chapter describes basic concepts of experience sampling studies, gives an overview of possible designs and challenges that may be encountered when setting up the first experience sampling study. To overcome these challenges, three basic questions can be answered: (A) What is the construct being measured? (B) What is the purpose of the measure? (C) What is the targeted population of persons and situations? Finally, practical advice is given on how to think through and pilot test an experience sampling study before data collection begins.
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This study reports the most comprehensive assessment to date of the relations that the domains and facets of Big Five and HEXACO personality have with self-reported subjective well-being (SWB: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being (PWB: positive relations, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, self-acceptance, and personal growth). It presents a meta-analysis (n = 334,567, k = 462) of the correlations of Big Five and HEXACO personality domains with the dimensions of SWB and PWB. It provides the first meta-analysis of personality and well-being to examine (a) HEXACO personality, (b) PWB dimensions, and (c) a broad range of established Big Five measures. It also provides the first robust synthesis of facet-level correlations and incremental prediction by facets over domains in relation to SWB and PWB using 4 large data sets comprising data from prominent, long-form hierarchical personality frameworks: NEO PI-R (n = 1,673), IPIP-NEO (n = 903), HEXACO PI-R (n = 465), and Big Five Aspect Scales (n = 706). Meta-analytic results highlighted the importance of Big Five neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. The pattern of correlations between Big Five personality and SWB was similar across personality measures (e.g., BFI, NEO, IPIP, BFAS, Adjectives). In the HEXACO model, extraversion was the strongest well-being correlate. Facet-level analyses provided a richer description of the relationship between personality and well-being, and clarified differences between the two trait frameworks. Prediction by facets was typically around 20% better than domains, and this incremental prediction was larger for some well-being dimensions than others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: No tool is available for the multidimensional measurement of workplace well-being among Korean workers. In this study, the Workplace Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment (PERMA)-Profiler, a multidimensional workplace well-being measure, was translated into Korean, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Methods: The Workplace PERMA-Profiler, including the positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment domains, was translated according to international guidelines. The questionnaires included the Workplace PERMA-Profiler, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form, and Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. A total of 316 Korean workers completed a web-based survey with adequate response. Cronbach's alpha values were calculated to assess scale reliability, and correlational and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess validity. Results: Cronbach's alpha values for the Korean Workplace PERMA-Profiler ranged from 0.70 to 0.95. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 5-factor model had a marginally acceptable fit [χ2(80) = 383.04, comparative fit index = 0.909, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.881, root mean square error of approximation = 0.110, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.054]. The 5-factor PERMA domains were correlated positively with work engagement and mental well-being in life, and negatively with burnout, occupational stressors, and stress responses. These results showed that the Workplace PERMA-Profiler has good convergent and divergent validity. Conclusions: The Korean version of the Workplace PERMA-Profiler had good reliability and validity. It might be used as an indicator or evaluation tool for positive mental health interventions in the workplace.
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This chapter reviews the search for more stable causes of flow experiences such as “flow personality” or “autotelic personality”. Although flow research is primarily concerned with flow as a motivational state, Csikszentmihalyi has introduced the concept of an autotelic personality, that is, a disposition to actively seek challenges and flow experiences. This chapter starts with an overview of Csikszentmihalyi’s conceptual ideas and phenomenological descriptions of autotelic personalities. Unfortunately, the rich concept was not complemented by an adequate operationalization. The chapter continues with a review of personality dispositions which can be conceived of as boundary conditions for flow experience. They reflect differences either in the need (achievement motive) or in the ability (self-regulation) to experience flow. The concept of an autotelic personality should encompass both aspects simultaneously. Next, the achievement flow motive (nAchFlow) is introduced which integrates need and ability aspects. As such, I propose nAchFlow as a way to operationalize an autotelic personality. The chapter offers a functional analysis of flow in achievement contexts within the framework of Personality Systems Interactions (PSI) theory. Finally, the chapter elaborates on flow in social contexts and gives an outlook for future directions.
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Background The majority of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not meet recommended levels of physical activity, despite clear links between physical activity and superior medical outcomes in this population. The objective of this trial was to assess the feasibility and impact of a novel 16-week combined positive psychology-motivational interviewing (PP-MI) program to promote physical activity among inactive persons with T2D. Methods This pilot randomized trial compared the 16-week, phone-delivered PP-MI intervention to an attention-matched diabetes counseling condition among 70 persons with T2D and low levels of baseline moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; <150 min/week). The primary study outcomes were feasibility (assessed via rates of session completion) and acceptability (assessed via mean participant ratings [0−10] of the ease and utility of weekly sessions). Key secondary outcomes included between-group differences in improvement in positive affect, other psychological outcomes, and accelerometer-measured physical activity, assessed using mixed effects regression models, at 16 and 24 weeks. Results Participants completed a mean 11.0 (SD 4.4; 79%) of 14 PP-MI phone sessions, and composite mean ratings of ease/utility were 8.6/10, above our a priori benchmarks for feasibility/acceptability (70% session completion; 7.0/10 mean ratings). PP-MI participants had small to medium effect size (ES) difference improvements in MVPA (ES difference = 0.34) and steps/day (ES difference = 0.76) at 16 weeks, with sustained but smaller effects at 24 weeks (ES difference = 0.22–0.33). Conclusions Next-step studies of this PP-MI program in T2D patients can more rigorously explore the intervention's effects on physical activity and clinical outcomes.
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In this chapter, we analyze flow with respect to three aspects. First, we examine the basis for flow experiences to emerge. We focus our discussion on the situational antecedents of flow and emphasize the fact that the emergence of flow is basically dependent on a perceived fit of skills and task demands. Thereby we critically discuss the “above average” perspective and the related quadrant and octant models of flow highlighting the fact that the “above average” notion is based on problematic assumptions. Further, we discuss the concept of flow intensity and propose a revised flow model, which builds on the original notion of perceived fit of skills and task demands and includes the value attributed to the relevant activity as additional crucial factor. Second, we address boundary conditions of the flow experience, emphasizing the role of both personality and situational factors that qualify the relation between a perceived skills-demands fit and flow. Third, we critically review the available evidence on affective, cognitive and performance-related consequences resulting from flow or a compatibility of skills and demands. In addition, we highlight obstacles in the research exploring these consequences of flow and discuss first starting points to circumvent these.
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Maintaining or improving quality of life (QoL) and well-being is a universal goal across the lifespan. Being physically active has been suggested as one way to enhance QoL and well-being. In this systematic review, conducted in part for the 2018 U.S. Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Scientific Advisory Committee Report, we examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and QoL and well-being experienced by the general population across the lifespan and by persons with psychiatric and neurologic conditions. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and pooled analyses from 2006 to 2018 were used for the evidence base. Strong evidence (predominantly from randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) demonstrated that, for adults aged 18–65 years and older adults (primarily 65 years and older), PA improves QoL and well-being when compared with minimal or no-treatment controls. Moderate evidence indicated that PA improves QoL and well-being in individuals with schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease, and limited evidence indicated that PA improves QoL and well-being for youth and for adults with major clinical depression or bipolar disorder. Insufficient evidence existed for individuals with dementia because of a small number of studies with mixed results. Future high-quality research designs should include RCTs involving longer interventions testing different modes and intensities of PA in diverse populations of healthy people and individuals with cognitive (e.g., dementia) and mental health conditions (e.g., schizophrenia) to precisely characterize the effects of different forms of PA on aspects of QoL and well-being.
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Background Mindfulness applications are popular tools for improving well-being, but their effectiveness is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that employed a mindfulness meditation app as the main intervention to improve users’ well-being and mental-health related outcomes. Methods A systematic search was conducted in PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, the Cochrane Library, Open Grey and ResearchGate through June, 2020. Effects were calculated as standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g) between app-delivered mindfulness interventions and control conditions at post-test and pooled with a random-effects model. Results From 2637 records, we selected 34 trials (N = 7566). Significant effect sizes were found at post-test for perceived stress (n = 15; g = 0.46, 95% CI [0.24, .68], I2= 68%), anxiety (n = 15; g = 0.28, 95% CI [0.16, .40], I2= 35%), depression (n = 15; g = 0.33, 95% CI [0.24, .43], I2= 0%), and psychological well-being (n = 5; g = 0.29, 95% CI [0.14, .45], I2= 0%). No significant effects were found for distress at post-test (n = 6; g = 0.10, 95% CI [-0.02, .22], I2= 11%) and general well-being (n = 5; g = 0.14, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.29], I2 = 14%). Conclusion and limitations Mindfulness apps seem promising in improving well-being and mental-health, though results should be interpreted carefully due to the small number of included studies, overall uncertain risk of bias and heterogeneity.
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In an earlier paper (Goodman et al., 2018), we found that two models of subjective well-being demonstrated substantial overlap, with correlations between .85-.98. We concluded that these two models do not capture distinct types of well-being – a conclusion consistent with a growing list of studies that have found high correlations between various models of well-being. In response to our work, the developer of one well-being model wrote a commentary offering an alternative conclusion (Seligman, 2018). In this paper, we continue this important discussion by delineating areas of disagreement and common ground. We present our new hierarchical framework of well-being and illustrate how it can resolve long-standing points of contention in well-being measurement.
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The aim of this study was to analyze the psychological impact of COVID-19 in the university community during the first weeks of confinement. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was employed to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. The emotional impact of the situation was analyzed using the Impact of Event Scale. An online survey was fulfilled by 2530 members of the University of Valladolid, in Spain. Moderate to extremely severe scores of anxiety, depression, and stress were reported by 21.34%, 34.19% and 28.14% of the respondents, respectively. A total of 50.43% of respondents presented moderate to severe impact of the outbreak. Students from Arts & Humanities and Social Sciences & Law showed higher scores related to anxiety, depression, stress and impact of event with respect to students from Engineering & Architecture. University staff presented lower scores in all measures compared to students, who seem to have suffered an important psychological impact during the first weeks of the COVID-19 lockdown. In order to provide timely crisis-oriented psychological services and to take preventive measures in future pandemic situations, mental health in university students should be carefully monitored.
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The day reconstruction method (DRM) is an approach to measuring well-being that is designed to approximate the rich data that can be obtained from intensive repeated measures designs like those used in the experience sampling method (ESM). Although some preliminary tests of the validity of the DRM have been conducted, these typically focus on agreement between the 2 methods at very broad levels, rather than focusing on whether the 2 methods provide similar information about the exact same moments. This article reports 2 studies that use ESM and DRM to assess the same moments. Agreement between the 2 measures varied considerably depending on the focus of the analysis. For aggregate assessments of total time spent in situations and average affect in situations, agreement was high; for between-person differences in time use and experienced affect, agreement varied across situations; and for within-person differences in both situations and affect, agreement was quite low. In addition, we found preliminary evidence that the DRM may be more influenced by expectations regarding the pleasantness of situations as compared with ESM. These results suggest that for many common purposes, the DRM does not provide the same information as ESM. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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A COVID-19 epidemic has been spreading in China and other parts of the world since December 2019. The epidemic has brought not only the risk of death from infection but also unbearable psychological pressure. We sampled college students from Changzhi medical college by using cluster sampling. They responded to a questionnaire packet that included the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and those inquiring the participants’ basic information. We received 7,143 responses. Results indicated that 0.9% of the respondents were experiencing severe anxiety, 2.7% moderate anxiety, and 21.3% mild anxiety. Moreover, living in urban areas (OR = .810, 95% CI = .709 - .925), family income stability (OR = .726, 95% CI = .645 - .817) and living with parents (OR = .752, 95% CI = .596 - .950) were protective factors against anxiety. Moreover, having relatives or acquaintances infected with COVID-19 was a risk factor for increasing the anxiety of college students (OR = 3.007, 95% CI = 2.377 - 3.804). Results of correlation analysis indicated that economic effects, and effects on daily life, as well as delays in academic activities, were positively associated with anxiety symptoms (P < .001). However, social support was negatively correlated with the level of anxiety (P < .001). It is suggested that the mental health of college students should be monitored during epidemics.
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This study aimed to investigate the factor structure of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in the postpartum context using a single-factor model, a correlated three-factor model, and a bifactor model. The reliability and validity of the MHC-SF were also examined. The total sample consisted of 882 postpartum Portuguese women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the bifactor model yielded a significantly better fit to the data than the other models. The unidimensionality strength indices (explained common variance = .76, percentage of uncontaminated correlations = .69) and the ω H values supported the general factor of positive mental health, which accounted for 91.5% of the reliable variance in the total score. Additionally, the MHC-SF showed high reliability (ω = .96), and its total and subscale scores were significantly correlated with other measures related to mental health. The results of this study suggest a strong general factor of positive mental health and support the use of its total score in this context.
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Objectives: Low sleep quality in adolescents is an important public health concern, as it relates to both their current and future physical and mental health. Furthermore, subjective happiness is also often regarded as a major life goal. Although Japan is an economically powerful country, the reported levels of subjective happiness among Japanese adolescents is low. Thus, this study aims to examine the relationship between subjective happiness and sleep problems in Japanese adolescents. Methods: We conducted a nationally representative cross-sectional study of adolescents enrolled in junior and senior high schools in Japan. We used a questionnaire to determine the prevalence of sleep problems (eg, insomnia, short sleep duration (SSD) and poor sleep quality) and to evaluate the participants' reported levels of subjective happiness. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between subjective happiness and sleep problems. Adjusted variables were basic demographic characteristics (eg, gender and school grade), lifestyle behaviors, and mental health status. Results: Data from 64,329 students were analyzed (age range 12-18 years, mean age 15.7 years, 53.9% male). The results indicated that reported levels of subjective happiness were strongly associated with the prevalence of sleep problems. Linear relationships can be observed between sleep problems and subjective happiness scores. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that dose-response association of subjective happiness score was observed with all three sleep problems. Conclusions: Due to these findings, we recommend that policy makers and school officials educate adolescents on the importance of both subjective happiness and good sleep hygiene.
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One way to achieve a high level of well-being is by engaging in and enjoying everyday activities. Research has unveiled seven personal attributes (autotelic personality, collectively) that facilitate such engagement and enjoyment. We hypothesized that flow experience—a state of deep engagement and enjoyment—accounts for the positive relationship between autotelic personality and well-being. Study 1 participants (N = 393) completed a one-time survey that measured autotelic personality, proneness to experiencing flow, and well-being (satisfaction with life and flourishing). A subsample of Study 1 participants (N = 127) participated in Study 2, a 10-day diary study, that examined their daily flow experience and daily well-being (affect and flourishing). As hypothesized, both studies revealed an indirect, positive effect of autotelic personality on well-being through flow experience, elucidating a pathway toward a good life through deep engagement.
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Osebnost v precejšnji meri določa, kako se posameznik edinstveno prilagaja na okolje. V pričujočem univerzitetnem učbeniku so predstavljeni vidiki osebnosti, ki so tesno povezani z delovanjem posameznika. Tako čustva kot motivacija so pod pomembnim vplivom osebnostnih lastnosti, kar pomeni, da so osebnostne lastnosti nekakšna podlaga za verjetnejše doživljanje in izražanje čustev in motivov. Za napovedovanje vedenja posameznika v konkretni situaciji je tako pomembno poznavanje osebnostnih lastnosti (in sposobnosti), pa tudi trenutnih čustvenih in motivacijskih stanj.
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The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess positive and negative emotions. In Study 1 ( N = 4,250, 61.95% females, M age = 28.56 years), we evaluated measurement invariance of the SPANE across gender and age using moderated factor analysis. In Study 2 ( N = 200, 52.5% females, M age = 21.82 years), we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity of the SPANE by examining its associations with measures of well-being and religiosity. In Study 3 ( N = 160, 87.5% females, M age = 20.38 years), we used a prospective design to examine associations of the SPANE with the Big Five personality traits. The results provided general support for the measurement invariance of the SPANE across age and gender, but some non-invariant items were detected as well. The analyses of latent mean differences across gender revealed that women reported higher levels of both positive and negative emotions than men, but the effect size for positive emotions was very small. Older participants reported lower levels of positive emotions and higher levels of negative emotions than younger participants. Both convergent and discriminant validity of the SPANE were supported.
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Drawing from literature supporting top-down (i.e., well-being impacting leisure) and bottom-up (i.e., leisure impacting well-being) models explaining the bi-directional relationship between leisure and well-being, this study examines the complex relationship of well-being, leisure constraints, and leisure negotiation factors in predicting leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) rates among university students. Six hundred sixty-one university students completed an online questionnaire assessing psychological well-being (PWB), LTPA constraints, LTPA negotiation strategies, and LTPA rates. A multiple regression analysis indicated bottom-up and top-down variables jointly predict LTPA. In regards to bottom-up psychological LTPA variables, LTPA was positively predicted by LTPA planning and prioritisation skills and negatively predicted by constraints to recreation facility spaces, lack of time, and utilising financial strategies. In regards to top-down well-being, influences on LTPA, LTPA rates were negatively predicted by personal growth and positively predicted by autonomy. We highlight how the study findings might inform intentional university health promotion policies and programming, leading to a culture of student well-being through LTPA.